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Personal Computer Word Processor 






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http://amstrad.cpc.free.fr 




User Guide - CP/M Logo & Word Processor Manual 



DON'T SWITCH ON YET! 

YOU MUST READ THE INTRODUCTORY SECTION OF THIS MANUAL 
BEFORE ATTEMPTING TO USE YOUR PCW. 

Th:s manual covers both the PCW8256 and the PCW8512. It should be noted, therefore, that 
al references to '...the PCW8256' are equally applicable to the PCW8512. 

The PCW8512 comes with the 2nd disc drive fitted as standard. In addition, the total 
memory is 512K (compared to 256K on the PCW8256). This extra memory is used on what's 
known as 'Drive M' (don't worry if that means nothing to you at the moment - it will be 
explained later) -so, where examples in the manual quote a certain amount of memory 
being available on 'Drive M' (for the PCW8256), you should bear in mind that there is 
approximately 256K extra memory (on top of the quoted figure) for the PCW8512. 

Details about the use of a 2-drive system (whether it is a PCW8512, or a PCW8256 with a 
second drive (FD-2) fitted) will be found in Part III of this manual (towards the end). 

After having set up the equipment and worked through the opening few chapters, you 
should be able to type in and print out a simple document. In that short time, you obviously 
won't have learnt how to use many of the features that LocoScript offers such as the 
selection of more elaborate typefaces, the setting up of margins within a document, or 
justification (making the left and right edges of the text line up). These, together with all of 
LocoScript's other features will be covered as you progress through the manual. THERE IS 
NO SHORT CUT TO LEARNING LOCOSCRIPT - YOU MUST READ THE MANUAL. 

Now before you start setting up your PCW, don't forget to read the pages entitled 
'Introduction' and 'About this Guide', a few pages ahead. 



AMSOFT 

A division of 



L 



idll 



MO 




CONSUMRR ELECTRONICS PLC 



The PCW8256 and PCWS512 User Guide 

and Guide to Locomotive Software's LocoScript 



http://amstrad.cpcJree.fr 



© Copyright 1985 AMSOFT, AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic and 

Locomotive Software Ltd 

Neither the whole nor any part of the information contained herein, nor the product described in this manual may be adapted or 
reproduced in any material form except with the prior written approval of AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic (AMSTRAD). 

The product described in this manual and products for use with it are subject to continuous development and improvement. In 
particular, there may be differences between the messages displayed on your screen and those shown here. 

All information of a technical nature and particulars of the product and its use (including the information and particulars in this 
manual) are given by AMSTRAD in good faith. However, it is acknowledged that there may be errors or omissions in this 
manual. A list of details of any amendments or revisions to this manual can be obtained by sending a stamped, self addressed 
envelope to AMSOFT Technical Enquiries. We ask that all users take care to submit their reply paid user registration and 

guarantee cards. 

You are also advised to complete and send off your Digital Research User registration card. 

AMSOFT welcomes comments and suggestions relating to the product or this manual. 

All correspondence should be addressed to: AMSOFT 

Brentwood House 
169 Kings Road 
Brentwood 
Essex CM 14 4EF 

All maintenance and service on the product must be carried out by AMSOFT authorised 
dealers. Neither AMSOFT nor AMSTRAD can accept any liability whatsoever for any loss or 
damage caused by service or maintenance by unauthorised personnel. This manual is 
intended only to assist the reader in the use of the product, and therefore AMSOFT and 
AMSTRAD shall not be liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use of any 
information or particulars in, or any error or omission in, this manual or any incorrect use of 
the product. 



Written by Jean Gilmour, Locomotive Software 
Typeset by Interaction Systems Ltd 
Published by AMSOFT 



First Published 1985 

Third Edition 1986 

Dr Logo. CP M, CP M Plus, GSX. DR Graph, CP/M-80, CCP M 86 and MP/M-86 are trademarks of Digital Research Inc 

Zf>C is the trademark of Zilog Inc. 

~.v. Z23 and H89 are trademarks of Zenith Data Systems Inc. 

7T?2 :? a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. 

Vilird BASIC. Locomotive and LocoScnpt are trademarks of Locomotive Software Ltd 

?CV."f.2 PCW8256. CPC6128. CPC664, CPC464 and DDM are trademarks of AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic 

.-.'•'.; 7 ?AE .? a registered trademark of AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic 
. .,.. ;;i; , U5e ; T v, e trademark or word AMSTRAD is strictly forbidden 



Introduction 



The PCW8256 is a word processor, which means that its main task is to help you 
prepare professional-looking letters and documents. 

The PCW8256 is also a powerful personal computer, able to run a wide range of 
commercial software packages. 

There are, of course, other personal computers that can be used as word 
processors. The advantage of the PCW8256 is that it has been designed 
side-by-side with Locomotive Software's LocoScript to provide a dedicated word 
processor that is particularly easy to use. 

LocoScript guides you through the steps you need to take, not only to create 
documents and edit them, but also to get the best visual effect when you print 
them out. 

It provides menus of options and facilities: you don't have to remember 
complicated abbreviations to get it to work. These work in the same way across 
the whole range of functions (and indeed in any other Loco- software you use). 

The keystrokes that will bring you the required features are displayed as part of 
every screen display. 

Feel free to explore LocoScript. The keys to experiment with are the function 
keys ( m .. . fVl ), the 'Set' and 'Clear' keys ( and Q ). the cursor keys and 
the 'Enter' key. If you decide not to follow anything through, just press the 
'Cancel' key ( [c^] ) 

The CP/M Plus operating system and the BASIC and LOGO computer languages 

have been provided for when you want to use the PCW8256 as a personal 
computer. Their use is covered in 'CP/M Plus for the PCW8256' and 'Guide to 
Mallard BASIC (available from AMSOFT- price £ 5). 



About this Guide 

This User Guide starts by telling you how to set up the PCW8256. 

The next section forms a 'Guide to LocoScript', describing how the features of 
Locomotive Software's LocoScript can be used to best advantage to generate the 
documents you require. 

It also acts as a tutorial in word processing with LocoScript. How to use the 
menus is covered in detail at first but less so in later stages of the guide as you 
will be used to how they work by then. 

We particularly recommend the section entitled 'Your first twenty minutes' which 
introduces you to word processing on the PCW8256. 

Once you have worked through that, those of you who are already familiar with 
the way a word processor works need only ever treat this guide as a source of 
advice on how to approach particular types of document. 

The final part is the reference section for when you are an experienced user. 

Those of you for whom the PCW8256 is your first word processor are advised to 
work through a number of the following chapters. Sample texts are provided on 
Side 1 of the system discs supplied with your PCW8256 for you to practise on. 

The LocoScript word processing system is subject to continual development and 
a number of enhancements may have been implemented since the preparation 
of the PCW8256 User Guide. 

To allow for this, we may have included a special document called READ.ME on 
Side 1 of your system discs. If so, a message drawing your attention to this 
document will appear when you load LocoScript. 

The READ.ME document will describe all the changes applicable to your version 
of LocoScript, but it may assume a general understanding of how LocoScript 
works. We suggest you postpone reading the READ.ME document until after you 
have worked through some of the stages of the Guide to LocoScript. 

Attention is also drawn to the Important Notice printed at the end of the Guide : : 
LocoScript. 



CONTENTS 

Chapter 1: Setting up 1 

Chapter 2: Your first twenty minutes 11 

Chapter 3: Keeping your work on disc 27 

3. 1 Discs for the PCW8256 27 

3.1.1 How to handle discs 3 1 

3.1.2 Loading and unloading discs 3 1 

3.2 Making copies of discs 33 

3.3 Organising your work 36 
3.3. 1 Keeping your filing system up to date 38 

3.4 Managing your discs 39 
3.4.1 The operations available 41 

3.5 Preparing discs for use 45 

3.5.1 Making a Start of Day disc 46 

3.5.2 Making a Data disc 47 

A Guide to LocoScript 51 

Stage 1: Enhancing the text 55 

Stage 2: Using the simpler editing keys 63 

Stage 3: Setting out text 73 

Stage 4: Refining the appearance off the text 87 

Stage 5: Setting out pages 97 

Stage 6: Headings and page numbers 105 

Stage 7: Cutting and pasting 111 

Stage 8: Printing 115 

Stage 9: Eliminating keystrokes 121 

Stage 10: Setting up a group template 125 

LocoScript summarised 129 



Appendix I: Troubleshooting 141 

Appendix II: The printer: 

Loading and maintenance 145 

II. 1 Paper for the printer 145 

11.2 Autoloading the printer 145 

11.3 Changing the ribbon 147 

11.4 Adjusting the print head 147 

11.5 General hints 148 

Appendix III: Using LocoScript 

files in other programs 149 

III. 1 Making an ASCII file 149 
III.2 File communication 150 

Licence Agreement 

Locomotive Software Licence Agreement 



Chapter 1 



Setting up 



The box in which your PCW8256 is supplied should contain the following: 

a PCW8256 Monitor Unit, with a green screen and fitted disc drive(s) 
a Keyboard 

a Printer with separate tractor feed and ribbon cable 
an ink ribbon 

two 3inch Compact Floppy Discs 
this Manual 
two paper tray extensions 
Before you read any further, check that you have all these items. 

Fitting the mains plug 

The PCW8256 operates from a 220-240Volt 50Hz mains supply. 

Fit a proper mains plug to the mains lead on the Monitor Unit. If a 13Amp (BS1363) plug is 
used, a 5Amp fuse must be fitted. The 13 Amp fuse supplied in a new plug must not be used. 
If any other type of plug is used, a 5 Amp fuse must be fitted either in the plug or in the adaptor 
or at the distribution board. 

Important The wires in the mains lead are coloured in accordance with the following code: 

Blue : Neutral 

Brown : Live 

As the colours of the wires in the mains lead of this apparatus may not correspond with the 
coloured markings identifying the terminals in your plug, proceed as follows 

The wire which is coloured Blue must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the 
letter 'N 1 or coloured black. 

The wire which is coloured Brown must be connected to the terminaj wS •"■-. s marked with 
the letter 'L' or coloured red. 

DO NOT PLUG THE PCW8256 INTO THE MAINS SUPPLY YET 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Disconnect the mains plug from the supply socket when not in use. 

Do not attempt to remove any screws or to open the casing of the Monitor Unit. Always obey 
the warning on the rating label on the back of the Monitor Unit. 

WARNING - LIVE PARTS INSIDE. DO NOT REMOVE ANY SCREWS 



Connecting the keyboard and the printer 

First check that the PCW8256 is not plugged into the mains supply. 

Connect the keyboard to the Monitor Unit by inserting the 4-pin DIN plug on the end of the 
keyboard cable into the socket on the right hand side of the Monitor Unit. 




PCW8256 User Guide 



. ::."ec! :ne printer to the Monitor Unit, first insert the 34-way connector on the printer 
: ~ r-: r zab.e into the 34-way socket on the back of the Monitor Unit. Note that you will have to 
position your printer quite close to the Monitor Unit. Be careful not to stretch the ribbon cable. 

Then insert the plug on the end of the printer's other cable into the Power Out socket on the 

back of the Monitor Unit. 




Do not attempt to load paper into the printer at this stage. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Switching on 

Start with the mains plug out of the supply socket, the pushbutton power switch on the front of 
the Monitor Unit in its OFF position (fully released) and no disc in either disc drive. 




Power Switch 



Plug the Monitor Unit into the mains supply; then turn the machine on by means of the power 
switch on the monitor. The monitor screen will come up bright green. 

Select the system disc with Sides 1 and 2 on it. 

Hold the disc by its labelled end, with Side 1 to the left. Now insert the disc into the drive slot 
until it clicks home. 



PCW8256 User Guide 




This should require no more „.„,. ^ ..... 
stop. Whatever you do, don't force it 



than gentle pressure: if the drive appears to be resisting the disc, 
't force it. 



::' you have problems, first check that you are putting the disc in the right way round. Then 
check that there isn't a disc already in the drive (press the Eject button). If you still have 

problems, consult your dealer. 

7 re disc drive motor should now turn on. This is indicated both by activity on the screen and a 
ser.tle whirring noise. If it doesn't, press the Space Bar. The computer then starts to read your 

~.sc. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



If all is well, you will see a pattern of green and black horizontal lines on the screen for a short 
while. The screen then clears before displaying: 



AHSTBAD PCH82S6 Personal Computer Word Processor 

Locomotive Software's LocoScript v 1.20 

9 1985 Locomotive Software Ltd, S Amstrad Consumer Electronics pic 

for a short while. 

If you have put the disc in the wrong way round, you will see a message starting 
'PCW8256 CP/M Plus. . .' Press the Eject button, put the disc in again the other way round, 
and press the [exit! key while holding down the [s hift] and [extra] keys, 

If you have accidentally inserted a disc designed to run on a different machine, the PCW8256 
will detect this, bleep and switch the disc drive motor off. Check that you picked up the disc 
you intended. 

If, on the other hand, the disc you selected is damaged in some way, the screen will flash as 
the PCW8256 tries to read it. After a few unsuccessful attempts, the computer will again bleep 
before switching the disc drive motor off. 

In either of these cases, release the disc from the drive, using the Eject button, and then 
withdraw it completely. Check that it is the right disc and then re-insert it in the drive. Finally 
press the space bar. 

Shortly after the first set of messages, the screen displayed should change to: 



PCW8256 User Guide 



l'=Create new docunent E=Eelit existing (tocuneiit P=Print docunent D=Pirect print in 
fi=Disc' change ■' f2=Inspect . f3=Copy f4=Move f5=Kena«e £6=Erase f?=Hodes factions 



Drive A: LOCOSCSP.yi 

124Jt used 49k free 2S files 




COM " "lit 
TEHPLflTE 17k 



group 4 
group S 
group $ 
group 7 



Ok 
Ok 
Ok 
0k 



Drive B: not fitted 

Ok used Ok free * files 



Drive M: LOCOSCRP.U1 

Hk used lWk free 2 files 



LITTERS 
SAMPLES 

CON! 



Ik 
Ok 
Ik 



TEMPLATE Ok 



group 4 
group S 
group 8 
group 7 



Ok 
Ok 
Ok 
Ok 



AiLETTERS 7 files 
liftho files 

!SKt£ 



m HFT m 



TEMPLATE.STD Ik 

4 hidden 86k 



A: SAMPLES S files 
9 linbo files 

ADVERT .EG Ik 

DOCUMENT .EG 4k 

LAYOUT .EG Ik 

QUOTE .EG 3k 

TEXT .EG 3k 



A:C0NT 1 files 

linbo files 

TEMPLATE. SID ik 



A TEMPLATE 12 files 
linbo files 



map ace 

LET2PAGE 

LETTER 

LETTER 

MANUSCRP 

MEMO 

PftGENUM 

PAGENUH 

PAGENUM 

PHRASES 

PHRASES 

TEMPLATE 



.HDP 2k 
,PLP 2k 
,HDP Ik 
.PLP Ik 
2k 
2k 
.CEN Ik 
.PR Ik 
,RJ Ik 
.LET Ik 
.NUL Ik 
.LAB 2k 



Adjust the brightness of this screen to a comfortable level by turning the Brightness 
thumbwheel on the front of the Monitor Unit. 




Brightness Thumbwheel 



PCW8256 User Guide 



ji 



If necessary, also adjust the Vertical Hold (V-Hold) knob on the back of the unit until the 
display is steady and correctly positioned on the screen. 

The PCW8256 is now ready for use as a word processor. 

If you don't want to go on immediately to working with the word processor, press the Eject 
button on the disc drive to release the disc and then turn the PCW8256 off by pressing the 
power button. 

ALWAYS REMEMBER TO REMOVE YOUR DISCS FROM THE DISC DRIVE(S) BEFORE 
YOU SWITCH OFF 



i 



Cleaning 

We recommend the use of aerosol anti-static foam cleaners to clean both the 
screen and the plastic case. Under no circumstances should spirit-based 
cleaners be used. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



The PCW8256 keyboard 



The main keyboard 

The lower character on any key is typed in by simply pressing that key The upper character 
is typed in by pressing the [W] key at the same time. If you pre ss the L ^Jkey, every key 
you press will produce only the upper character until you press | $$R j again. 



w 



The keyboard with ALT 

The lower character on any key is typed in by pressing that key and th e [_alj J key 

(highlighted) simultaneously. The upper characters are typed in by pressing the d^] key as 
well. 



Q13II11I 



Ye 



% 



% 



ITT 



I*T 



t 



=? 



p 



The keyboard with EXTRA 

The character shown on any key 1? typed in by pressing it and the | extra | key simultaneously. 

B 



pt 



\y—-\ ) — \ t — U — r*>V — zs.t: 



- * 



« 



» 



■ 



\ 



n 



Special key combinations 

HuTH + ri^JRl acts as a Caps Lock key, setting/clearing the conversion of all lower case 
characters (Utile letters), except Greek characters, to their upper case (capital) counterpart. 
r^jj-i + [^aV] acts as a Num Lock key, setting/clearing the use of a group of special keys as 
a numeric keypad. 
[shift] + I extra I + [exF] resets the computer. 



Chapter 2 



Your first twenty minutes 



In this section, we will show you how to use Locomotive Software's LocoScript to prepare a 
simple one-page letter and then print it out on your printer. This will get you accustomed to 
the way LocoScript works, 

If you haven't just worked through the previous section, turn back to that section and follow 
the instructions for turning on your PCW8256 and loading LocoScript from Side 1 of your 
system discs. 

Your screen should now look like this: 



„„ . , . wise flanagewent. Printer idle. Using none. 

C=Create new rtocurtent E=Edit existing document P=Print document Direct printing 
fl=Disc change- ■■■f2=Inspeet f3=Cop^ f4=Move fSsRenane f6=Erase f7=Hodes f8=Options 



Drive A: LQCQSCRP.vi 

124k used 49k free 2S files 




COHI 
TEHPLATE 



group 4 0k 

group S 0k 

group G Ok 

group 7 Ok 



AsLETTERS 7 files 
linbo files 

TEMPLftTEiSTD Ik 

4 hidden 86k 



Drive B: 
Ok used 



0k 



not fitted 
free files 



AiSAMPLES S files 
liflbo files 

mm ,eg ik 

DOCUNEHT.EG 4k 

LAVOUT .EG Ik 

flUCTE ,EG 3k 

TEXT .EG 3k 



Drive M; LOCOSCRP.vl 

2k used 100k free 2 files 



LETTERS 
SAMPLES 
COHi 
TEMPLATE 



Ik 
0k 
Ik 
0k 



AiCOHT 1 files 

linbo files 

TEMPLATE. STD ik 



group 4 0k 

group S 0k 

group 6 0k 

group ? 0k 



Ai TEMPLATE 12 files 
linbo files 



LEI2PAGE 

LET2PAGE 

LETTER 

LEITER 

NANUSCRP 

HEW 

PAGENW 

PACENK 

PAGENUN 

PHRASES 

PHRASES 

TEHPLATE, 



.HDP 2k 
.PLP 2k 
.HDP 1* 
.PLP Ik 
2k 
2k 
.CEN Ik 
.PR Ik 
,JU Ik 

M lk 
.LAB 2k 



The top two lines show you all the different types of operation you could do now, together 
with the key that you should press to select that particular operation. They tell you, for 
example, that if you want to create a new document such as a letter or a report, you should 
press the C key. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



11 



The exercise we have chosen for this introduction is writing a letter to someone called Fred. 
The first thing we have to do is to tell LocoScript that we want to create a new document - so 
press C 

Before LocoScript can offer you a new document, it needs to know a bit more about the 
document you want to create. So a 'menu' of further information pops up on the screen. 



;=Cres.te new docunettt 



f 1=5 isc change 



use nana gen eni. 



E-Edit existing document r=rrint document J=Direct printing 
^In spect n=Copy f4=Move fS=Rena*e f6=Erase f7=Modes fS^ptions 



Drive A: L0C0SCRP.W 

134k used 49k free 2S files 

group 4 Ok 

group S Ok 

CON) Ik group 6 Ok 

TEMPLATE 17k group 7 0k 



A:LEITERS 7 files 
liAbo files 

TEMPLATE. STD Ik 
4 hidden 86k 



Create docunent 



. Drive: A 



Drive Me L0C0SCRP.U1 

2k used Wfflc free 2 files 



AsSAMPLES S files 
linbo files 

ADYERI .EG Ik 

MOMENT. EC 4k 

LArullI .EG Ik 

QUOTE .EG 3k 

m: .EG 3k 



LETTERS 
SAMPLES 
COHT 
TEMPLATE 



Ik 
Ok 
Ik 
Ok 



group 4 
group S 
group 6 
group 7 



Ok 
Ok 
Ok 
Ok 



A:C0HT 1 files 

liftbo files 

TEMPLATE. STD Ik 



A:TEMPLATE 12 files 
liwbo files 



LEI2PAGE 

LEI2PAGE 

LETTER 

UTTER 

MANtlSCRP 

MEMO 

PACEMUM 

PAGEHUM 

PACEHUM 

PHRASES 

PHRASES 

TEMPLATE 



.HDP 2k 
,PLP 2k 
.HDP Ik 
.PLP Ik 
2k 
2k 
.CEN Ik 
■ PR Ik 
.RJ ik 
.LET Ik 
.MIL Ik 
.LAB 2k 



This suggests that you might store your letter when you have finished it as a document called 
DOCUMENT .000 in the LETTERS part of your disc. 

We won't actually store this letter on your disc this time, so to a great extent these details are 
irrelevant - but it does mean that LocoScript will give you a rough outline of a letter on which 
to work. 

As a general rule, you don't have to take LocoScript's choice of name. After all, 
DOCUMENT. 000 is unlikely to remind you of what the letter is about. It would be a lot better if 
it was called FRED.PCW because it is going to be a letter to your friend Fred about your new 
PCW8256. 

You can, in fact, choose any name for this document, provided the first part (before the dot) is 
no more than eight letters and digits and the second (after the dot) no more than three. 



12 



PCW8256 User Guide 



As you will have noticed, the line Name : DOCUMENT . 000 is highlighted. This indicates that any 
characters you type in now will replace the letters of DOCUMENT.000, Type in: 

FRED.PCW 

and watch this work. 

As we're happy with this new name, we will now move on to the next stage by pressing the 
[enter] key. 

This will normally move you directly on to the next stage but in this particular instance, 
because you are working with one of the discs supplied with the PCW8256, you will see 
another menu pop up. 

For now, don't worry about what this menu is telling you: just press the [enter] key. This tells 
LocoScript that you accept what it proposes. 

The screen now changes completely to this: 
'«i***i?W4iHM!j:iisi|itw»; 




5 ■* -*-»■» -i 



*■ 
■*■»■»■»■»■* 

addressee^ 

i> 

Bear 



your address^ 
date** 



The best way of explaining this screen is by drawing a direct analogy with a typewriter. 




PCW8256 User Guide 



13 



The first thing you will notice is that you have the top of the letter already sketched out for you. 
We will show you how to take advantage of this shortly. 

The Ruler line immediately above this is marked out ready to count characters and shows you 
where the left and right margins are. The other symbols on the line tell you where the 
'carnage' will move to as you press the TAB key, ie. they show where the TAB Stops are. 

The oblong is called the cursor. This marks the current typing position. 

All these features have some sort of parallel in a standard manual typewriter. The only real 
exceptions are the information lines at the top of your screen and the broken line across your 
page. 

The information lines tell you about the typeface that will be used when you print out this letter 
and how it will be laid out. The broken line is used to tell you whereabouts you are in the 
letter, as we shall explain later. 

How to change any of this will be described in a later section of this guide. The present 
settings will serve our purpose very well here. 

The first thing we want to do is to type in F red after the Dear you already have on the screen. 
(We shall come back to the various addresses and the date later.) 

When you type anything in at the keyboard, this will appear where the cursor is and so we 
have to start by getting the cursor in the right place. 

You move about your piece of 'electronic' paper by pressing the four Cursor keys. 



LINE 

EOL 



I 




WORD 
CHAR 



I 



^ 



A 



RELAY 




2s 



\ 



ENTER 



\h=S 



14 



PCW8256 User Guide 



screen. 



You can use these keys to move the cursor anywhere you like on the 

For now, press the Down Cursor ( |_J7 j ) until the cursor is over the D of Dear. Don't worry if 
you overshoot: just press the Up Cursor ( r? " I ) to get back to the right place. 

Then press the Right Cursor ( f "J ) until the cursor is just to the right of the r . (Use the Left 
Cursor ( [ _^ ) to get back if you overshoot.) 

Next type: 
Fred 

If you made any mistakes in typing this, use the [WJ key to rub out characters back to the 
Place you made the mistake ^ then type ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

ust to press the [^el] key, not to hold it down, or you will find rather more being rubbed out 
than you expected. This key is one of a number of keys on the PCW8256 to "Auto-repeat". 

As you type, you will see the cursor moving to the right. A similar cursor on the Ruler line (the 
Ruler cursor) also moves to the right, thus giving you a constant measure of how far along the 
current line the next character you type will appear. 

You now want to move onto the next line, so press [SturnJ 

You will notice that, as well as moving the cursor to the beginning of the next line, there is now 
a special character , immediately after the 'd' of Fred. 

■ 1 +■ * i * *__■* , s * 

J - *-*-*-*-* ' '"'"jour address* L 



* 

1 - * - 

addressee* 

* 

Dear Fred* 



date* 



This character wherever it appears on the screen, always indicates that you want to start a 
printed ^ ^ *** ^ *** ^ d ° amattA ° Ut The Character ltself wiU "<* be 

If youwant to leave a line blank, you just press [return] when the cursor is at the beginning of 

Say, for example that you decide you would like to leave two blank lines after 'Dear Fred' 
before starting the first paragraph of your letter. To do this, just press [r E turn| twice more. 

You should now have two more of these special characters on your screen - one below the 
otrier - and the cursor should now be immediately below them. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



15 



J...-? 

-» •♦ 4 

f 
addressees 

Dear Fred*' 






your address^ 
date* 1 



If you change your mind about what new lines you want, you can 'rub out* the unwanted 
Returns with the | *oel | key just like any other character. 

Press the |*pel| key once now and see how this works. The special character on the bottom 
line should have disappeared and the cursor should have moved up to take its place. 

Your letter will now have just one blank line between 'Dear Fred' and the first paragraph, 

which is plenty. 

Now we will type the first paragraph of your letter to Fred. The text we will use is: 

I've just bought a special kind of computer from Amstrad Consumer 
Electronics called a word processor and it's really clever. I don't think 
I'LL ever want to use a typewriter again. 

Start by typing just: 

I've just bought a special kind of computer from Amstrad Consumer 

Don't press [return | yet. 

If you now look at the screen you will see from the position of the ruler cursor that you are 

nearing the right hand margin. 



■» z •» 



»L 



I've just bought a special Viwl of computer fro* tastrad Consumer! 



16 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Now watch carefully what happens as you type ' Electronics' letter by letter. As you reach the 
letter 'o\ that part of the screen will seem to flash and suddenly all the letters 'Electro' will be 

at the beginning of the next line. 



I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* tastrad Consumer Electrf 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* tastrad Consumer 
Electro! 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fr«t Aastrad Conswer 
Electronics called a word processor and it's reallg clever J 



What has happened is that LocoScript has picked up that you won't get the full word 
'Electronics' on the top line without breaking into the right margin. So it has started a new line 
for you. 

This feature, which is called Word Wrap, means that you need never worry about where to 
start the next line in any paragraph you type in. LocoScript takes care of this for you. 

The only time you have to press the Return key is to signal to LocoScript that you have come to 
the end of the paragraph. 

If you now type the rest of the paragraph, you will see Word Wrap work for you again when 
you reach the word 'think'. 

We now want to add another paragraph to the letter - one with mistakes in it, so that we can 

demonstrate how to correct these. 

You can either type in some text of your own and discover from the description below how to 
correct any mistakes you make, or you can insert the piece of text we have set up for you. Use 
the Return key to put in a blank line below the paragraph you have just typed and then insert 
this text by pressing the [p*ste] key and then typing the letter Z. 



PCW8256 User Guide 17 



After you have done this, the screen should look like this: 



your address* 1 

date** 



3 

i 

S 



-» 

addressee** ■ 

*» -^ 

Dear Fred*' 

ff 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* tastrad Conswer 



..__._ r _._. TT . .-,,.., -J 

Electronics called a word processor and it's really clever, I don t I 

think I'll ever want to use a typewriter again.** _^ 

The conputer is called the PCM825G and it runs LocoScript, which is \ 

sinpte to use. This is *y first letter. It only tookk m about -- 
twenty ninutes to get it free of spelling and laid out the the way I 

wanteds -^ 



Reading through this letter, you will spot a number of mistakes which we had better correct 
before we print out the letter. 

The first one is that we have 'conputer' rather than 'computer' at the beginning of the second 
paragraph. 

To correct a mistyped character, you first have to position the cursor over the character you 
want to change. 

As the cursor is currently on the line below the last line you typed, press the Up Cursor 
( fJX3 ) key until the cursor is on the T that begins the second paragraph. If you overshoot, 
just press the Down Cursor ( [ 73 ) to brm 9 vou back to the ri 9 ht place. 

Itie conputer is called the PCM82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

sinple to use. This is ay first letter. It only tookk m about 

twenty Ainutes to get it free of spelling and laid out the the way I 
wanted. f 



Next use the Right Cursor ( ["" J ) to move the cursor over the 'n'. This time, if you overshoot, 
bring the cursor back to the right place with the Left Cursor ( I - I ) 

The eofeuter is called the PCH82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 
siApleto use. This is «y first letter. It only tookk m about 
twenty ninutes to get it free of spelling and laid out the the way I 
wanteds 



18 PCW8256 User Guide 



Now press the f del*] key: this deletes the 'n'. 



The coifcter is called the POI82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 
smple to use. This is ay first letter. It onlytootf 2e about 
Jjjjjjl J IT>ut « *• Mt it free of spelling and laid out the the mJ I 



All that is left to do now, is just to type an In' and there on the screen is the word 'computer' 

Rio??!!!*!!- 15 **i* ri . th « PCH*256 and it runs LocoScript, which is 
smple to use, This is «y first letter, It only tookk ne about 

mS&J 1 " 9 U fr " ° f 5pellin9 and >»W wt Sf OTJ I 



The next error you spot is tookk' on the second line of this paragraph. 

Once again, use the four cursor keys to position the cursor over one of the 'k's (it doesn't 
matter which one you choose) and then press the [delE] key. This deletes the character under 
the cursor, giving you 'took' instead of 'tookk'. 



The computer is called the PCW8256 and it runs LocoScript, which is 
swple to use, This is *y first letter. It only toojUe about 
twenty jinutes to get it free of spelling and laid out the the Jay I 



It has also made this line relatively short, spoiling the look of the paragraph. So the next thing 
to do is to askLocoScript to set out this paragraph afresh - ie. relay it. You do this by 
pressing the [relay] key. 

The computer is called. the PCU8856 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

1!KJ;A° USe i * T 5 1S "Z 8 f M x le M er " u ml! KiS m ibSt twenty 
mnutes to get it free of spelling and laid out the the way I wanted J 



The effect of this is that LocoScript will check the layout of all the text up to the end of the 

paragraph you are working on, moving any words it can back from the beginning of one line 
to the end of the previous line. In this case, LocoScript decides that there is now room for the 
word 'twenty' on the previous line and adjusts the rest of the paragraph accordingly. 

The cursor, you will see, is still at the end of the word 'took'. 

Now you notice that you should have 'spelling mistakes', not just 'spelling' on the third line. 

This time, move the cursor to the space following the word 'spelling' and type in ' mistakes' 
As you type, you will see the text to the right of where you are typing, moving right. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



19 



The computer is called the PCN82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 
siipleto use. This is «y first letter. It only took m about twenty 
■inutes to get it free of spelling -isUkj^ ^ ^ ^ ^ % ^^ 



Suddenly, as the end of the line hits the right margin, the line splits into two halves. LocoScript 
has given you a new line to work on. 

When you have finished, just press the [relay) key. The two parts of the paragraph will close 
up as LocoScript relays the rest of the paragraph. 

The next thing to correct is the duplication of the word 'the', also on the third line of this 
second paragraph. 

The computer is called the PCH82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

siSpSnS use. This is m first letter It only toot m ^fj^f » 
ainutes to get it free of spelling aistaiesland laid out the the way I 
wanted ,*> 

You have two choices here: you can either position the cursor on the 'f of either 'the', and 
press [dej^I four times to get rid of the redundant 'the ! ; or you can position it in the space after 
one of the 'the's and press f*°Ekl four times to get exactly the same effect. 

As the characters are removed, the rest of the line moves left to fill up the gap. 

This is again quite a big change, so press the Relay key when you are ready. 

The computer is called the PCH82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 
simple to use. This is «y first letter. It only took «e about twenty 
Ainutes to get it free of spelling mistakes and laid out I3ie way I 
wanted,^ 



That's got the second paragraph corrected. 

Assuming the first paragraph is correct, all that's left to do now is to add your address at the 
top and the 'Yours sincerely' at the bottom. 

The 'Yours sincerely' is the easier one to do first. 

Press the [pagF| key once. This moves the cursor to the bottom of your text, ie. next to the left 

margin on the line below the last one you typed. 



^ PCW8256 User Guide 



-!--■♦. * i * .* + , > * , *. l.... 

i ■*-*■*-* -* your address*' 

f 

■» + ■»■»■»■» date? 

? 

addressee 

f 

Dear Fred** 

¥ 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* foistrad Consumer 

Electronics called a word processor and it's really clever. I don't 

think I'll ever want to use a typewriter again. ¥ 

¥ 

The computer is called the PCN8256 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

simple to use. This is «y first letter, It only took tie ahout twenty 

minutes to get it free of spelling mistakes and laid out the way I 

•anted.** 

I 



Now type: 

f return] 

Yours sincerely [rIturnI 



| return] 
Pretur n| 
Chris [retu rn | 



*l...f... *.?.*.., *... + .... , 5 ? , ;. l... 

-»■*-»-»■♦■» your 'address? 

¥ 

¥ 

■»■»-»-»-»■» date? 

¥ 

addressee? 

¥ 

Dear Fred** 

¥ 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* tastrad Consuner 

Electronics called a word processor and it's really clever, I don't 

think I'll ever want to use a typewriter again. ¥ 

¥ 

The computer is called the PCW82S6 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

sinple to use. This is m first letter. It only took ne ahout twenty 

Minutes to get it free of spelling mistakes and laid out the way I 

wanted.? 

¥ 

Vours sincerely? 

¥ 

¥ 

¥ 

Christ 



Next hold down the [a^t ] key and press the [page] key once. This moves you to the top of 

your letter. 



PC W8256 User Guide 21 



The place to put your address is already marked out towards the right hand side of the page, 
Its left-hand edge is at the position of the sixth TAB stop - ie. where you would type if you 
had started from the left margin and pressed the ("tab \] key six times. 

■* 2 * .* •» , . , . . . i f i , ? . I. . . . i ■ 



J+ f * 2 + ,-» -» , , » ? i.. 

' " 4 " l i " \' ' 4' "4 your address** 

■♦->-»-»-»-» date* 

* 

addressee* 

Dear Fred* 

«j 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* tastrad Consumer 

Electronics called a word processor and it's really clever, I don t 

think I'll ever want to use a typewriter again. <* 

fi 

The computer is called the PCM8256 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

sinple to use. This is «g first letter. It only took ije about taenty 

ninutes to get it free of spelling mistakes and laid out the way I 

wanted.^ 

* 

Vours sincerely 

* 

Christ 



Move the cursor right to the end of this line (just to the right of the second s) and press the 
p5iT| key until you have cleared all the letters of the words your address . Then type in the 

first line of your address and press [return] 

As you press the Return key at the end of the line, you will see the rest of your letter once 
again moving down a line. This opens up a space for the second line of your address. The 

cursor is already at the left margin of this line. 



| +, + 2 * ,* * 5 f , ? L...... 

V" 

* 



44444 21 Uilliers Crescentf 

date* 



addressee* 



Now do the second line, this time pressing the [_™H ke y six times before typing anything 
else. And so on until you've completed the address. 



22 PCW8256 User Guide 



J... ■*...■». ?.?.., ?...■* 5 f ■...• ?- L ■■ 

21 Villiers Crescents 



444444 
44444 -» 
444444 

4 4 4 4 4 4 

addressee** 



HealASford** 
SurreyS 



datef 



Now move the cursor to the carriage return symbol to the right of date and use the | <del1 key 
to 'rub-out' this marker word. Now type in today's date - this time you don't need to press 

| RET URN |. 

Next, move the cursor to the carriage return symbol after the word addressee and rub out 
this word as before. Type Fred in its place (or leave the line blank, if you prefer). 

Finally, check the letter over for mistakes and then, when you are sure you are happy with it, 
press the | exit J key. 

LocoScript responds with another of its pop-up menus. This one asks you to select from the 
options 'Finish editing', 'Save and Continue', 'Save and Print' and 'Abandon edit'. 

fl=Show f2=Layout f3=E*phasis M-Stale fS=Lities f6=Pages f?=«odes f8=Blocks iffllj 
L ...j.. .j. !.♦...*..♦ ,. ?....- * 



Exit options; 



Save and Continue 
Save and Print 
Abandon edit 



444444 21 Villier 

4 4 4 -» -> 4 RealAsford 

444444 Surrey 

♦» 

C 

4 4 4 4 4 4 » Sept 13 

f 

Fredf 

Dear Fredf 

I've just bought a special kind of computer fro* fltstrad Consumer 

Electronics called a word processor and it's really clever. I don't 

think I'll ever want to use a typewriter again, f 

f 

The computer is called the PCH8256 and it runs LocoScript, which is 

siwle to use. This is ay first letter. It only took ** ahout twenty 

ninutes to get it free of spelling mistakes and laid out the way I 

wanted. ¥ 

¥ 

Vours sincerely^ 

f 

f 

Christ 



The way you make your selection is by moving the highlighting over the option you want with 
the aid of the Up and Down Cursor keys, 

The option you want here is 'Save and Print', so press the Down Cursor key twice. As you will 
see, the highlighting is now over the 'Save and Print' option. 

PCW8256 User Guide 23 



To tell LocoScript that this is the option you want, press the 1 e nter | key. 

(For your future reference, please note that if you wish to print only a certain number of 
pages out of a multi-page document, you should select the Finish editing option 
from the above menu, press 1 e otjF J , and then press P. The Print document 
menu will then give you the option to either Print all pages or Print some 
pages. This facility is explained on page 120.) 

The next job is to put a sheet of paper in the printer. 



^> o 




PAPER TRAY 
EXTENSION 



PAPER TRAY 

PAPER LOADING KNOB 
PAPERFEED KNOB 

DUST COVER 
PAPER BAIL 



TRACTOR COVER 

TRACTOR ■ 
PAPER BAIL — ' 



PAPER OUT 




FAN FOLD PAPER FEED PATH 



24 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Take one sheet of A4 paper and lay it approximately centrally in the paper guide to the rear of 
the printer. This puts the paper in the right position ready for feeding into the printer. 

Next turn the Paper Loading Knob one quarter of a turn towards you. The bail bar also moves 
forward, 

The printer itself now feeds the paper in, leaving it placed exactly right for the start of your 
letter. 

Turn the Knob back to its original position. This puts the bail bar back too. 

If the paper needs any further adjustment, you can do this now. 

Then turn back to your screen. You will notice that some of the screen messages have 

changed while you were loading the printer. 

The new messages can be ignored at this stage. All you need to do is to press the Exit key. 

The printer will now print out your letter to Fred, leaving it barely held by the Bail Bar. You 
can just lift the letter out. 

Postscript 

That's given you an introduction to the way LocoScript works. 

Feel free to experiment with the way LocoScript works. You can't damage LocoScript by just 
using it. 

Press any keys you like - though you will find the 'Set' and 'Clear' keys ( [ 1 1 and | ] ), the 
function keys ( \ h \ .. \ fa ] ), and [enter] the most rewarding. For example, press E (for 
Edit) and try out the effects of the function keys on the letter you have just prepared. 

If you want to get out of a menu without doing anything, just press [ c an~~| (for 'Cancel'). 

We've taken a number of shortcuts so that you could get going quickly. The next chapter 
takes a more detailed look at what you have been doing and shows you how to save your 
work for printing out another time. 



PCW8256 User Guide 25 



If you don't want to go on to that straight away, press the Eject button on the disc drive and 

withdraw your disc. 

Only then switch off by pressing the power button on the front of the Monitor Unit. 



Power Button 




ALWAYS REMEMBER TO REMOVE YOUR DISCS FROM THE DISC DRIVE(S) BEFORE 
YOU SWITCH OFF 



26 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Chapter 3 



Keeping your work on disc 



In the last chapter, we gave you a brief introduction to how Locomotive Software's LocoScript 
works through preparing a simple letter and then printing it out. 

Now we turn to one of the major advantages of a word processor over a typewriter. You can 
simply and quickly produce a new top copy of a document there's no need for carbon 
paper or photocopies. And if you need to make a few minor changes, there is no need to type 
it in all over again, 

This is because you keep an 'electronic' copy of all your work. 

While you are working on a document, the computer keeps such a copy in its memory but the 
moment you change to doing something else or switch off, this copy gets lost. Because of this, 
you arrange to keep these copies on discs like the ones supplied with the PCW8256 when you 
bought it. 

The discs in the box with your PCW8256 are specially protected so that you can't spoil the 
software that is stored on them. That's why you got that strange message before you could 
start working on the letter to Fred. So before you start using your PCW8256 properly, you will 
need to have available some blank discs that you can store documents on. 



- 3.1 Discs for the PC W8256 

The PCW series' built in disc drives can only accept 3inch Compact Floppy Discs, 

_ , . There are many different kinds of computer disc, so when buying spare discs or software on 

disc, you should always check that you buy the right sort. 

The Compact Floppy discs are thin rectangular objects, about three inches wide, four inches 
long and 0.2inch thick, and they are made by most of the major computer disc manufacturers 

_ around the world. The discs themselves are circular, as their name would suggest, but they 

are enclosed in a plastic outer casing to protect them. They are perhaps the most sensitive 

"" *" parts of your computer system. 

If you have a 2-drive system, refer to the section entitled 'Discs and drives' at the end of 

this manual. 

PCW8256 User Guide 27 




We recommend you use Amstrad CF-2 discs, but in fact labelled discs from any leading 
manufacturer should give good service. But we do suggest you avoid using cheap, unlabelled 
discs because use of these is a false economy. Not only is data transfer between discs likely to 
be unreliable, but in the worst case, use of such discs can damage your disc drives and 
possibly all the other discs you try using in the drives. 

The sides of the disc are usually labelled A and B or 1 and 2. Amstrad discs are labelled 1 
and 2. 

Both sides of the disc can be used for data or program storage. In all cases, they are treated 
quite independently: what is stored on one side of the disc in no way affects what is stored on 
the other. 

A feature of 3inch compact floppy discs are their Write Protect Holes, positioned in the top 
left hand corner of the disc (as you look at it). They may further be identified by the arrows 
moulded into the casing that point to them. 



28 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Write Protect Holes, as their name suggests, offer you a means of protecting the contents of a 
disc against accidental overwriting or erasure. With the hole on a particular side closed, data 
can be written to that side of the disc, but with the hole open, attempts to write to the disc will 
only generate messages on the screen like: 

Disc write protected 

Always remember: opening a write protect hole only secures the data on that side of the 
disc against overwriting or erasure. 

The method used to open and close the hole varies from disc manufacturer to disc 
manufacturer. For example, the Amstrad CF-2 discs have a shutter arrangement that can be 

opened and closed with your thumbnail. 



G— Write Protect Hole 

=4— Shutter 






Others have a small lever, set into the edge of the disc casing, by the hole. These can be 
moved with, for example, the aid of the tip of a ball point pen. 



\ \ i 




PCW8256 User Guide 



29 



The system discs supplied with the PCW8256 have their Write Protect Holes fixed 

permanently open. 

Some of the software you buy will also be on discs that have been permanently 
Write-Protected but not all. For your own benefit, we would recommend you open the holes 
on any software discs you buy before you use them, unless the holes are already open. 

The other important characteristic of the discs that can be used in the PCW82S6 is their 
Format, ie. the way data is stored on them. Data written on a disc with the wrong format cannot 
be read by the PCW8256 and a disc must have this format before the PCW8256 can write 
anything onto it. 

A disc of the right format is marked out as 40 concentric Tracks with each track divided into 
nine equal Sectors. The tracks are numbered from to 39, starting at the outside and working 
inwards, while the sectors have numbers from 1 to 9. 





>12 BYTES 
A SECTOR 



9 SECIORS 
PER TRACK 



Suitable discs are described as being PCW8256 Format discs and you should always check 
that the software packages you buy from your computer dealer are PCW8256 Format. 

The PCW8256 can also read discs that were produced for the DDI 1, CPC664 and the 
CPC6128. 

If the PCW8256 ever encounters a problem in reading or writing data in a particular sector, it 
will tell you where the problem is by giving the relevant track number and sector number. If 
you experience such problems repeatedly in the same track and sector, then this is a sure 
sign that the disc has been damaged and we would advise you to stop using that disc as soon 

as you can. 



30 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Any blank discs you buy won't have the track and sector information on them. The process 
that puts this information on the disc is called Formatting and the program that you will need 
to run to format any blank disc is called DISCKIT. It is on Side 2 of the System Discs supplied 
with your PCW8256. 

DISCKIT is not an integral part of LocoScript. To run this program you have to run the software 
that makes the PCW8256 a personal computer rather than a word processor - the CP/M Plus 
operating system. 

We explain about using DISCKIT in Section 3.2. There are a few general points about discs 
that we need to know first. 

You can find out more about the PCW8256 as a personal computer from the second part of this 
manual: 'CP/M Plus for the PCW8256' 



3.1.1 How to handle discs 

The thing to remember about your discs is that they are highly sensitive - to dust, to 
temperature, to moisture and to magnets. If they weren't so sensitive, they wouldn't be able to 
store so much data in such a small area. 

So: 

• Don't try to force open their plastic casing or poke anything into it 

• Don't store them anywhere where they could get either damp or very hot or very cold 

• Don't store them anywhere near a magnet and that includes the magnets within such 
pieces of equipment as the loudspeakers of your audio equipment 

• Don't put them into your computer before you switch on and don't turn off the computer 
with a disc still in the drive 

• Don't take them out of a drive while the computer is reading from them or writing to 
them 

Treat discs with due respect, and you will get good service from them. 

3.1.2 Loading and unloading discs 

Loading a compact floppy disc into the PCW8256's disc drive simply involves inserting the 
disc into the drive slot the right way round. 



PC W8256 User Guide 31 



Hold the disc by its labelled end, with the side you wish to use to the left. Now insert the disc 

into the drive slot until it clicks home. 




All this should require no more than gentle pressure: if the drive appears to be resisting the 
disc, stop. Whatever you do, don't force it. You could have a disc already in the drive (check 
by pressing the Eject button). 

If you can't find out what the trouble is, consult your dealer. 

The other thing to remember is that you can damage your discs by inserting them before 
switching the computer on, or for that matter by leaving them in while you switch it off. 

Removing a disc from the drive should also be a simple action. You first press the Eject Button 
on the drive, which releases the disc - causing it to pop out of the drive a short way. Then 
you pull the disc out the rest of the way. 



Lject Button 



Indicator Lamp 



32 



PCW8256 User Guide 



The other feature of the front of the disc drive is its Indicator Lamp, This is brightly lit when 
the disc in the drive is either being written to or read from. 

Never press the Eject Button on a disc drive while the disc is being read from or written 
to. Not only could the data on the disc be damaged but the disc itself could also suffer. 

There are two ways of telling whether a disc is being read from or written to. One of these is 
that the Indicator Lamp is either on or flashing on and off: the other is the 'Using' message in 
the top right hand corner of the screen. For example, 'Using A' means that the PCW8256 is 
reading from or writing to the disc in Drive A. You are advised not to release the disc in Drive 
A while this message is displayed. 

But remember: accidents can happen - so always keep 'Back up' copies of your important 
documents and data on separate discs. You can either do this a document at a time by using 
LocoScript's Copy facility or copy whole discs as we describe below. 



3.2 Making copies of discs 

This section describes in particular how to to make Back-up copies of all your system discs. 

This should be almost the first thing you do after you get your PCW8256. That way, you can 
keep the original set safely stored away as a Master set - only to be used to make further 
copies from in case of accident - and use your second set to work on the computer. 

But the method described here is used whenever you want to make a copy of a disc and we 
strongly advise you to make copies of your discs regularly - just in case you damage the 
discs you work with. 

An important point to remember about it is that you can't make your copy from within the 
LocoScript word processing system. You always have to move over to using the CP/M Plus 
software for this - ie. 

• Remove your LocoScript disc. 

• Select Side 2 of the system discs and insert the disc with this side to the left. 

• 'Reset' the PCW8256 by holding down the (shift] and (extra } keys and then pressing the 
I exit | key. This terminates your current work with LocoScript and loads new software 
from the disc - in this case the CP/M Plus software. 



PCW8256 User Guide 33 



The screen should now look like this: 

CP/M Plus Aeistrad Consumer Electronics pic 
v 1.4, 61K TPA, 1 disc drive, 112K drive N: 
A)| 
If it doesn't, check that you put the right disc in the drive. 

The next thing to do is to just type: 

DISCKIT 

and then press the [return | key. This makes the computer run the special software 

called DISCKIT that lets you make copies of discs. 



On the screen you will see the following: 

DISC KIT v 1.2 

PCH8356 * CP/M Plus 

<? 1985 Anstrad Consumer Electronics pic and Locomotive Software Ltd, 

(be drive f outk! 

Please renove the disc fron the drive 

Press any key to continue 

Having removed the disc and pressed any key as instructed, you may now start the 
copying process. DISCKIT is very easy to operate - all you need do is follow the 
instructions on the screen: 



Exit frofi the progran 





f 6 
f 5 








l 4 

f 3 








EXIT 




f 2 
f 1 



Copy 



Fortiat 



Uerify 



We are now going to copy Sides 1 to 4 of our master discs, so press the [ te/fs | key and 

you will see the following message: 

| To flake a copy of a CF2 disc, put 
¥ I the correct side of the disc you wish 

to READ fro* into the drive, then press V 



To cancel and return to the aain 
«enu press any other key 



34 



PCW8256 User Guide 



DBCHT taVj "m T f e ,r em ' T Sh<>Uld ^ refer *° * e SeC " 0n eWifled '°° P ™ ** 
UlbOKIT in Part III of this manual, towards the end.) 

W l T U IT ? aCh Slde ° f the maSter dlSCS m order " ie - Side 1 flowed by Side 2, Side 3 
ana then Side 4. ' 

So now insert the first master disc in the drive with Side 1 (LocoScript) facing the screen, 

then press the Y key. ***«««, 

Note that DISCKIT will now carry out the copying operation in two 'parts'. On the screen 
you will see a message similar to: 

Copying in 2 parts 
Copying part 1 

After a while, you will be asked to 'insert the disc to write' whereupon you 
must take out the master disc and insert the blank disc to be copied onto. 

Continue following the instructions on the screen for part 2 of the copy operation, and you 
wUl eventually see the message 'Copy completed -Remove the disc from 

! 7 > \ w e \ y ° U S6e thlS meSSage ' take yoUr newly c °P Jed * sc out of the drive 

and write Working system disc - Side 1 (LocoScript)' on its label, 

DISCKIT then gives you the option of copying another side, so now insert Side 2 of the 
muter disc in the drive, press the Y key, and go through the copying sequence again 
Then repeat for Sides 3 and 4. 

If after you have finished all your copying, you wish to return to your word processing 
work, insert your new copy of Side I in the drive, then hold down [i^T and r^H 
and press [1x17] to start up LocoScript as before. J 

3.2.1 Notes about copying 

It^r 6 P ™ edUre Can ^ US6d t0 C ° Py any SmtabIe ±sc t0 ™*« -J^t remember to 
follow the instructions on the screen. 

If you accidentally mix up the disc you are reading from (the Read disc) and the disc you 
are wntmg to (the Write disc), this win be spotted and an appropriate message displayed 

Any error messages that appear should be self explanatory, but if you feel in need of extra 
help, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.1, of the CP/M Plus User Instructions where the DISCKIT 
software is described in detail. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



35 



3-3 Organising your work 

The basis of the LocoScnpt system is that you store the documents you prepare on discs. Each 
document is given a Name and is assigned to a Group. 

The easiest way of explaining what role each of these has is by comparing documents on 
discs with letters or reports in a filing cabinet. 

Each Document is an individual letter or memo or report stored in a file. Unlike filing cabinets 
where you usually put several documents in a file, computer files only have one document tn 
them. 

•s Name is its reference code - the equivalent of the label on the front of the 



The document 
file. 



Its Group is the section that the file is stored in: so the equivalent of the group LETTERS would 
be all the files stored between the section divider marked 'Letters' and the next one. 




36 



PCW8256 User Guide 



The equivalent to the Disc is one drawer of the filing cabinet, and when you put the disc in 
your drive, it is like opening this drawer of the cabinet. 

The problem of working out what to call a document, what group to store it in and which disc 
to store it on is exactly the same as working out what file to put a document in, then which 
section and then which drawer. 

However, although you make all the rules for the filing system in your filing cabinet, 
LocoScript makes some of the rules for the filing system on your discs. 

For instance, Filenames (ie. the names of your documents) have a main part that is no more 
than eight characters long and an optional second part that is no more than three characters 
long. The second part of the name is separated from the first by a dot. So, for example, you 
can call a document 'ADVERT' or, if you like, 'ADVERT.EG' 

Moreover, not all the characters you can type can be used in a filename. The characters we 
recommend using for the filename are just the letters A..Z and the digits 0..9. 

When you are typing in the name of a document, you don't have to type the name in 

capitals - LocoScript automatically translates any lower case letters you type into upper case 
ones, 

Your choice of name for a Group is limited to no more than eight letters and digits. Moreover, 
you can't have more than eight groups on one disc. 

The other way the analogy with a filing cabinet breaks down is that, whereas you often file 
documents in a filing cabinet according to subject, you group documents on a disc according 
to what type of document they are. 

The reason for this is that each group has associated with it a template for all the files in the 
group. This template controls how the text will be laid out when it is printed. 

The LETTERS group, for example, could have a template that has your address already set up 
and the position for the address of the person you are writing to marked. This position would 
be right for your window envelopes, say. 

The three groups 'LETTERS', 'SAMPLES' and 'CONT' on Side 1 of your system discs each have 
such a template already set up for them. This is stored in the document called 
TEMPLATE.STD. You will see that there is a document called TEMPLATE.STD in each of 

these groups. 

Because we recognise that these templates won't suit everyone's needs, we have also set up 

another group called 'TEMPLATE'. Any of the documents in this group could take the place of 
one of the initial TEMPLATE.STD documents. 



PCW8256 User Guide 37 



Later, when you are more familiar with LocoScript, we suggest you display the three 
TEMPLATE.STD documents and these alternative templates on your screen in turn and 
decide which ones meet your particular requirements. Erase any of these documents you 
don't plan to use as a template. Then move each of the remaining ones to its appropriate 
group and rename it TEMPLATE.STD 

If a group does not have a TEMPLATE.STD, then LocoScript tries to find an appropriate 
template to use. If nothing else can be found, it will use a very simple template called the 
Default. This just ensures that the text will be suitable for printing on A4 paper. 

If you start putting documents in another group, you will either set up a TEMPLATE.STD 
specifically for this group or use the simple one that LocoScript uses when nothing else is 
available. We will tell you about setting up a new template in Stage 10 of the Guide to 
LocoScript section of this manual. 

3.3. 1 Keeping your filing system up to date 

Just as you sort out a filing cabinet from time to time, so you will want to sort out what you have 
stored on your discs. Once again we can draw direct analogies between the operations 
involved, 

For example, Copying a document is equivalent to taking a photocopy of a letter and storing 
this in a folder in another part of your filing system. In both cases, you can either keep the 
same reference code for the document or give it a different one. 

Moving a document is equivalent to taking a file out of one section of the drawer and putting it 
into another one - either in the same drawer or in a different drawer. 

Renaming a document is equivalent to giving it a new reference code but leaving it in the 
same folder. 

Erasing a document is equivalent to taking a file out of the front sections and moving it to the 
back section of the drawer, throwing it away only when there is no longer room for it in the 
drawer. 

It is not equivalent to throwing it away immediately in the bin, thanks to a special feature of 
LocoScript that means that all the files you erase are initially put into a state of Limbo. There 
these documents stay until the room they are taking up on the disc is needed for some new 
document, whereupon just enough of the older ones get thrown away to make space for the 

new document. 

The real advantage of Limbo is that it allows you to bring back documents that you erase by 
accident provided (of course) that you do this fairly soon after you made the initial mistake. 
You also' have the chance to revive documents that you had thought you no longer needed. 



38 



PCW8256 User Guide 



But you should remember that confidential information, for example, could remain around for 
a while, If you don't want that to happen, erase it completely - by following the instructions on 
page 44. 

3.4 Managing your discs 

All the disc operations we have been describing above are carried out when the screen is 

showing the initial LocoScript display: 



Disc naiugerteiu, fruiter juie, ubiuy none. 

^Create new document E=Edit existing document F=Print doeunent D=Direct printing 
"i=Disc change •• f2=Inspect f3=Copy ?4=Mov<? f5=Rena«e f6=Erase f?=«ocles f8=Options 



Drive ft! L0C0SCSP.U1 

124k used 49k free 2S files 




COMT " "IS 

TEMPLATE 17k 



group 4 
group S 

group 8 
group 7 



0k 
6k 
0k 
0k 



Drive B: 
0k used 



0k 



not fitted 
free files 



Drive N: L0C0SCRP.U1 

2k used lWk free 2 files 



LETTERS 
SAMPLES 

CQNT 
TEMPLATE 



Ik 

ek 

lk 
0k 



group 4 
group S 
group 6 
group 7 



Ok 
0k 

0k 
0k 



A .-LETTERS 7 files 
linbo files 

mm 



*«— 



TEMPLATE. STD lk 
4 hidden 88k 



A:SANPLES 5 files 
linbo files 

ADVERT .EG lk 

DOCUMENT. EG 4k 

LAYOUT ,EG 1* 

QUOTE ,EG 3k 

TEXT .EG 3k 



AiCONT 1 files 

linho files 

TEMPLATE .STD lk 



AiTEMPLATE 12 files 
linbo files 



LEI2PAGE 

LEI2PAGE 

LETIER 

LETTER 

NANUSCRP 

MEMO 

PAGENUM 

PAGENUH 

PAGENUM 

PHRASES 

PHRASES 

TEMPLATE 



.HBP 
■PLP 
■HBP 1* 
■PLP lk 
2k 
2k 
.CEN lk 
.PR lk 
,RJ lk 
.LET lk 
,HUL lk 
.LAB 2k 



For this reason, this screen is known as the Disc Manager. 

You will often want to use the facilities offered from the Disc Manager. You automatically get 
an opportunity to do this each time you load the LocoScript software and each time you finish 
working on a document. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



39 



How to move about the screen. 



Disc ftanagewent. rr inner iaie, using none. . 

:=Create new document E=Edtt existing document F=Print document &=Direct printin< 
'l=Disc change . f2=Iuspect H=Copy f4=Move fS=Rena ne f6=Erase f7=Hodes ffcOpUon 



Drive A: 




COM! 
TEMPLATE 



L0C0SCFP.H1 
49k free 3S files 

group 4 Ok, 

group S Ok 

group 6 Ok 

group 7 Oki 



[Drive B: 
Ok used Ok 



not fitted Drive Ms 



free files 



2k used lWk free 



LOCOSCKMi 



LETTERS 
SAMPLES 
CONT 
TEMPLATE 



Ik 
Ok 
Ik 
Ok 



group 4 
group S 
group 6 
group 7 



2 files 

Ok 
Ok 
Ok 



Ok 



ffi;LETTERS 7 files 



File Cursor 



«bo files 



TEMPLATE .SIB Ik 
4 hidden 86k 



AiSAMPLES S files 
liflbo files 

ADVERT .EG ik 
DOCUMENT. EG 4k 
LAYOUT .EG ik 
QUOTE .EG 3k 
TEXT .EG 3k 



AiCONT 1 files 

d li«bo files 

TEMPLATE, STD Ik 



A: TEMPLATE 12 files 
liflbo files 



LET2PAGE 
LEI2PAGE 
LETTER 

LETTER 

MAMSCRP 

MEMO 

PAGENUM 

PAGENUM 

PAGEMUM 

PHRASES 

PHRASES 

TEMPLATE 



,HDP 2k 
,PLP 2k 
,HDP Ik 
,PLP Ik 
2k 
2k 
,CEN Ik 
.PR Lk 
,RJ lk 
,LET lk 
,NUL lk 
,LAB 2k 



The columns in the lower part of the screen hold alphabetical lists of the documents on your 
discs, divided into their Groups. Each group that you have any documents in has its own 
column or columns. 

Between this and the information lines at the top are three summaries of the Groups you can 
put files in. There are eight entries in each section corresponding to the eight groups you can 
have on any disc. 

The three sections are labelled Drive A, Drive B and Drive M. They also display other 
information, such as how much free data space there is and any special name that has been 
given to the disc. 

Drive A is your disc drive - or your upper one if you have two. 

Drive B will be marked as 'not fitted' unless you have a PCW8512 or a PCW8256 with two 
disc drives, when your lower drive will be Drive B. 

Drive M is a special feature of the PCW8256. It is a section of the computer's memory that is 
used just like a powerful additional disc drive. It is very fast. 

Your main use of Drive M will be an intermediate storage place for files while you copy from 

one disc to another, as we shall describe in Section 3.4.1. 



40 



PCW8256 User Guide 



__ It is also used as a storage place for information while you are editing documents. LocoScript 

needs somewhere it can store information but still get it back quickly as soon as it is needed- 
Nothing can be stored long term in Drive M because the information is lost as soon as you 
~~ switch off or reset the PCW8256. 

The columns of filenames at the bottom take the groups of documents stored on the three 
— »- drives in turn, starting with the first group on Drive A. Although you can have up to eight 

groups on each drive, only the ones with files in them are displayed here. 

_ There is always one group name highlighted because it has the Group Cursor over it. You can 

move this from group to group and from drive to drive by holding down the Shift key and 
-^ pressing the cursor keys. 

^" One document name is similarly highlighted: this is the one the File Cursor is on at present. 

^ You can move the File Cursor with the cursor keys to whichever document you want. 

^-- Because no column of filenames is set aside for those groups without any files in them, if you 

move the Group Cursor to such a group, the File Cursor temporarily contracts until you move 
to a different group. 

Experiment with the Group and File Cursors for a while. 

As you move through the list of groups, you will notice the columns of filenames scroll across 
"~ the screen. This is the way LocoScript manages to display all the names of the documents you 

^^ have available. Obviously, it would be impossible to have a column for every group 

permanently on the screen. 

— 3.4.1 The operations available 

Everything you can do from the Disc Manager screen is outlined in the two information lines 
M — at the top of this screen. These lines give you the names of the keys to press to start things 

happening, alongside a brief description of the operation. The top line gives you some basic 
—~ word processing functions, while the second line offers you standard 'Disc Housekeeping' 
operations. 

__ A number of the Disc Manager functions reduce the amount of information you need to type in 

by treating the document that has the File Cursor on it as the Current Document. 

If you press the key that gives you Editing, Printing, Erasing, Copying, etc., the menu that this 

calls up offers you the Current Document first. If this is not the document you want, you can 

■ — — type in any changes that need to be made to these details. This 'new' document then becomes 

the Current Document until you move the File Cursor again. 



PCW8256 User Guide 41 



Create document 



thrive: A 



If you press C to Create a new document, then it is the poslfion of the G oup Cursor that » 
LportL because LocoScrip. takes thrs group and drive « |« ^J*^ 
ntformafion not only dtctates where your document will be stored but also the way « wul be 
"on the page. (Each group has a basic layout assorted wtth it, stored „ ; the 
TEMPLATE.STD file.) Get the right drive and the right group and yen wtll save yourself a lot of 
unnecessary work. 

We introduce all the operations here. The Disc Housekeeping ones we describe in detail; 
most of the Word Processing operations are covered more fully later in this manual. 

Word Processing operations 

C= Create new document To use a brand new document, you have fust to press the C key. 

The menu that appears has three parts - one for the name of 
the document, the next for the group to put it in and the third for 
the drive de. the disc) to store it on. LocoScript makes some 
suggestions for what you might like all these to be. The group 
and drive are set by location of the Group Cursor when you 
pressed C 

You don't have to accept these suggestions. Remember, the group you give a ^ d Locument 
affects the template you prepare it with. All you need to do to change any one of them is to 
mlvthe cursor in the menu to the entry you want to change and then type in what you want « 
Tread- In particular, if you want to change the details of the group, type the ngfat group name 
(or its number if the group has not been given a name). 

When these three lines are what you want, press [en™ | and you will be given a new 
document with the correct template to start working on. 

E =Edit existing document To edit one of the documents you have already saved on the 
disc, start by pressing the E key. 

The menu initially displays the details of the Current Document. 

When you have checked that the correct details of the document you want to , edit : are 
Iplayed in the menu, press \***l Then the top section of this document will be displayed 
on the screen, all ready for you to edit. 

P^Print document The key to press when you want to print a document that you have 
previously stored on disc is P. 

The menu initially displays the details of the Current Document. 
Further details are given in Stage 8 of the Guide to LocoScript. 



42 



PCW8256 User Guide 



D= Direct printing Pressing the D key sets up the PCW8256 so that as you prepare your 

document on the screen, it also gets printed line by line on the printer. Using the PCW8256 in 
this way is also described in Stage 8 of the Guide to LocoScript. 

Disc Housekeeping 

f 1 - Disc change You need to tell LocoScript every time you release the disc from the drive 
and put in either another one or the same one the other way up. To do this, press j fi~\ 

immediately after you make this change. 

f2- Inspect gives you a way of quickly checking what is in a document: just position the File 
Cursor over the document you are interested in and press \ fe~~| (ie. [shTft] * \""fi~\ ). The 

information displayed has to have been set up in advance. Inspecting documents is covered 
fully at the end of Stage 10 of the Guide to LocoScript. 

f3-Copy Place the File Cursor over the document you want to copy, then press [ fo | . A 
message appears on the screen, asking you to move the Group Cursor to the group in which 
you want the copy to be stored. Do this by holding down the [shift] key at the same time as 

pressing the Cursor keys. This enables you to pick out any group - even one that does not yet 
contain any documents. If there are documents already in the group, you can get the same 
result by moving the File Cursor. You can, if you wish, store the copy in the same group as the 

original document. 

Press | enter I when the Group Cursor is on the correct group. A menu is then displayed on the 
screen, which gives you details of both the new document and the one being copied based on 
where you placed the File and Group cursors. If the copy is to be in a different group, then 
LocoScript suggests that it retains the same name but if it is to be in the same group, it asks 
you for a new name. No two documents in the same group can have the same name. 

Any of the details displayed in the menu can be changed. In particular, if you want to change 
the details of a group, type the right group name (or its number if the group has not been 
given a name). When all the details are correct, press [enter]. 

If you want the copy to be stored on a different disc and you have a single-drive system, first 
make a copy on Drive M. Then change the disc in the drive to your second disc (press [ft 1 
to signal this change) and move the copy from Drive M to your second disc (see below). 

f4 — Move Place the File Cursor over the document you want to move and then press | u "~| 
(ie. [shift] + | f3 J). After that, the steps you go through in moving a document are exactly the 
same as those for Copying. The difference in the result is that no copy of the document 
remains in the original group, although one is held in limbo if the move is made to a different 
disc, 

f5= Rename The four actions this leads to are 



PCW8256 User Guide 43 



- nniHiiiiiiaW ^ Renaming a document, 

■^™f^^S^^^3 Recovering a document from Limbo; 

r-MWfrt Croup Renaming a group; 

- J^ili C i, Renaming a disc. 



Position the File Cursor correctly if you want to either rename a document or recover one 
from Limbo. Otherwise, just ensure that the Group Cursor is over the appropriate group. It is a 
good idea (but not essential) to use the Options menu (| fe j) to display Limbo documents if 
you wish to recover one of these. 

Press [ fe "1, move the cursor to the option you want and press [ enter ). Another menu appears 
that lists the details of the item you have picked out and asks you for a new name. If you want 
to recover a file from Limbo and you pointed the File Cursor at this file before pressing [ fe J, 
LocoScript will suggest you retain the same name - unless there is already a document of that 
name. If you weren't pointing at a Limbo file, it will also ask for the name of the file you want to 
recover. 

Any of the details displayed in the menu can be changed. In particular, if you want to change 
the details of a group, type the right group name or its number if the group has not been given 
a name. When all the details are correct, press | enter |. 

f6- Erase To erase a document, position the File Cursor over the document you want to erase 
and press |_ fe J Press [ enter | when you have checked that you have picked out the right 
document. This puts the document into Limbo from which it is recoverable through the 
Rename menu. 

If you want to erase the document completely, use [ > | to display all the documents in 
Limbo and point the File Cursor at the document you want to erase. Press [_ fe.J and then 
IeWer] as before: that erases the Limbo document completely. If you don't want to go through 
the stage of displaying the Limbo documents, press [ h _] again and change the details given 
there to those of the Limbo document you want to erase. In particular, move the cursor to the 
Group line of the menu and press the [jj key to tell LocoScript it is a Limbo document you 
want to erase. 

n- Modes is there to open the door to add-on software packages for LocoScript. The choices 
offered when you press [ h ] will depend on what additional software has been installed on 
your system. The way these pieces of software work will always be documented elsewhere. 

f8- Options gives you a way of showing what documents are currently in limbo. 

:: .. . i j it will also let you display the names of any 'Hidden Files on your 

| Shw options: ; system . There may be some Hidden Files associated with your 

JWKiaflHHMft: add-on software packages. 

On your system disc, the 'Hidden Files' are those of the LocoScript word processing 
software itself. Hidden files need not be of any concern to you whatsoever. 
Press [ fc ] (ie. [shift] - [ f? ] ), move the menu cursor and press the • , key to select the 
options~you want. These extra files will be listed on your screen when you press [enter j. 



44 PCW8256 User Guide 



llTSTiWTMfill 



uisc Mmagment. fr inter icue. using none. 

^Create new document E=Edit existing document P=Print document D=Direct printing 
i=Disc change f2=toect f3=Copy j4=Mcve .fSsRenane f6=Erase f7=Hodes f8=Op.t.io«s 



Drive ft: 
132k used 



41k free 28 files 




COWT " "Ik 
TEMPLATE 17k 



group 4 
group 5 
group 6 
group 7 



Ok 

ok 
ek 

Ok 



Drive B: 
Ok used 



ek 



not fitted 
free O files 



Drive Mi 
2k used 100k free 



2 files 



LETTERS 
SAMPLES 
COM 
TCTPLftTI 



& 

ik 
Ok 



group 4 Ok 

group 5 Ok 

group 6 Ok 

group 7 Ok 



AiLETTIFS 9 files 
1 Iinbo files 

QUOTE ,ASC 2k 

MAD ,«E 3k 

TEKPLATI.STD Ik 

4 hidden 86k 



A: SAMPLES G files 
limbo files 

ADVERT .EG Ik 

DOCUMENT, EC 4k 
LAYOUT ,E€ Ik 
PITCH .EG ik 

QUOTE .EG 3k 

TEXT .EG 3k 



A:COHT 1 files 

linbo files 

TEMPLATE. STP Ik 



AiTEXPLATE 12 files 
liabo files 



LET2PACE 

LET2PAGE 

LETTER 

LETTER 

NANUSCRP 

MEMO 

PAGENUM 

PACENUM 

PAGENUM 

PHRASES 

PlfflASES 

TEMPLATE 



.HBP 2k 
.PLP 2k 
■HDP Ik 
,PLP Ik 
2k 
2k 
.CEN Ik 
.PR Ik 
,RJ ik 
.LEI Ik 
.NHL Ik 
.LAB 2* 



3.5 Preparing discs for use 

When you use your PCW8256 in earnest, you will essentially have three sorts of 
discs - identical in appearance but different in the type of information you have stored on 
them. You will have: 

• System discs with the software the PCW8256 needs to provide all its facilities. 

. Start of Day discs which have just the software on them needed to run LocoScript. This 
is quite large but there is some room left which you can use to store a few documents, 
Typically, you would use this space to store standard letters or whatever that you use 

frequently because then you will be able to switch on, load the LocoScript software and 
then start processing the standard letter right away - without swopping discs. 

. Data discs which have only your saved documents on them. These cannot be used until 
LocoScript has been loaded from a Start of Day disc. 

There is also a fourth type of disc you might use CP/M discs. These are used when the 
PCW8256 is running as a personal computer (see the CP/M Plus User Instructions). But we 

advise you not to store LocoScript documents and CP/M files on the same disc. 

Before you can use LocoScript properly, you need to prepare at least one Start of Day disc 

and you might also find it useful to prepare a Data disc. We describe making these below. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



45 



In fact the copy you made of Side 1 of the system discs is a Start of Day disc, but it also 
colms some e'xLples to work on whilst reading through the Guide to LocoScnpt. These 
don't leave you with a lot of room for your own documents. 

If you like, use this disc for now and skip the remainder of this chapter: come back and read it 
when you feel confident about using LocoScnpt. 



3.5-1 Making a Start of Day disc 

You could need more than one Start of Day disc as you build up your stock of useful 
IZu^sX^ior now we shall nist make one. You can then follow these instructions any 
time you want to make another. 

The first stage is to make a copy of Side 1 of your system discs on a new blank disc. Turn back 
to the beginning of Section 3.2 and follow all the instructions given there. 

When the copy has been made, release the disc from the drive and press any key other than 
Y. Then press the | yifl key: this takes you out of the DISCKIT software. 

Write 'LocoScnpt - Start of Day' on the side of the disc you have just copied onto. 

Now re-insert your new disc in the drive, with the 'LocoScnpt - Start of Day^ side to the left 
Hold down [IhTftI and |i™J and then press [^ The PCW8256 should now read the 
LocoScnpt software into its memory and display the familiar first screen. 




^i^T:' WCOSCjjP.lfl 

134k used 49k free 25 files 

group 4 Jk 

group S Ok 

CfJHT Ik group 6 Jk 

TEMPLATE 17k gr oup 7 Ok 



Drive B: 
Gk used 



Ok 



not fitted 
free G files 



DrWN! LOCOSCRP.Ul 

2k used lWk free 2 files 



LETTERS 
SAMPLES 
CfJHT 
TEMPLATE 



Ik 
Ok 
Ik 
Qk 



group 4 
group S 
group B 
group? 



Ok 
Ok 
Ok 

0k 



A '.LETTERS 7 files 
J limbo files 



m 



^«™ 



TEMPLATES ik 
4 hidden 86k 



A:SAMPLES S files 
9 lisbo files 

ADVERT ,EG Ik 

DOCUMENT, EG 4k 

LAVQUT .EG Ik 

QUOTE .EG 3k 

TEXT .EG 3k 



A:C0NT ^ 1 files 
li*])o files 

TEMPLATE ,STD Ik 



AsIEMPLATE 12 files 
limbo files 

LET2PACE,KDP 2k 

LET2PAGE.PLP 2k 

LETTER .{ttP Ik 

LETTER .PLP Ik 

MANUSCRP. 2k 

MEMO . 2k 

PAGEMUM XEN Ik 

PAGENU* .PR ik 

PACEMUH ,RJ Ik 

PHRASES .LET Ik 

PHRASES Ml Ik 

TEMPLATE. LAB 2k 



46 



PCW8256 User Guide 



=»- On a Start of Day disc, you don't need any of the sample documents we have put on the System 

disc. These are intended purely to help you while you are learning how to use LocoScript. So 
*" what you need to do is to 'erase' just these documents: everything else is needed. 

To erase any document you don't want, all you have to do \s to move the File Cursor over the 
^ name of the document and then press [ h J, folowed by [enter) to confirm the action. 

■"*"* The documents to erase are: 

-^ ADVERT. EG 

DOCUMENT. EG 
^ LAYOUT. EG 
^ QUOTE. EG 

TEXT. EG 

When you have erased all these documents, you have finished making your Start of Day disc. 

This gives you a certain amount of disc space to store your own documents in, but less than 
""" half the amount of space you have on a Data Disc. This is why you need to prepare data discs 

^ as well. 

■— ■ You can see the exact figure in the D ri ve A section of the Disc Manager screen. (The letter 'k' 

stands for Kilobyte - the unit in which space on a disc is always measured - and it 
fc corresponds to just over 1000 characters.) 

— 3.5.2 Making a Data Disc 

■""* There are two ways of preparing a data disc. One is to copy a Start of Day disc (or Side 1 of 

__ the system discs) and remove everything except the TEMPLATE.STD files. This method 

retains some templates for you to work with. 

The other is called Formatting: this gives you a blank disc but one that is laid out ready to 
— "" store documents for you. It will not contain any templates for the documents you create. 

Formatting 

What you usually format is a new blank disc but you can also format old discs. However, if you 
— "~ do plan to format an old disc, check first that you don't want any of the documents currently 

_^_ stored on it or that you have copies elsewhere of the documents you still want. Formatting a 

disc clears it of everything that had been stored there. 

The first stage of formatting (assuming that you have already switched your PCW8256 on) is to 
1 place your System Disc in the drive with Side 2 to the left. Then hold down [ shift | and [extra | 
and press [extF] to get the PCW8256 to read software from this disc into its memory. 



PC W8256 User Guide 4 7 



The screen should now look like this: 

CP/H Plus tastrad Consumer Electronics pic 
tf 1.4, 61K 1H, 1 disc drive, 112K drive As 

m 

If it doesn't turn to Section 1.2 of the CP/M Plus User Instructions and use the advice given 
there to sort out what has gone wrong. 

Once again, the piece of software we need here is DISCKIT. So the next thing to do is to type 
in: 

DISCKIT 
and then press | return |. 

Then all you have to do is follow the instructions. 

The first set of screen messages tell you that to start the formatting process you have to press 

the \Jph\ key. 

(If you have a 2-drive system and you wish to format CF-2DD discs for Drive B, you should 
now refer to the section entitled 'Formatting discs for Drive B' in Part III of thus manual, 

towards the end.) 

Any error messages that appear should be self explanatory, but if you feel in need ^ : extra 
help, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.1, of the CP/M Plus User Instructions where the DISCKIT 

software is described in detail. 

3-5.3 Let's make a data disc 

We will now make a data disc with a couple of customised templates on it. Once this data 
disc is made, you can duplicate it any number of times and use these duplicates for storing 
all your LocoScript files onto. You will only ever need to use the LocoScnpt system disc 
itself as a start of day disc. 

Start up LocoScript using the start of day disc, and when you see the initial LocoScript 
display, insert a newly formatted disc and press | faff* | ■ 

Let's say that we have decided to rename the first two groups 'MEMOS' and 'NOTES'. First 
check that the group cursor is positioned over group on Drive A. If it isn't, then hold 
down fsT^Tl and use the cursor keys until it is. Now we're going to Rename 'group so 
press the \j^T\ key and you will receive the following menu: 



^ PCW8256 User Guide 



rename document 
recover frow Liabo 



</ re«ane ^rcus 



renane Disc 



Press the Down. Cursor key twice to select the 
rename Group option then press | enter | . You 
will receive the following menu: 



rename Croup 



■ iiiiniiiiiiiiii 



Group: 

Drive: 



group $ 



Type in the new name for the group, ie. MEMOS then 
press | enter | (you will see the new name appear 

under the group cursor). 



To rename the second group, hold down | shift | and press the Down Cursor key once. 
The group cursor should now be positioned over group 1 on Drive A. If it isn't, then 
hold down I s hift | and use the cursor keys until it is. 

Again using the ffe^~l R e n a m e function, change g r o u p 1 to 'NOTES'. 

Now that we've renamed two of the groups, let's create a customised template for memos, 
Move the group cursor over the MEMOS group and press C (to Create a file). The menu 
that appears will offer you the filename 'DOCUMENT.000'. We don't want that name so 
overtype it with TEMPLATE.STD and press I enter! - TEMPLATE.STD is a special 
filename which always holds the template for that particular group. LocoScript always 
looks to see if there's a TEMPLATE.STD file to determine the layout of a document in that 
group. 

Up on the screen will come an address template, (this is because no template yet exists on 
Drive A, so LocoScript has borrowed one from the TEMPLATE.STD file on Drive M). We 
don't want an address template so let's 'Cut' it out of the file as follows: 

While the cursor is at the beginning of the file, press the |cut | key. Notice how the third 

line of the top menu tells you that we are about to perform a cut operation. 



Press the | pag e | key (to move to the end of the page). Notice how all the text to be cut is 
highlighted, Now complete the cut by pressing [ cut J once again, and you will then be left 
with an empty file in which to create a new template. 

And so to the wording. Let's have the word 'Memorandum' positioned centrally at the top of 
the document. Press | fe/fs | to get the Lines menu -you will see that the option Centre 
Line is already selected, so confirm this selection by pressing | enter I , then type 
'Memorandum' and press [return] . On the next line, type 'To:' then press | fs/fs [ to 
get the Lines menu again. Use the Down Cursor key to select Right justify line 
and press [enter] . Now type 'Date:', press [return] , type 'From:', press 
| return | , and finally, type a line of dashes and press [r eturn! to finish the template off 
neatly. 



PCW8256 User Guide 



49 







tote:* 
<i 



That's our memorandum template made, so press \ exitI and confirm the Finish 
edi t i ng selection by pressing [enter 1 . You will now see this new TEMPLATE.STD 
file in the MEMOS group on Drive A. 

If you move the group cursor to NOTES, you can also create a customised template for that 
group in the same manner as just described. 

Now try using one of your new templates by creating a document in the MEMOS group- 
Notice that as soon as you've entered the document's name, you receive your customised 
memos template on the screen. 

Any copies you now make of your data discs will contain your customised templates. 



Postscript 

You have now been introduced to all the tools you need to set up and keep documents. The 
next stage is to learn about the facilities LocoScript has for letting you set up really 
professional documents. 

This is covered in the next ten chapters, which together go to make 'A Guide to LocoScript' 



50 PCW8256 User Guide 



A Guide to LocoScript 



This Guide to the LocoScript word processing system is in two parts. 

The first ten chapters - Stages 1 ... 10 - each offer a brief introduction to a 
different aspect of the LocoScript system, starting with how to pick out words 
from your text for special emphasis, moving on through how to lay out text well 
and how to edit it efficiently, to printing documents out and refining them. The 
final chapter acts as a source of reference both on how LocoScript goes about 
the various tasks and on the facilities it provides. 

Anyone completely new to word processing should find Stages 1...10 helpful, 
particularly if they take advantage of the sample documents supplied on the 
LocoScript disc. The sample documents will enable you to concentrate on 
following how the various word processing operations work. 

We suggest you study each stage in turn at first, and then just dip back whenever 
you still feel you would like some guidance in addition to the messages 
LocoScript puts up on the screen. 

Most of the stages will involve you editing one of the sample documents and at 
the end of this procedure, what you are working with will be very different from 
what you started with. We therefore recommend that, except when you need to 
print the result of your changes, you choose 'Save and Abandon' from the options 
offered when you press the | exit | key to finish each edit. That way, the stored 
copy of the document stays unaltered and you can go back and work through the 
chapter again if you wish. 



Guide to LocoScript 51 



Typing special characters 

Whatever country you use LocoScript in, you can always type its complete range of 
characters. This covers a wide range of special characters, often unique to a few countries. 
This means you will be readily able to transfer documents on disc from one country to 

another. 

The PCW82S6's keyboard changes from country to country to allow you to type in easily the 
characters most often used in that country. For example, it will be harder to type a R on a UK 
keyboard than on a German one but you will still be able to type this character. 

The keyboard maps at the start of this manual show you what keys you have to press to get 

any particular character. 

Accented letters are treated specially. If you study the characters that can be typed in from 
your keyboard, you will notice accents on their own as well as some accented letters. 

Any accented letter can be typed in by first typing the accent (',',", or ') and then the 
letter in the normal way. If the combination is one of the characters in LocoScript's character 
set, it will be displayed on your screen and entered in your document as a single character: 
otherwise it will be shown as two separate characters. 

You therefore have two ways of typing in the accented letters already on your keyboard; 
either press the key combination given on the keyboard maps or press the accent, followed 

by the letter. 

If you want just the accent, type the accent followed by [enter] . 



52 Guide to LocoScript 



CONTENTS 



_ Stage 1: Enhancing the text 55 

Underlining 56 

How LocoScript remembers your instructions 59 

Other effects 60 

_^ A bit of Style 61 

, Stage 2: Using the simpler editing keys 63 

— The textual movement keys 64 

Textual movement and editing 65 

-=™- Deleting sections of text 67 

_ Finding a particular point in the text 68 

Moving a section of text 69 

.«■■_ Copying a section of text 70 

Exchanging one piece of text for another 7 1 

Stage 3: Setting out text 73 

Indenting text 74 
— Tables 75 
Changing the Tab settings 78 

Changing the margins 81 

. Changing an existing layout 83 

Stage 4: Refining the appearance off the text 87 

Centring text 87 

Right justification 88 

Using different character sizes 89 

Document layout 91 

~ Line endings 94 



Guide to LocoScript 53 



Stage 5: Setting out pages 97 



What is a page? 
Changing the line spacing 
Changing the line pitch 
Where to start a new page 
Making more fundamental changes 



Setting up Headers and Footers 
The first page 
The end result 



Maintaining your Blocks 
Pasting in whole documents 
Using Phrases 



Stage 8: Printing 

Printing your documents 
Direct printing 



Using the Set and Clear menus 
Using abbreviations 
Doing without menus 



97 
98 
99 
99 
102 



Stage 6: Headings and page numbers 105 



105 
109 
109 



Stage 7: Cutting and pasting HI 



112 
112 
113 



115 

115 

118 



Stage 9: Eliminating keystrokes 121 



121 
122 
123 



Stage 10: Setting up a group template 125 



125 
126 



A new template 

Editing TEMPLATE.STD 

Other changes to the File Header jjj* 

Summaries of your documents 



128 



LocoScript summarised 1 29 



ca Guide to LocoScript 



Stage 1 



Enhancing the text 



With LocoScript, you can enhance the appearance of the text you print out in a number of 
ways. You can, for example, make sections of it bolder, underline words or phrases, print 
some of it in italic (slanted) characters and put in subscripts and superscripts. 

Most of these features can be called up when required through the Emphasis menu, one of the 
eight Editing Menus available to you while you are working on a document. 

To show you how this works, we will use one of the sample documents we have included on 
the disc alongside the LocoScript software - ADVERT.EG. 

The starting point for this is the Disc Manager screen, that is the one that appears on the 
screen after you have loaded LocoScript or after you have finished working on a document. 

The file we want is listed in second column of file names. Use the cursor keys ( I T I , I i I . 
| . | and | • J ) to move the disc manager's cursor to ADVERT.EG. 

If you are not sure how to bring this file onto your screen, turn back briefly to 'How to move 
about the screen* in Section 3.4. 

Press E to start editing ADVERT.EG and then [enter! when you have checked that the 
document named in the Edit menu is the right one. Your screen should look like this: 

*> 

For Sale: Lawwower^ 

<j 

Petrol driven four stroke lawnnower with power drive. Cylinder type 

with 14" cut and large grassbox,f 

♦J 

(j 

Mould suit person with large garden. Selling because of «ove to a saall 

city centre flat.** 

Jtower is in good condition, and was recently $iven a service and 

thorough overhauls 

f 

f 

Price £75«J 

Please contact Chris on Realflsford 7763*1. f 



Guide to LocoScript 55 



The text we have here is for a small advertisement - the sort of advertisement you might 
want to put in a newsagent's window or on an office noticeboard. The text is fine, but 

underlining the title to make it stand out would be a good first step in encouraging people to 
read it. 



Underlining 

Underlining is one of the features available through the Emphasis menu, which is listed as 
f 3=Emphasi s in the third of the Information Lines at the top of your screen. This tells you that 

the function key you will need to press is [ "ft J. 

Move the cursor to the first character of the title; then press [ ft I 

Up on your screen will come the Emphasis menu: 



Emphasis codes: 



Ml 



- Bold 

- Double 

- Reverse Video 



You select a feature you want from this and other LocoScript menus 
by first using the Up and Down cursors to move the menu cursor to 
that feature and then pressing the JjJ key. This puts a \T\ at the 
beginning of that line of the menu, showing that this feature has 
been set. 



If you want to cancel the selection of this feature, press the 
The [ i ] then becomes a 0. 



key- 



When you have set all the features you want, you just press [enter] to leave the menu and go 
back to working on your document. 

What we wanted for the title line was underlining. The menu cursor is on this option when you 
enter this menu. 

With the menu cursor on this feature, press the pi key. You will see the line change to: 

[+1 Under Line 



bphasis codes: 



+ Underline 



rem 



erune 



Bold 
Double 
ReVerse Video 



You will also see a new 'Submenu' appear on the screen - asking 
you whether you want Full Underline (ie. words and spaces 
underlined) or just Word Underline. 'Full underline' is already 
selected for you. If this is the type of underlining you would like, 
just press | enter]; if not, either press the Space Bar or move the 
menu cursor to 'Word underline' and press the [+] key, before 
pressing [enter]. 

LocoScript won't immediately show underlining on the screen - 

only when you ask it to relay a paragraph or the whole document. 
However it will underline any characters you type in anywhere 
further down the document. 



56 



Guide to LocoScript 



To see what happens, move the cursor down to beginning of the third paragraph and type in 



The 



fi 61iTCMW|fI^^lE^ jTnF»fcM ffl«ra^^ 



for Sale; Lawwwerf 



UMpim four stroke Upwwr with power drive, Minder twe 



large grasspox.f 



Hou l d su i t person w i th l arge garden , Se lli ng because of wove to a m il 

citu centre fli t.** 



J|l£jjQ«er is in good condition, and *as recently given a service and 



thorough overhaul,*' 

Price £7S^ 

f 

Please contact Chris on Realasford 778301.^ 



As you see, the effect of 'Full underline' is to underline everything down to the current position 
of the cursor - including the 'Trailing spaces' at the end of lines within a paragraph, 
(Incidentally, trailing spaces are only underlined on the screen; they won't be underlined if 
you print the document out.) To get just the title underlined, we have to tell LocoScript to stop 
underlining at the end of the title line. To do this, first move the cursor to the carriage return 
symbol <_> at the end of the title line. 




For Sale; UwMOMtrf 



S35 



houU suit person i 
citg centre flat,? 

a 

jhejlwer i 



iven four stroke lumower with poter drive. Minder twc 



arge grasstox.f 



person with large garden. Selling because of wove to a smll 



is in good condition, and was recently given a service and 



a 

__" « 

thorough overhaul.* 1 

Price £7Sf 

Please contact Chris on Jtealasford 7?63ei.f 



Guide to LocoScript 



57 



Then press \~f£^] to take you once again into the Emphasis menu. 

This time we want to cancel our selection of underlining. 



Enphasis codes: 



OM1 



Full underline -i 
Word underline 



- Bold 

- Double 

- Reverse Video 



You may well think that what we need to do is to clear our selection 
of Full Underline. To see what happens when you do this, move the 
cursor to the Fu I I Under Li ne line and press the [J key. 

See the / switch from Full Underline to Word Underline? 

What we have done would give us every word underlined 
throughout the rest of the document - not what we wanted. What 
we need to do is to clear underlining all together, which we do by 
moving the menu cursor to the line [+J Under li ne and pressing the 

f"| key. 



Do this now. You will notice that LocoScripfs response is to replace QJ by □ and to close up 
the submenu: that is because when you clear the underline setting, you clear both Full 

underline and Word underline. 

Now press [enter] to go back to working on the advertisement. 

To see the effect this has had, move the cursor to the beginning of the first paragraph and 
press [belay] 

Fnr Sale: Uwrwower^ 

ijetrol driven four stroke lawimower with power drive, Cylinder type 
with 14" cut and large grassbox.V 

i Llri suit person with large garden. Selling btfiilinf Of WPVC UJLSMli 

citu centre flat,? 
it 

The Mower is in good condition, and was recently given a service and 
thorough overhaul .^ 

e 

Price £75^ 

41 

Please contact Chris on ReaUsford 7763*1 , «* 



If you were to relay a few more paragraphs, you would see that now only the title is 

underlined, as we wanted. 



58 



Guide to LocoScript 



Moreover, any editions you make to the title will also be underlined. Try this out by typing in 
Excel lent in front of the word Lawnmower. 

How LocoScript remembers your instructions 

tart ^iT™* d ° n \ iS '° PU ' l "° SPedaI ° harac,ers too our doc ™<- ™ese 'codes' 

Q :r ::*r on ,he screen Md ,hey don '* 9et i-*-.*-**— i"**..**. 

™ d^e«r ed f ° r """' °' ^ W ° rd Pr ° CeSSm9 "*"" « hat ^° S ^ — ou, 
We can show the codes on the screen through one of the options given in the Show menu. 



Show state of: 



«iiers 
Blanks 
Spaces 
Effectors 



This works just like the Emphasis menu. Anything we want to show 
the state of, we select by moving the cursor to the right line in the 
menu and pressing the Q key. In this case, we want the Codes 
option: so with the cursor over Codes , press the \T} key 



is 



You can tell that the option has now been selected because there 
now a / beside it in the menu. Return to editing by pressing the 
Enter key. 



The screen has now changed to: 



-t * '■ T / !4 _^ 

WJDFor Sale: Umrnm**^* 
f 



c?{i d ^%W ith lfl " f q it n 1 pn M l ™ *"*" * f » f n tvr U ,i in. Hl 

feToierhJu? ? COnditiOT ' and "" reCCTtlg 9iven * »™« »«i 
i> 

Price £7S^ 

Please contact Chris on Realnsfonl 778311.1' 



Guide to LocoScript 



59 



and the codes we added are now visible. 

The codes may seem to be a number of characters but to LocoScript each code is only one 
character and only one stroke of a Delete key is needed to remove the whole code from the 

text. 

To see this, move the cursor to the start of (+UL) and press [del*]. You will see the whole of 
this code disappear. 

To see what effect this has had on your text, relay a few paragraphs. 

" f ' 

For Sale; Lawnnowert-UL)*' 

(> 

Petrol driven four stroke lawiwower with power drive. Cylinder type 

with 14" cut and large grassbox.C 

Mould suit person with large garden, Selling because of nove to a small 
city centre flat.^ 

<» 
(j 

Ihe Hower is in good condition, and was recently given a service and 

thorough overhaul.*' 

f 

ifrice E7S* 

Please contact Chris on Realasford 7763*1.^ 



All the underlining has now gone. There is still the 'Cancel underline' code in the text but, with 
no previous 'Set underline' code, it is ignored. For practice, try using the Emphasis menu to 
put the 'Set underline' code back- 



Other effects 

We suggest you now try out some of the other features of the Emphasis menu. 

The actions needed to use these are identical. 



Enphasis codes: 



- Bold 

-. Double 

- Reverse Video 



To set one or more feature(s) for a particular piece of the text, 
move the cursor to the first character of that text and press Qft.H- 
Then set and clear features within the menu until you have the 
combination you require, and press [enter] to take you back to 

working on the document. 



60 



Guide to LocoScript 



To 'turn off the feature(s) move the cursor to the character after the last one you want to be 
affected by the feature(s) and press \_ fs ). Then clear and set features within the menu until 
you have the combination you want for the next section of the text, and press f enter 1 as 
before. 

Use the Show Codes option to display the codes you have set into the text. 

We suggest you spend some time experimenting with these codes, seeing what effects they 
have both on the screen and when you print the document out. 

You will notice that the screen doesn't change when you relay the document after setting bold 
or double strike: these features only affect how the document looks when it is printed. 

You will also notice that, when you set Reverse Video, this shows up on the screen but is not 

printed out. You could use this effect in, for example, a letter that you want to send to a 
number of different people. You would use Reverse Video to highlight the parts of the letter 
you must remember to change when you prepare the version for the next person on your list. 



A bit of Style 

There are a couple of effects you might also like to explore at this stage in the Style menu. You 
access these by pressing j u | (ie. | shift | + [ fe _j ). 

Italic works exactly like Bold and Double-strike. 



Character style: 


flffllWOTffll^ 


- Italic 


- Pitch 12 



Selecting Half Height offers you a choice of either Superscript 
(raised) characters or Subscript (lowered) characters. You can only 
have one of these options at a time. 

None of these options affect how the characters appear on the 
screen but they do affect how characters appear when the 

document is printed out. 

Using all these effects together, you should be able to produce some very attractive versions 
of the advertisement, 



Guide to LocoScript 61 



- Stage 2 



Using the simpler editing 
keys 



To start with, we have been editing very much the hard way - moving the cursor to the right 
point in the text, pressing the Delete keys to erase characters we no longer want and typing in 
additional characters. The only other editing function we have used is RELAY, which relays 
the text in the paragraph you have been working on. 

To illustrate some more of LocoScript's editing facilities, we will start again from the disc 
manager screen but this time work with the sample text, TEXT. EG. This is one of the second 
group of files on your disc. If you are not sure how to bring this file onto your screen, turn 
back briefly to 'How to move about the screen' in Section 3.4. 

Press E to start editing TEXT.EG and then | enter 1 when you have checked that the document 
named in the Edit menu is the right one. Your screen should look like this: 



■EBjKTCTWl 



ijASIC was originally designed many years ago as a programming language 
that was simple to learn, to aid teaching, Ihere are now many versions 
of BASIC, developed fro* this original to run on modern microcomputers. 
Mallard BASIC is a powerful modern BASIC in a variety of versions, with 
•any significant improvements, including the very unusual ability to 
access information stored on discs by using 'keys' ,f 

Io contrast with that, LocoScript is a word processor which is designed 
to require little if any knowledge to use, fiord processors too cone in 
many different varieties nowadays. LocoScript is unusual in that it 
combines powerful formatting capabilities with its what you see is what 
you jet approach. Unlike some word processors, whenever you tell 
LocoScript how you want something layed out, it remembers. If you later 
change your text, you don't have to tell LocoScript again,*' 

You can begin to use BASIC very quickly, as a sophisticated calculator, 

but wore importantly, once you have learned how, you can use it to use 

and write BASIC programs ,t> 

f 

Programs can perform an infinite range of tasks, from simple things such 

as totalling sequences of figures, to complex jobs such as maintaining a 

personnel file, calculating payrolls or performing statistical analyses. ♦* 

f 

¥ou can use BASIC programs written by others (there is a very wide 

variety available), or use your own, once you have learned how to 

program,*' 

¥ 

BASIC is very versatile and can be used to perform most tasks that 

You will notice that the text is laid out perfectly within your current margins. This is something 
that LocoScript does automatically for you. 



*- Guide to LocoScript 63 



The Textual Movement Keys 

The first keys to learn aboutare the PCW8256's Textual Movement Keys: [cSm], [won], [Tm^], 

[ion, [para]- ip*q e 1 and r?p. c J 

^rnoves the cursor through your document character by character. When you try to use the 
Char key to move beyond the end of one of your lines of text, the cursor automatically 

moves to the first character of the next line. 



[word] ( [shJft] + [char] ) .„ ,, 

moves the cursor through your document word by word, the new cursor position being the 
fust character of the next word. If you try to use the Word key to move beyond the end of 
one of your text lines, the cursor automatically moves to the first character of the first word 
on the next line. 

[Tine] ( [shift] t-QEoT| ) 

moves the cursor to the first character of the next line. 

^when first pressed, moves the cursor to the end of the present line. If it is pressed again, 
the cursor moves to the end of the next line. 



the cursor to the beginning of the next paragraph. 



moves 



'^rnoves the cursor to the fust character on the next page. If your document is less than a 
page long, then this will take you to the end of the document. 

fgoc] ( [shift]-* [ page] ) 

moves the cursor to the end of the document. 

To get the above keys to work backwards rather than forwards through your document, you 
just hold down [uT\ at the same time as you press the key combination you would use to 

move forward. Thus: 

[alt^+Jchar] 

moves the cursor back through the document, character by character. 

rTLfl+fwoRDl (ie. LiTFJ r HJFll +" [Hl*^ > , 

moves the cursor back through the document, word by word, the cursor always being 

positioned on the first letter of the word, 
and so on. 



64 



Guide to LocoScript 



The best way to become used to the way these keys work is to use them and so we suggest 
you spend some time doing this. 

While you are doing this, also explore the effect of holding down [shift] and/or r~ALT~j while 
pressing the cursor keys. With [shift | the movements are in very much greater steps; with 
L-Alt - ] it is the screen that moves, rather than the cursor. 

Textual movement and editing 

We have already seen that when we edit a document, the text frequently becomes wrongly 
laid out on the screen and how we could correct this by pressing [relay] . 

We will now see how a document can be re-laid simply by moving around it. 

To get a suitable area of text, move the cursor to the first letter of LocoScri pt on the first line 
of the second paragraph and type in Locomotive Software's 

To contrast with that, Locomotive Software's! 

*„ ~.. 1*1. , LocoScript is a word processor which is designed 
«„ r T*JS i 1 * 11 * lt ^ towledse to use. fiord processors too erne in 
many different varieties nowadays. LocoScript is unusual in that it 
combines powerful formatting capabilities with its what you see is what 
sou get. approach. Unlike some.word processors, whenever sou tell 
LocoScript hpw you want something layed out, it remembers. If sou later 
change your text, you don't have to Cell LocoScript again.*' 

The first thing to try is moving the cursor up and down, left and right between the two parts of 
the paragraph using the four cursor keys. Try this - the text remains unchanged. 

With the cursor in the first part of the paragraph, now start moving it forward through the text 
using the Char key. Watch carefully what happens as the cursor moves into the area of the 
break. 

To contrast with that, Locomotive SoftwareMs 

LocoScript is a word processor which is designed 

To contrast with that, Locomotive Software'0 

LocoScript is a word processor which is designed 

To contrast with that, Locomotive Software's! 

LocoScript is a word processor which is designed 

To contrast with that, Locomotive Software's | 

LocoScript is a word processor which is designed 

To contrast with that, Locomotive Software's L| 

ocoScript is a word processor which is designed 
To contrast with that, Locomotive Software's Lo| 

coScript is a word processor which is designed 



Guide to LocoScript 65 



Wha, is happening is .ha. LocoScrip. is relaying the paragraph, character by character as you 
press the Char key. 

Trv this again with the Word key. This time, the change we will make to the document is to put 
^rSrU: you will remember how the underlining didn't appear before until you 
pressed the Relay key. 

Call up the Emphasis menu from somewhere within your text and select Underlining by 
pressing the (1] key. That done, press [emm ] to leave the menu; then press [word]. 



liBflTCiEHE f4=Style 



[Enphasis codes: 



* Underline 



FgMIM.IJIiHWM 



erline 



-; Bold 

- Double 

- ReUerse Uideo 



fS=Lines f6=Pages f7=«odes fWl ocks EXIT 

n BASIC in a'variets of" versions, with 
eluding the very unusual ability to 
. by using 'keys'. f 

Software's LocoScript .. = _„, 

is a word processor which is designed 

e to use. Hord processors too com in 

, LocoScript is unusual in that it 

bilities with its what you see, is what 



rd'processors, whenever you tell 

"""- ' litjrfl out, it reverters. If you later 

text, you don't have to tell LocoScript again,^ 



fl=Show f2~Layout 

ttaiiard BAS 

nana signif 
access into 

To contrast 

to require 

wny differ 

coMines po 

you jet app 

LocoScript 

change your 

I. contrast .it!, that, Uc«.ti« tfmg #££&&* is desisnod 
I. contrast .ith that, Uc.ti.e Wl«^i Ujtartl^y,, ^^ 

I. contrast lit. that, Ucctive *^™£*j&l designed 

!, contrast .ith that, tartH M tan 'i Uc.Scr j^MJJ^ 

I« contrast with that, Loconotioe SofUaro's LocoScript iiAJUCL 
emtaijt 3 »ch '5 designed 

You wiU now see each word you move the cursor over is now underlined. Tins is because 
LocoScript is relaying the paragraph word by word. 

You can see LocoScript carry out a similar relaying action by moving the cursor into a later 
p^ ^rsame paragraph (part that has ye, to be underlined, whh **f°^™^ 
and then typing something in at the keyboard. The paragraph wul also get relatd d you use 
cursor keys to move the cursor into the next paragraph. 

In short all paragraphs above the current cursor position are always correctly laid out, but if 
you use the Textual Movement Keys or type in some new text, LocoScnpt wul au.omattca.ly 
relay everything up to the cursor. 

And when you save your document on disc, LocoScnpt will always ensure that it is properly 
laid out - just as if you pressed (jiqcT) first. 

~ ~ ~" " ^~~~ Guide to LocoScript 



66 



Deleting sections of text 

As you prepare a document, you will often want to delete everything from a short phrase to 
whole paragraphs. LocoScript provides you with a neat way of doing this called cut. 

In all cases, the first thing you have to fix is where you want the cut to start. You have to be 
careful here because this point can't readily be changed. If you get it wrong, you can either 
cancel the cutting process or go back and change the text after the cut to correct for your 
error. 

Move the cursor to the start of the section you want to remove and press [cur~\ 

Now move the cursor to the character immediately after the section you want to remove. Use 
the appropriate textual movement keys - [char], [word], [para] etc. You will see LocoScript 
marking out the text, showing you what you are proposing to cut. If you overshoot, don't 
worry: as you move the cursor back, you will see the highlighted area shrink back to the 

cursor. 



action: select area press CUT to renove Permanently C 



...T...T...T...T...? ' > . . 7 y^ W"? 

ASIC was originally designed many years ago as a programing langua ge 
IM 1 . Ms simple to learn, to aid teachim - j — — 



utatwas simple to l earn, to aid teachi ng. MiU4*.lJJil.l'l.Mil' gfJmttr 

Rallard BASIC is a power f u 1 modern BASIC in a var i e ( g of ver s 1 ons , Vm 
many significant improvements, including the very unusual ability to 
access information stored on discs by using 'keys'. ¥ 

If you move the cursor back past the point you have marked as the beginning of the cut, the 
highlighting will still extend between this point and the current position of the cursor. Such a 
section will still be removed by the following steps of this cutting procedure. 

When the cursor is correctly positioned at the end of the section to be removed, press ["cup 
again. The highlighted text will be removed from the document and the screen should now 
look like this: 

™SK was originally designed many years ago as "a programming" language " 
that was simple to learn, to aid teaching. | 

Mallard BASIC is a powerful modern BASIC in a variety of versions, with 
many significant improvements, including the very unusual ability to 
access information stored on discs by using 'keys'. i> 

Don't worry that this has left some odd length lines. LocoScript will relay the paragraph either 
as you use the textual movement keys or when you type in new material anywhere further 

down the document. 



Guide to LocoScript 02 



Finding a particular point in the text 

LocoScript also offers a particularly powerful form of textual movement through the [find] 
key. 

When you press this key, LocoScript will prompt you for a short piece of text (not more than 
30 characters) to find in the document. Type in the part of the text you want LocoScript to find 
starting with the character you want the cursor to be left on. A few words will probably do. If 
your chosen piece contains any special characters such as _ you should include these. 

If you make any mistakes in typing in this piece of text, move the cursor back over what you 
have typed and make whatever corrections are required. You do not have to delete 
characters back to where you made the mistake and type the remaining text from there. You 
can also use the H key to clear from the cursor position to the end of the line. 

When you have this 'find text' right, press |W_R 1- LocoScript then searches forward through 
the document, trying to match the find text against part of the document. If the text is found, 
the cursor is left on the first character of the phrase. If LocoScript doesn't find the text, it 
leaves the cursor at the end of the document. 

If you use the FIND function again or if you have already used EXCHANGE (see page 71), 
LocoScript offers you the most recent 'find text'. If you want to use this text again, just press 
UntIr]. If not, you can either edit it or type in a completely new find text. Clear the old find 
text by pressing the [^ key. 

Incidentally, the [rnpJ key also provides you with a particularly quick and simple way of 
moving the cursor to the right places for marking the ends of a section of text you want to 

remove, 

Suppose, for example, that you have moved the cursor to the start of the cut and pressed 
[aJjJ. You now want to mark the end of the cut which you have decided should be just in 
front of the word 'computer'. What you do is press f find] and then type: 

computer [Inter | 

The highlighted area will extend up to the start of the word 'computer'. If you now press fcyjl 
again, everything up to the beginning of 'computer' will be removed. 

This method also provides a neat way of deleting the tail part of the current sentence, starting 
at the current position of the cursor. You just press: [Tuf] (to start the cut), |W] (to start the 
search), . (to tell LocoScript to search for a full stop), [enteT] (to confirm the search) and 
finally [cyT] (to carry out the deletion). 

The text you have just deleted is gone forever. 



68 Guide to LocoScript 



Moving a section of text 



LocoScript can also help you move part of the text from where it is at the moment to some new 
position in your document. 

This time you will use the [ copy ] and [paste] keys, as well as the |"cut~1 key. 

Select some suitable few lines of the document on your screen to move. 

The procedure is as follows: 

Move the cursor to the beginning of the section you want to move (once again, check that you 
get this right - you can't change your mind, except by pressing | can | and starting all over 
again) and then press [copy]. 

BASIC was originally designed many gears ago as a program ing language 




stored on discs by using 'kegs'. V 



Now move the cursor to the end of the section you have chosen. As before, this marks out a 
piece of text and if you overshoot, you can just move the cursor back to the right position. 

Now press | cut | , followed by 0. The highlighted text disappears from the screen but, this 
time, it is remembered. 

BASIC was original 1m designed many gears ago as a programing language 
that nas simple to learn, to aid teaching ,| 
, with nang significant 

improvements, including the very unusual ahilitg to access information 
stored on discs by using 'kegs' ,f 

Then move the cursor to the place you want this text to move to. 

Press | paste | , followed by 0, and the text is inserted in this new position. 

BASIC was originally designed many gears ago as a programming language 
that was simple to learn, to aid teaching. . with many significant 
improvements, including the very unusual ahilitg to access information 
stored on discs bg using 'kegs '.Ha Hard BASIC is a powerful modern BASIC 
in a variety of versionsS 

You can paste this text in again and again wherever you like. 

However, we do recommend some degree of care in both choosing the text to move and 
where to paste it in. To see why, use exactly the same procedure again but this time move a 
section of text that finishes within some underlining. Move it anywhere you like and then 
press either [page] or [ doc - ] to relay the whole page. 



Guide to LocoScript $9 



You could well have got an effect like this: 

Before 

To contrast with that, J,ocMpttve Sgftwe:s LocoScriyt is 4 wwd 

processor which is designed to require little if any knowledge to use. 
Hord processors too ewe in aany different varieties nowadays. 
LocoScript is unusual in that it combines powerful formatting 
capabilities with its what you see is what you get approach. Unlike 
soae word processors, whenever you tell LocoQcript how you want 
something layed out. it remembers. If you later change your text, you 
don't have to tell LocoScript again ,«> 
i) 

Vou can begin to use BASIC very quickly, as a sophisticated calculator, 
but more iwortantly, once you have learned how, you can use it to use 
and write BASIC programs, ^ 

After 




is what you get approach imnxe some worn pTocMsurs. ■iic«cy« . 
tell UntiAtive Loco Script how not i MPt S ffieth i pg ftH j jd QUt. f t 
rfPth ^r iruou btpr fthanw uour text, mqu don't h ave to tell 
LacoScriPt aoain.f 

L m heain to use MSIC ueru ffuicklu. as a SQPlm tJMtfd M}C|lUtgr. 
{!{ p""f i BcorpnHOnt^TTQu have Earned how, you can use UJauistL. 
jijrf miUMK Programs ,f 

The point is that the text is now laid out according to whatever word processing features are 
active at its new position. Moreover, if there are any word processing codes embedded in the 
text you move, it can change how the text that is 'left behind' is laid out as well. 

If you are not sure why the move had the effect it had - use the Show menu ( |~f i f) to display 
all the word processing codes in their current positions. 

Be prepared to insert whatever extra word processing codes are required to sort this out. 

Copying a section of text 

You can also use LocoScript to put an identical copy of part of the text in some new position in 
your document. The procedure for this is very like the Cut and Paste we did above; the 
difference is that this time we don't erase the piece of text we copy. 

Select some suitable few lines of the document on your screen to duplicate. 

The procedure is as follows: 

As before, move the cursor to the beginning of the section you want to duplicate and then 
press [copy J. 



20 Guide to LocoScript 



Now move the cursor to the end of the section you have chosen and press [copy], followed by 
0. This time the highlighting disappears but the text stays there. 

Then move the cursor to the place you want the copy of the text to be. 

Now press [paste], followed by 0, and the text will be inserted at this new position. 

You can paste this text in as many times as you wish, just like you could with the text you 

moved earlier. 

Again, check that it is laid out the way you wanted it and you haven't caused any major 
changes to the text already there, and be prepared to put some more word processing codes 
in to get it right. 

You may well have noticed that LocoScript has been offering you a choice of numbers 
between and 9 at the top of the screen, while we have been setting up the text to move 
or copy. We explain why in Stage Z. 

Exchanging one piece of text for another 

So far, we have seen how to use LocoScript to delete a piece of text, to move it from one place 
in the document to another, and to produce a duplicate piece of text. Another option is to 
remove a phrase of old text and replace it with something new all in one action, possibly many 
times. This is done through another LocoScript function, EXCHANGE, 

When you press the | exch | key, a menu appears on the screen with slots for the phrase you 
want to remove (up to 30 characters long) and for the phrase you want to replace it by (also up 
to 30 characters long). This menu also covers the various options for the exchange - 
confirming each exchange before it happens or automatically changing every example of the 
old text within a specified section of the document (the current paragraph, the current page 
or the whole document). 

Type in the the phrase you want to remove (the 'find text'); then move the cursor down to the 
next line and type in the phrase you want to replace it by (the 'exchange text')- If these 
phrases contain any special characters such as __ , you should include these. 

If you make any mistakes in typing in this text, move the cursor back over what you have 
typed and make whatever corrections are required. You do not have to delete characters 
back to where you made the mistake and type in the remaining text from there. You can also 
use the H key to clear from the cursor position to the end of the line. 



Guide to LocoScript 71 



Now move down to the options part of the menu. Which option to select depends on whether: 

- you want to confirm each exchange before this is made 

- or you want LocoScript to go ahead and change every example in the rest of the current 
paragraph, the rest of the current page or the rest of the document. 

'Confirm each exchange" is already selected for you, so if this is what you require, press 
[enter]. If you want one of the other options, move the menu cursor to the one you require (the 
/moves with the cursor) and then press [enter j. Alternatively, you can simply press the [para], 
the [ page] or the | doc~| key. LocoScript will then proceed to search through the specified 
section of your document and make the exchange at each instance of the find text. 

If you opt to confirm each exchange, LocoScript will put the cursor at the beginning of the first 
instance it finds of the find text and then wait for you to press a key. Press the [L key to make 
the exchange; press the [3) key to carry on to the next example. 

If you want to cancel a multiple exchange part way through, just press | canJ. 

If you use the EXCHANGE function again or if you have already used FIND, the menu will 
come up on the screen with the most recent find and exchange texts already it in. If you want 
to use these again, just select the type of exchange you want and press [enter ] (or just press 
[para I, [page "| or I ' doc] ). If not, you can either edit the texts or type in completely new texts. 
Clear either of the old texts by pressing the [~ key with the menu cursor on that line. 



Postscript 

The operations we have covered here represent just a glimpse at some of the ways 
LocoScript can manipulate the text within your document. We look more closely at these in 

Stage 7. 



72 Guide to LocoScript 



Stage 3 



Setting out text 



The earlier sections of this User Guide have handled paragraphs of plain text, simply 
arranged on the page between margins that had already been set up. What we explore here 
are the facilities LocoScript has for handling tables and for laying out text precisely as you 
want it. 

The key to most of these facilities is the combination of ruler and typestyle information that 
LocoScript knows as a Layout, and the options offered through the Layout menu. To show you 
how these work, we will edit another of the sample documents on your disc - QUOTE.EG. 

If you are not sure how to bring this file onto your screen, turn back briefly to 'How to move 
about the screen' in Section 3.4. 

Press E to start editing QUOTE.EG and then | enter) when you have checked that the 

document named in the Edit menu is the right one. Your screen should look like this: 

f 
f 

This potation is for the supply of technical services and equipment and 
is valid for 3* days. It is also subject to the following restrictions 
and (warranties. «> 
<J 

The company will not be liable for any delay caused by conditions out of 
its direct control, nor will it accept liability for the failure of any 
equipment except that directly attributable to the negligence of its 
employees, <* 

The company warrants that the equipment is suitable for specific 

workloads, and will hold the hirer responsible for any damage caused by 

overloading.^ 

f 

.» Hire of sanding machine, S days-> £10.30 per day-> £Si.50-> LHR/BSf 

-» Hire of carpentry shop-* £300.00-> £3W.00-> CS/85* 1 

-> Consultancy, 7 hours £35.00 per hr-> £175.50-* TVV/GS^ 

Me would wish to point out that the plans for the Gazebo you have 
submitted to us are Modified fro* the structural design we provided last 
year. We therefore decline to quote for the further work in that area.* 1 



This is the text of a quotation for a job, which we want to make as professional in appearance 

as possible. 



Guide to LocoScript 73 



Indenting text 

The second and third paragraphs are specific points you want to raise with your customer, so 
it might be an idea to label them 1 and 2. To make them stand out even more, we shall lay 
them out again further in from the margin. 

What we suggest doing is putting 1) and 2) at the left margin but starling the paragraphs 
themselves at the first Tab Stop. (You will remember that a Tab Stop (-) marks the position the 
cursor jumps to when you press the | ta b~| key.) 

Move the cursor to the beginning of the first line of the second paragraph. Once there, just 
type 1 ) to put the label in and then press the Tab key to make the first word start at the Tab 
Stop. You will see the Tab symbol - appear where you pressed the Tab key. 

To see what effect this has had on the paragraph, press [para]. v 

f 

i ^ 

This quotation is for the supply of technical services and equipment and 

is valid for 3* days, It is also subject to the following restrictions < 

and warranties. <* 

1U The company will not be liable for any delay caused by conditions v 

out of its direct control, nor will it accept liability for the failure . 

of any equipment except that directly attributable to the negligence of C^ 
its employees, ^ 

Ifre company warrants that the equipment is suitable for specific v 

workloads, and will hold the hirer responsible for any damage caused by . 

overloading,*' C^^ 

4 Hire of sanding machine, S days-, £lf .» per day-> £51. SI* UJJ/8S* -^ 

* Hire of carpentry shop 4 £W. »-» E3W.W-, CS/8S* 

4 Consultancy, 7 hours £2S.W per hr-» E17S.W-* TVV/65^ ^ 

We would wish to point out that the plans for the Gazebo you have 

submitted to us are modified fron the structural design we provided last ^^ 

year, He therefore decline to quote for the further work in that area.f v 



While it looks quite good with the first line indented in this way, it is not the best we can do. 

What we would like is the whole paragraph indented. 

To do that, we want - not a simple Tab on the first line - but what is called an Indent Tab. 

Go back to the start of that paragraph and position the cursor over the -. Now press |_del*>J to 
erase the old tab and then press | alt ~|+[ tab J to put in an Indent Tab on its place. You will 
notice that you now have a new character on the screen -. This is the Indent Tab symbol 

Next press [para] again to show you what effect this change has had. Your screen should now 
look like this: 



74 Guide to LocoScript 



? 

<> 

This quotation is for the supply of technical services and equipment and 

is valid for 3* days, It is also subject to the following restrictions 

and warranties. ♦> 

«j 

1)» The company will not be liable for any delay caused by conditions 
out of its direct control, nor will it accept liability for the 
failure of any equipment except that directly attributable to the 
negligence of its enployees.^ 

fj 

Hie cowans warrants that the equipment is suitable for specific 

workloads, and will hold the hirer responsible for any damage caused by 

overloading.^ 

-» Hire of sanding machine, S days* £tt.» per day* £Sl.j»-> Uffl/8^ 
+ Hire of carpentry shop* £3W.M-* £3W.«-» CS/Wf 

J Consultancy! 7 hiurs £25 .W per hr-> n?S.»-> TYY/6S* 

If it doesn't, check that the symbol you have after the 1 ) is a - and not a - ie. that you 

successfully swopped the simple tab for the Indent tab. 

The paragraph is now exactly as if you had put a single Tab at the beginning of each line. 

We would also like to have a similar layout for the next paragraph. We won't, for the moment, 
worry about the 2) that is to start it. First we want to see if the effect of the indent tab we put in 
at the beginning of the last paragraph carries on to this one; so press | paha | again. 

The answer, as you see, is 'No' because the Indent tab is cancelled by the carriage return at 
the end of the paragraph, So if you want to indent a series of short paragraphs in this way, you 
should insert an Indent tab at the beginning of each of them. 

A paragraph doesn't have to be indented a single Tab: if you wish, you can arrange that the 
Indent Tab gives you more than one tab at the beginning of each line. All you need to do is to 
press the [ tab ] key the appropriate number of times, holding down the | "alt ] key as well for 
at least the last one. 



Tables 

Having tidied up that section of the quotation as much as we want, we now move down to the 
part of the letter where the costs of the individual components are itemised. What we need to 
do here is to add a new entry between the second and third lines because the cost of hiring a 
paint sprayer was missed out of the original quotation. 

Move the cursor to the beginning of the third line and press [return] to make room for the new 
line: then move the cursor back up to this new line. 



Guide to LocoScript 75 



- \J 

The first thing to type is Hi re of pai nt sprayer . Then we need to move across to the next ^J 

column to put in what the hire charge is. Press the Tab key once: you will see that the cursor is '- I 

now directly below the decimal point that divides pounds from pence in the line above. — -i 

caused by over loading.*' <~~ ** 

J Hire of sanditiQ machine, S days-* EW.JJ per da«^ Ml.gj WR/8W _J 

I Hire of carpentry shop-> Em Mi tJW t w-» wnw ,. 

J JJS.l'taS^'GSf * Hrt» >« "* U7I.II, WW -J 

-I 

Looking up to the ruler line, you will notice that the symbol the ruler cursor is on is • ^J 

- reversed out because the cursor is over it. This is a Decimal Tab - a special form of Tab ^ 

that allows you to line up the decimal points in a column of numbers. _J 

The amount we want to type in here is £19.50 per day . Type this in quite slowly, watching _J 

what happens. The 1 first goes in just before the cursor and then is shuffled left as you type in ' I 

the 9 . But when you type the decimal point, LocoScript immediately goes back to normal and y-i 

puts in the remaining characters under the cursor as usual. _^ 



76 



Guide to LocoScript -^ 



caused Jt»y overloading.* 1 

4 Hire of sanding machine, S days4 £i0.30 per day4 £51.504 LHR/8W 

4 Hire of carpentry sho P 4 £300.004 £300.004 CS/8S* 

4 Hire of paint sprayer-) £3 

4 Consultancy, 7 hours £25.00 per hr-> £17S.S04 TYY/SSv 

f 



caused by overloading.** 

4 Hire of sanding nachine, 5 days-t £10.30 per day-) £51,504 LMR/85^ 
in 



* Hire of carpentry shc?4 £300,004 £340.0*4 CS/8S^ 

Hire of paint sprayer.* £15 

Consultancy, 7 hours £25.00 per hr* E17S.504 TYY/65^ 



caused by overloading.*' 
f 

4 Hire of sanding machine, S days-> £10.30 per day-> £Sl.Sfc» Uffl/8S*> 
ill 



4 Hire of carpentry shop-» £300.004 £300.004 CS/8SV 

Hire of paint sprayer-) £195 

Consultancy, 7 hours £25. 00 per hr-* £17S,504 TYY/6S*» 



caused by overloading,*' 
*> 

4 Hire of sanding machine, 5 days4 £10. 30 per day4 £51.504 MOMS* 1 

4 Hire of carpentry shop 4 £300.004 £300,004 CS/8W 

4 Hire of paint sprayer £18.5 

4 Consultancy, 7 hours £25. M per hr4 £175.504 IVY/65^ 

caused by overloading,*' 
f 

4 Hire of sanding aachine, S days4 £10.30 per day4 £51.504 LMR/85*' 
iti 



4 Hire of carpentry shop4 £300,004 £300. 004 CS/85V 

Hire of paint sprayer £13,55 

Consultancy, 7 hours £25.60 per hr4 £175.5*4 HY/SS*' 



caused oy overloading,** 

*"~ 4 Hire of sanding machine, S days4 £10.3* per day4 £51.504 LWV85*' 

^ 4 Hire of carpentry shop4 £300.004 £300.004 CS/85^ 

^— 4 Hire of paint sprayer £19.503 

4 Consultancy 7 hours £25.00 per hr4 £175. SO4 TYY/S5* 

*— The same thing will happen when you press [tab ] again, this time to move to the column of 

total costs. The amount to type in here is £39 . 00 . 



Guide to LocoScript 77 



The last thing to type in on this line is the relevant reference code, which is LWR/85. Once 
again, press the Tab key: you will see the cursor is now directly below the ^ of the previous 

line. 

Looking up to the ruler line, you will see that the ruler cursor is now over a - symbol. This is 
another special form of Tab, called a Right Tab, which allows you to line up the right hand 
edge of a column. 

Now type in LWR/85 , again quite slowly so that you can watch what happens. You will see the 
L appear first immediately to the left of the cursor and then get successively shuffled left as 
you type in the rest of the characters. 

There is, in addition, a fourth sort of Tab called a Centre Tab, which ensures that everything 
you type in at that point is centred around the Tab point. This is represented on your ruler line 

bya M 

Changing the Tab settings 

The next job is to add the line at the bottom of this list that gives the total. We also want to put 
the word Total in to the left of the total figure - under the column of unit costs would do 
nicely. 

To achieve this, we need to change the ruler line we have been working with 
slightly - removing the first decimal tab and putting in an ordinary tab in approximately the 
same position. That means changing the layout you are working with: the ruler line with its 
margins and tab stops is just part of a layout. 

LocoScript works with a number of layouts, only one of which is active at any one place in 
your document - the Current Layout. 

To change the ruler you are working with, you can either change the current layout - but that 
will affect all the text that has been laid out using that layout - or switch to using a different 
layout. This can be either a 'brand new' layout or one that you have set up before. 

For now, we will create a new layout but, in future, you would be well advised to set up a few 

'standard' layouts and work with these in a systematic way. 

Although LocoScript can handle up to 99 layouts per document, it is normally set for a 
maximum of 5. When all available layouts have been specified, the option 'brand New 
Layout' will no longer be offered. 

To create this new layout we need the Layout menu, which you will see from the top of your 

screen is called up by pressing function key f2. 

With the cursor at the beginning of the blank line above the next paragraph, press [ffej 

( fJHIFTl + r'ft I )" 



78 Guide to LocoScript ^-" 



i ftocuwent layout; j 

| j Insert layout jj 

|| Base layout i| 



Edit layout 



h 



Layout 



no 



From the menu that comes up on the screen, select brand New 
Layout . This tells LocoScript that you want to use a new layout 
because you don't want to alter the old one. So with the cursor on 
this line, press [enter]. This puts you into Layout Editing mode. 

If you watch the screen while you do this, you will see that the top 
area of the screen changes, giving you a new set of actions that can 
be obtained by pressing the function keys. There is no Ruler 

cursor; however, a new cursor has appeared. 



Pitch IS 




You will also see that the pattern of tab stops, etc. hasn't changed - even though you have 
asked to set up a brand new layout. This is because LocoScript gives you the old ruler settings 
as your starting point. This means that if, as in this case, you only want to make a small change, 
you don't have to set up the whole layout from scratch. 

What you want to do is to insert a simple tab stop three columns to the left of the first decimal 
tab, which you then delete because you don't need it any more. 

To do this, you need to press [_H] to move the cursor back down to the ruler line and then 
move it along the line to the place you want the new tab stop. Use the cursor keys in the usual 

way to do this. 

Then press PfeH to insert a simple tab. The new tab stop (-) is now inserted in the ruler line. 



Next, move the cursor a few places to the right to the decimal tab you want to delete. With the 
cursor over the decimal tab stop (.), press the [ J key. The . immediately disappe? 



jars. 



^ This done, you are ready to leave Layout Editing and go back to editing the quotation 

document - so press [ exTTJ. This puts you back into the document, precisely where you left it 

ta_ (ie. at the beginning of the paragraph after the table) though you will notice that LocoScript 

has put in an extra carriage return for you. 

Press [return] a couple of times to open up some space for the new line and then move the 
*~ cursor back to just below the table. 



*— Guide to LocoScript 



79 



" '""' ciused by overloading .^ 



m^fmtmvfizmms 



J Hire of sanding machine, S digs^ MJ.g P«r to Kl.Sfc UBrtSj 

.» Hire of carpentry sho P -» £MJ .«-> £ Aq K 1SS/8K 

J Hire of paint sprayer U9.5J P« {JJ* "|-*J LMK/8W 

-> Consultancy, ? hours £2S,« per Ium £175, W-» HVtw 

J 4 Total* £S66.W5 

Me *ould wish to point out that the plans for the Gazebo you have 

Now press [ jab] twice to get in the right position for typing Tota L and then again to put in 
£566.00. 

For a moment, look back at the ruler line and remember what it looks like. Now move the 
cursor slowly up the page and then down again. Notice the ruler line change. In particular, 
notice that the layout number on the middle information line changes. 

The point here is that when you finished editing the layout, LocoScript did two things. The first 
was to store the new layout and give it a number. Each layout has a number: and the number 
of the current layout that is displayed on the screen. 

The second thing LocoScript did was to put a mark in the document to tell it to change which 
layout it uses at that point. The old layout (ie. the one with the old ruler) is effective before the 
mark: the new layout after it. LocoScript also put in a carriage return so that you can start using 
the new ruler immediately; it is obviously impossible for LocoScript to use a different ruler 
until it goes on to a new line. 

Just as you could use the Show menu to get LocoScript to display the codes used to underline 
text or make it bold, so you can use the same menu to get LocoScript to display where it 
changes to a different layout. In fact you can do this in two ways. 

The first is, once again, to select the Codes option from the SHOW menu: this displays where 
you changed your current layout, along with all the other word processing codes. 

The other is to select the Rulers option from the same menu. This gives you 'Ruler lines' in the 
middle of your document, identical in style to the one at the top of the page. These show you 
the layout that will be effective below that point in the document. 



80 



Guide to LocoScript ^m 



I "*....? \ *. 5 • . 4 • k I 

C ** 

This quotation is for the supply of technical services and equipment and 
is valid for 3« days, It is also subject to the following restrictions 
and warranties,^ 
¥ 

lh The cwany will not be liable for any delay caused by conditions 
I out of its direct control, nor will it accept liability for the 

failure of any wuipaent except that directly attributable to the 

negligence of its employees. f 1 

2)» The company warrants that the equipment is suitable for specific 
workloads, and will hold the hirer responsible for any damage 
caused by over loading.^ 

(J 

+ Hire of sanding machine, S days-* £«.» per da<M £S1.5*-» UOI/8S*' 
■» Hire of carpentry shop-) £3M.W-> £3W.W-» CS/8^ 



-> Hire of paint sprayer -> £13. 54 per day-> £39 !w.» Uffi/SSf 

-» Consultancy, 7 hours £25. W per hr+ £175. »-» TVV/6SC 



i i 2 , 3 



■L 



He would wish to point out that the plans for the Gazebo you have 
*— submitted to us are Modified fro* the structural design we provided last 

year, He therefore decline to quote for the further work in that area,«> 

^— If you like, you can always have these 'rulers' visible. You will certainly find this helpful when 

^_ you want to set out complicated documents. 

**- Changing the margins 

The couple of short paragraphs below the costing outline the supplier's position on further 
*— aspects of the job. What we want to do here to make these stand out is to lay them out 

between narrower margins. Again we need a new ruler line and hence a new layout: so once 
more, press [ k\ and select brand New Layout. 

As before, the ruler line you are given as your starting point is the one you have just been 
^— using. 

"""■" This time, all you are interested in is changing the margins so that you bring each of these in 

.^^ by five columns. You could delete the tabs on this ruler because you don't need them but 

there is no real point in this instance. We'll just change the margins. 
"— To change the position of the left margin, first press CZJ to move the cursor down to the 

^__ ruler line, then usej^.1 and Q]to move the cursor to the new left margin position you 

want. Now look up to the information lines to see which key to press to mark this position 
»— as the new left margin. You should see the message f 1 = Le f t Margin. So press 

I f1 J and the left margin will be moved to its new position. 

^^ Similarly, now move the cursor to the new position you want for the right margin. Looking up 

to the information lines, you should see f 2=Ri ght Margin - so press ( jT~\ fl shift] ■+ |_/ f |). 
^__ This moves the right margin to its new position. 



*— Guide to LocoScript 31 



When you have done this, press {mT\ to leave Layout Editing and return to the document. 

Back in the document, use the [p^rT] key to move down through the next five paragraphs. 
Notice how each paragraph gets laid out afresh behind the cursor as it moves. 



frnffliMaffljaMpamni^ 

— '-— ' out if its' direct* control," nar'iiU' it* accept ijjMj^kjf f pL fl 
failure of any equipment except that directly attributable to the 
negligence of its employees.** 

m The company warrants that the equipment is suitable for specific 
workloads, and will hold the hirer responsible for any damage 
caused by overloading.** 

' Hire of sandinj machine, S day* £W.3J per day+ £S1.S«4 LHjj/jjS*; 

+ Hire of carpentry shop* £ 2W'!1* a>„> nS'SSl iJffi/Ss* 

4 Hire of paint sprayer-* £ 9.W per da»H "9.W+ UR/8W 

+ Consultancg, 7 hours £25. « per hr-» E17i>-»-> utnw 



.,./,..+., .,;,... ? « t t ....v........r.i_ 

Total-* £566.0^ 

.f * ?..Lj.„...! 






4> 



He would wish to point out that the plans for the Gazebo 
uou have submitted to us are nodified fro* the structural 
design we provided last gear, He therefore decline to 
quote for the further work in that area.f 

However our technical services department would be nost 
interested in submitting new plans for the Gazebo, based 
on our Hark IV Summer House. f 
f 

For the next paragraph, you want the old margins back. Once again you will need the Layout 
menu but this time, instead of creating a new layout, you want to tell LocoScript to go back to 

the old layout. 

This is where Layout Numbers become important. Once you have defined a layout (as above), 
you can always tell LocoScript to go back to using that layout just by typing in the number of 

the layout in the Layout menu. 

So before we go into the Layout menu, we had better find out the layout number we want. 

If you look up at the information lines now, you will see the number of the layout you are 
currently using. But if you cursor back up to a part of the document where you were using the 
ruler you now want, you will see the layout number change to the value you want. Make a note 
of it. 

Now, cursor back to where you want to start using this layout again and press Q/7~] to bring 

up the Layout menu. 



82 



Guide to LocoScript 



! Docu«ent layout: 



Insert layout 



I Base layout 



Edit layout 



Current layout 
layout ?? 



This time move the menu cursor to Layout ?? within the submenu 
and type in the number you noted down. Then press [enter] 

If LocoScript recognises the layout number you have just typed in 
as one you have already used in the document, it will now return 
you to the text. If not (perhaps because you mistyped the number), 
you will be given a new layout with that number and identical 

settings to your present Current Layout. 

To see what effect this has on the current paragraph, press [ relay] 

If you are still displaying the rulers used in the document, you will see that you now have a 
'ruler line' inserted just before the cursor and that this has the same set of margins and tabs as 
the ruler you used higher up the text. This will apply all the way from immediately below this 
'ruler' to the end of the document, unless you put in another instruction to change the layout. 



Changing an existing layout 



We mentioned earlier that one of the options LocoScript offers you in the Layout menu is to 
edit an existing layout. This can be either your current layout or some other layout that you 
have set up. 

It doesn't matter whereabouts you are in the text when you call up the Layout menu to edit a 
layout - any changes you make will affect everywhere that layout is used. What is more, 
every piece of text affected which is before the current cursor position will be changed 

immediately you leave the Layout Editor. This takes a little time. 



Most layout editing is done through the Layout menu. The exception is editing what 
LocoScript knows as its Base Layout - the one that it has stored in the document's File Header. 
When you need to edit the Base Layout, you will have to edit the File Header (see Stage 10). 



Document layout: 



Insert layout 



brand New layout 
Layout ?? 

Base layout 



Edit layout 



■jra^SMiiiipB 



To edit one of the other layouts, call up the Layout menu ( I fo |) 
and then use the Down cursor to move the menu cursor down to the 
section of the menu entitled 'Edit Layout'. The menu cursor moves 
directly from the upper part of the menu to the options listed in the 
lower part. Either select current layout or move to the other line 
and enter the number of the layout you want to change. Pressing 
[ enter" ! puts you into the Layout Editor. 

The procedures involved in changing the layout here are exactly 
the same as they were for setting up a new layout. Move the Layout 
cursor to the position you want the new margin/tab and press one 
fe J to either move the margins or insert new tab 



of 



stops: press the fj key when the cursor is over the tab stop you 

want to remove to delete it. 



Guide to LocoScript 



83 



When you have finished editing the layout, press [jot] 

Whenever you decide to change a layout, you need to remember two tlungs: 

menu again and specifically select this layout as your new current layout. 



. Editing a layout affects the way your 



text is set out wherever that layout is used. 



Postscript 



or k 



This was just how LocoScnpt was initially set up. You can, if you like: 
. show anywhere there is no text by dots 
. show up typed spaces as blobs 
. stop showing carriage returns and tabs. 

! Blanks sham by spaces, Spaces shew by spaces,* 
!, + Effectors show by symbols* 




J.. ..*... ?.*.?.. 



Blanks show by dots, Spaces show by spaces, 
Effectors not sho»m 



Blanks.5hom.bs.spaces,.5paces.5hom.bs.s!»Jiol5 J 
Effectors. no t. shown 



: rx 




84 



Guide to LocoScnpt ^«^ 



You can do any of these by calling up the Show menu ( f ti 1 )- Carriage returns and tabs are 
given the general heading Effectors 



Show state of: 



liners 
Blanks 
Spaces 
Effectors 



Anything you set by pressing the Ql key will have a / next to it: to 
clear anything, press the £ key. When you have the combination 
you require, press | enter ( : the new settings will have immediate 
effect. 

These settings will stay in force as long as you wish. They are 
stored alongside the text when you finish editing the document, 
and so come back into play when next you edit that document. 



»»— Guide to LocoScript 



85 



Stage 4 

Refining the appearance of 
the text 



The appearance of a piece of text doesn't have to rely on just the margins and tabs that are 
set. 

A word processor can do rather better than a typewriter in this respect: it gives you, for 
example, the option of using characters of different widths in different parts of the text and of 
making either the right or the left edge of the text beautifully aligned or ragged as you wish. 

You can also centre each line of the text. Another choice you can make is between no 
hyphenation at the end of lines or hyphenation according to the rules you make. 

All these choices are very easy to implement. 

This chapter will show you how to ask LocoScript for the various options and what sort of 
results you can expect. There is a suitable sample piece of text to work with in the file 
LAYOUT.EG on the LocoScript disc. 

After you press E (followed by [Inter] ) to start editing LAYOUT.EG, your screen should look 
like this: 



he care and feeding of your discs* 1 

ft 

This is a serious discussion of the finer points of discaanship by H J 
Fisher. It should be read carefully. *< 

Treat discs carefully and they will last you a long tine. If you 
foolishly pour coffee over then they won't! 3" discs com in a rigid 
ease which gives the* added protection.** 




Centring text 

You will often want to make a piece of text Centred - that is, with each line placed centrally 
between the right and left margins. This can be used for whole blocks of text but is most 

frequently applied to headings. 

The menu we need is Lines, which you see from the information lines at the top of your screen 

is entered by pressing | fs ] . 



Guide to LocoScript 87 



The document we have on the screen starts with a heading. So we shall centre that. 
With the cursor on the first character of this heading, press \ IT J to see the Lines menu. 



Line layout! 



WS 



insert soft space 
insert hard space 
insert soft hyphen 
insert hard hyphen 



The option you want to select is Centre Line , which you do by 
pressing [enter] while the cursor is on this option. You are then 

returned to the document. 



i Line Spacing 
i! Line Pitch 



09 



You will see that the heading is now nicely centred. 




\e care and feeding of your 'discs* 



This is a serious discussion of the finer points of discwnship by H J 
Fisher. It should be read carefully. V 

Now type [para] again. You might well expect this paragraph to have been centred as well but 
you will see that this is not the case. What has happened is that the Centrmg instruction has 
been cancelled at the end of the line with the code in it. 

If you want a whole paragraph to be centred, you will have to move the cursor to the first 
character of each line and put in a Centring instruction. 

Justification 

If you wish to justify the whole document (or parts of it), you will need to alter the 
'Document layout'. This is explained in the next section. Briefly, however, you may carry out 
full justification as follows. Position the cursor at the_ start of the text to be justified. Now 
press [shjft] together with [fe^T] followed by [enterJ . The menu cursor must then be 
moved to the word J u s t i f y , and the [7] key (next to the space bar) be pressed. 
Finally, press [exit] to continue where you left off. 



Right Justification 



Unlike full justification, 



Line layout: 



Centre line 



insert soft space 
insert hard space 
insert soft hyphen 
insert hard hyphen 



Line Spacing 
Line Pitch 



99 




Right justification makes the right hand edge of the text straight but 
leaves the left hand edge ragged. To carry out Right 
justification, position the cursor at the start of the text to be 
justified and then press [ ts J to bring the Lines menu onto 

the screen. 

This time the option you want is Right justify Line 
-so move the cursor to this line of the menu and then press 
[enter] . That puts the instruction in the text at the selected 
point and immediately moves all following words to the right 

hand end of the line. 



88 



Guide to LocoScript 



""" the'care and feeding of sour discs* 

This is a serious discussion of the finer points of discaanship by H J 

Fisher, It should be read carefully.^ 

(j 

Ifreat discs carefully and they will last you a long tine. .If you 
foolishly pour coffee over then they won't! 3" discs co*e in a rigid 
case which gives the* added protections 

Press [para] to see what effect the Right Justify code has on the rest of the paragraph. From 
this, you will see that Right Justify is another instruction that is cancelled at the end of the line 
with the code in it. 



Using different character sizes 

Another effect that you can readily use on your text is to change the width of the characters 
you use. This is known as changing their Pitch. 

The true effect of changing the pitch is only seen when the document is printed out. On a 
screen, you are limited to a single character size but the other effect of changing 
pitch - changing the number of characters you can fit between the margins - is clearly 

shown. 

LocoScript always shows you the line endings (and page endings) the document will have 
when it is printed. 

The menu that helps you change the pitch is the Style menu, which you bring onto the screen 
by pressing | u J ( ] shift |+| fe~| ). As always, select the menu when the cursor is at the right 
place in the text. So start by moving the cursor to the beginning of a suitable paragraph. 

The option you need from the Style menu is Pi tch : moving the cursor to this and pressing the 

[ * 1 key brings up the associated submenu. 



Character style: 



- Half Height 



-; Italic 



10 pitch 
12 pitch 
15 pitch 
17 pitch 
Prop, spacing 



normal width v 
Double width 



This allows you to select one of the five possible pitches - 10 
pitch, 12 pitch, 15 pitch, 17 pitch and Proportionally spaced - 
together with the additional choice of normal width or double 

width. 

Pitch is essentially the number of characters that will be printed in 
each inch of each line. So if you select 12 pitch, your text will be 
printed out with 12 characters every inch, while if you select 17 
pitch, there will be 17 characters per inch. 

Proportionally spaced text gives a document a very professional 
appearance. Instead of each character occupying the same space 
on a line, narrow letters such as i and 1 occupy a very much smaller 
space than wide letters such as W and M, 



Guide to LocoScript 



89 



Punctuation marks, such as comma and full stop, also take up a lot less space. But so that 
tables of numbers are not distorted, digits and spaces are all the same width. 

Overall, Proportionally spaced text occupies about as much room as it would in 12 pitch. 

On top of these pitch options is the choice of normal width or double width characters. As the 
name 'Double width' suggests, each character then occupies twice as much space on the line 

- so this halves the number of characters per inch. So with both 12 pitch and Double width set, 
you will get just 6 characters per inch. 

The pitch and the additional width option are selected separately. The current setting of each 
has a / beside it. If you move the cursor to another option and press the [7] key, the / moves to 
the one you have just chosen. We suggest you choose 12 pitch and Double-width. 

In pitch i2*» 

Treat discs carefully and they will last you a long tine. If sou pour 
coffee over then they won't! 3" discs ec*e in a hard case which gives 
the* added protection. f 

In Pitch 17* 

Treat discs carefully and they will last you a long tine. If you pour coffee over the* th 

3" discs co*e in a hard case which gives the* added protections 

if 

In Pitch ie> Double width* 

Treat discs carefully and the« 

will last you a long tiwe. If f 

you pour coffee over the* they On the Screen 

On the Printer 
In pitch 12 1 

Treat discs carefully and they will last you a long time. If 
coffee over them they won't! "3" discs come in a hard case whi 
them added protection. 

In Pitch 17 

Treat discs carefully and they will last you a long time, If you pour coffee over then 
3* discs coae in a hard case which gives them added protection, 

In Pitch 10, Double width 

Treat diLss^s <^ax~€s:f\-JilX;y- and 
v^ill last ^rcD\Ji tr*. long t :L m«s 
you Tpc3\_jnr— <r; cz> f ~£~ es e ovei~ "the txi 
Wo in * t . 



90 Guide to LocoScript 



When you have the combination you want, press | enter |. This puts a new pitch code into the 
text. 

Now press | para | to see the effect it has. Press it again and you will see the next paragraph is 

also re-laid. 

The pitch code is not cancelled by a carriage return. In this respect, pitch is just like 
underlining or emboldening. In fact you may prefer to think of pitch as one of the emphasis 

effects. 

As you will see, the right margin of the re-laid section of text is markedly different from that of 
the paragraphs above. 

You will also notice that your ruler line has not been changed. This is because the ruler 
remains in the pitch you started in so that the margin and tab positions when the document is 
printed are maintained. Margins and tabs are recorded in terms of numbers of characters and 
the character pitch used to translate these numbers into positions across the page is the ruler 
pitch. 

Keeping the ruler in the old pitch therefore ensures that the margins and tabs of your printed 
document will be consistent. However, while you are editing your document on the screen, 
the margins and tabs no longer line up with the markers on the ruler line and this can be 
confusing. You will need to be especially careful when adding new data to tables or when 
using the tab settings to create complex arrangements of the text. 

Changing the pitch through the Style menu is the right approach if you want to use a different 
pitch temporarily for a particular section of your document. If you want to use a different pitch 
to that of the Base Layout for most of a particular document, you will want restore the 
alignment of margins and margin markers. 



Document Layout 

The way to restore the alignment of margins and margin markers is to create a layout set up 
properly for your chosen character pitch, just as we needed a new layout when we wanted to 
alter the margin and tab settings on the ruler line. 

This time we focus on changing the parameters outlined in the second of the information lines. 
These include the size of the characters, how far apart the lines will be when your document is 
printed and whether each line will be justified (ie. aligned right and left), 



Guide to LocoScript 91 



The menu to use is again the Layout menu. 



Pocwetit layout; 



Insert layout 



Base layout 



Edit layout 



Current layout 
Layout ?? 



Once again, we have a choice of either changing the current 
layout - but that will affect all the text that has been laid out using 
that layout - or switching to using either a new layout or one that 
you have set up before. 

If your current layout is the Base Layout (le. the one first stored in 
the document's File Header), you won't be able to use the Layout 
menu to change it. You can only edit the Base Layout by editing the 
File Header (see Stage 10). 

For now, we will create a new layout but, in future, you would be 
well advised to set up a few 'standard' layouts and work with these 
in a systematic way. 



A new layout 



Making changes 

You may now use the cursor *eys to --£££ K-^^T "T- 

I "i key to step through the available options. 

You couid move the cursor down and change the ruler line as we *d before in Stage 3 Jbut 

for now we will concentrate on the middle line the Cher features of a layout. These are. 

PUCK The options for setting p.tch cover the ™^«^LTJLT*^ 
per inch, plus Proportionally spaced chaiacters^ oge her w«h ,h d to ^ ^ ^ 

wd double width <^££^£%£Zr width) without changing the 
* " y °™ Z wen ewd* of both the area to the left of the left margm and your 
SS:^^ WU1 see the opposite effect if you decrease the pitch. 



Tustify You can change between Justification On - ie. both edges of the 
s" tight and justification Off - ie. jus, the .eft-hand edge of the text straight. 



text 



92 



Guide to LocoScript 



A document printed with Justification On can look very professional because LocoScript 
spaces the words out evenly along the line. This cannot be done precisely on the screen, 
but LocoScript produces much the same effect by inserting blanks between some words: 
these extra blanks show up as dots if the main background is dots but are blank if the 
background is blank. 

Line Pitch and Line Spacing The Line Pitch (ie. the distance between consecutive lines) 
can be changed between 6 and 8 lines per inch; the Line Spacing (ie. whether you print on 
every line or every other line or...) can be changed to any of 0, Vz, 1, lVz, 2, 2 1 /2 or 3. They 

are both more fully covered in Stage 5. 

Italic When this setting is Off, your characters will normally be printed upright, but when 
this setting is On, they will normally be slanted. 

When you have finished changing the layout, press |~exit1. This both leaves editing the new 
layout and makes it your Current Layout. It will be used to lay out the last paragraph of 
LAYOUT.EG. To test the effect, press [para] and look back at the paragraph that gets re-laid. 

Using an existing layout 

You first make a note of the number of the layout you want to use. (Cursor up to a part of the 
document where you use this one if you don't already know its number.) 

Then move the cursor to the line above the place you want to use this layout from and call up 
the Layout menu ( | ?? ] ). 

Now move the menu cursor down to the Layout ?? line and type in the layout number you 
noted. Then press | enter]. LocoScript now inserts a Layout code into the document at the 

place you called the menu from. 

Whenever the Rulers option of the Show menu is selected, the ruler part of this layout will be 
displayed above the text to which it is applied 

Editing a layout 

The final option of the Layout menu is to edit an existing layout. 

Editing a layout will affect any text in your document which uses this layout, and so should be 
used with care. Editing a layout does not insert a layout code - if you want to both edit a layout 
and make it the current layout you must use Layout ?? as well. 

The Layout menu doesn't cover editing the Base Layout because editing this layout involves 
changing the document's File Header (see Stage 10). So if your current layout is the Base 
Layout, the option of editing the current layout is not included in the menu put up on the 

screen. 



Guide to LocoScript 93 



Line endings 

The final refinement we can build into our documents is to make sure that the text always 
changes from one line to the next at a sensible place. 

LocoScript normally only breaks a line at a space or at a hyphen within a word. This gives 
good results almost all the time. 

But sometimes, especially when you are using very short lines or very long words, you can 
have a line where the space at the end of the line is so large that it looks ugly. Then you would 
prefer it if the first word on the next line could be hyphenated and split across the line break. 

You could simply put a hyphen in where you would be happy for the word to break, but then 
you would be stuck with the hyphen when you decided to change the layout in some way. 

Instead, you insert a special character into this word - one that tells LocoScript to display or 
print a hyphen only if the word is split between two lines. This special character is called a 
Soft Hyphen and it is inserted in the word at the point where you are happy for it to break. 

To see this work, move the cursor back to the first paragraph and then to the first word on the 
third line of this paragraph. Choose the place in the word where you would like to make the 
break and then move the cursor to the first character after this break. 

Now press [~~fe~l to bring up the Lines menu. 

The option you want from this is insert Soft Hyphen . Move the 
cursor to this option and press [enter]. This puts the Soft Hyphen 
into the word and, provided there is enough space for the first 
section and the hyphen on the earlier line, LocoScript will 
immediately take this back to the previous line. 

Now press [para] and see the rest of the paragraph re-laid. 

If you later decide to change the margins or the character pitch, the 
hyphen won't show unless this word is again split between two 
lines. 

The soft hyphen is a code just like the codes that are inserted in the document when you tell 
LocoScript to underline a particular section of text or make it bold. It will therefore be 
displayed as a code if you select the 'Codes' option from the Show menu and you can use the 
DEL keys to remove it if you decide you don't want it after all. 

A similar case happens when your text includes, for example, a list of options separated by 
slashes such as French/German/SpanislvDanish. LocoScript treats this list as all one word, 

when you could quite sensibly split it after one of the slashes. 



Line layout: 



C?ntre lint. ,. 
Right Justify line 



insert soft space 
I insert hart spa ce 

insert hart hyphen 



Line Spacing ?? 
Line Pitch ? 



94 



Guide to LocoScript — 



Once again, you solve this problem by calling up the Lines menu from the place you would 

like to split the list. 



Iline layout: j This time you won,t want a hv P nen at the break and so you use the 

' ' | in sert Soft Space option offered in the LINES menu. The line 

Mght e justify 1 ine || wiU break ' if !t has to ' at the soft s P ace but there won't be a space 
between the parts of the list if they are all on the same line. 



Line Spacing ?? 
Line Pitch ? 



insert hard space n 

?11Ser t h°ii h W h er I effect Wlth automati c layout is that LocoScript might break 

jflsert hard hyphen j a line somew here you would rather it didn't. You may, for example, 

want to kee P a particular pair of words together on the same line. 
Stopping the line from breaking in the middle of someone's name is 
a common example. 

The solution to this problem is to make the space between words you want on the same line a 
Hard Space and to make any hyphen you don't want the line split at a Hard Hyphen. These tell 
LocoScript that the line cannot be broken here. 

Hard Spaces and Hard Hyphens are real characters which you can either put in as you type in 
the text or use to replace existing hyphens or spaces - just like any other character. The 
menu they are obtained through is, once again, Lines. 

To see how this works, move the cursor back to the first paragraph of the document where 
you will see the name H J Fisher has been split between two lines H J on one and F i she r 
on the other. 

the care and feeding of sour di mm" ' 

TilLl S a Tf e rffi/i scuss J on • f , t S? finer * oil,ts Q{ discaanship by H J 
n slier. It should be read carefully.*' 

This is obviously not ideal. What we really want is the whole name on one line, and to do this 

we need to use Hard Spaces. 

We will start by putting a hard space between the J and the Fi sher . So move the cursor to 
two spaces after the J and press the [<o^ key. That erases the normal space you had after 
the J . Now call up the Lines menu ( [_fe j ) and select Hard Space. 

Now press | re lay] to relay this paragragh. 

the care and feeding of your discs*' n ' 

Pi?ci»* S T*%..?i s i! ussi0 3 of *S*,(™w Points of diswanship by H 

J Usher. It should be read carefully.*' 



Guide to LocoScript 



95 



As you see, we still haven't got it right because we now have H on one line and J Fi sher on ^ 

the other. What we should have done was to replace the normal space between the H and the *• ■ 

J with a hard space as well. If you now do this as before (this time starting with the cursor on ^J 
the J ), you will see that this does give you H J Fi sher all on one line. 

The care and feeding of sour discs** 

fi 

This is a serious discussion of the finer points of discaanship b«j * I 

K J Filler. It should be read carefully ^\ 

U 

We suggest you spend some time trying out the effect of these various special characters. 



-I 
-J 



.J 

.-J 
-J 



-J 
-J 

-J 



. Guide to LocoScript ^ 

96 



Stage 5 



Setting out pages 



The changes we have made to the text so far have only affected how characters are set out on 
a particular line - its Horizontal Format. We have not thought about how the lines are set out 
on a page - its Vertical Format, - although this is obviously very important to the look of any 
printed document. 



What is a page? 

LocoScript divides each sheet of paper it prints on into three parts. 

There is a short space at the top known as the Header Zone and a similar one at the bottom 
known as the Footer Zone. Between these two is the area of the page set aside for your text. 



Left Margin 



Right Margin 



Header Zone 

T 



Text Zone 



Footer Zone 
!.__ 



Guide to LocoScript 



97 



The header and footer zones are rather like the left and right margins. Their main job is to 
ensure that none of your text gets printed either too near the top or too near the bottom of the 
page. 

They can also be used for supplementary headings and for page numbers, giving your 
documents a really polished look, but for the moment we shall just leave them blank. We will 
show you how to add headings and page numbers in the next chapter. 

Much of the time, you don't have to worry about how to set up suitable header and footer 
zones, Each document you create comes not only with suitable left and right margins but also 
with suitable header and footer zones. 

In preparation for printing your documents out on sheets of paper, LocoScript also 
automatically divides them into pages. Each page of the document corresponds exactly with a 
sheet of paper. Anything that is shown on the screen as being on a different page will be 
printed on a different sheet of paper. 

LocoScript shows you where the Page Breaks are by keeping the End of Page line between 
the bottom line of each page and the top line of the next. This line gives you an up to date 
record of both the number of lines used and the number unused on the page it finishes. Used 
lines are shown by the section to the left and unused lines (not displayed on the screen) are 
indicated by the central section of the line. The solid section to the right completes the line. 

LocoScript does all its calculations in terms of the document's Base Line Pitch. Line Pitch is the 
number of lines LocoScript expects to print per inch of the page, and the Base Line Pitch is the 
value of this parameter that is specified in the document's File Header. The Base Line Pitch is 
usually 6 but it can be 8. 

So if you don't change anything, your text will be printed out in lines that are l/6in apart, with a 
short gap (the Header zone) at the top of the page and another (the Footer zone) at the bottom. 
The size of each gap is recorded as a certain number of lines in the Base Line Pitch. 

The precise arangement will depend on the type of paper you use, but if you use A4 sheets of 
paper, we have set up for you a gap of 1 V 2 inches (9 lines) at the top and about an inch (7 lines') 

at the bottom- 
However, you can readily use LocoScript menus to change this. 

Changing the line spacing 

Rather than print on every line, you might prefer to print on every other line. The parameter 
you set here is called the Line Spacing and setting its value to 2 gives you double line spacing. 
just like setting the lever on a standard typewriter to 2. The full range of options is 0, '2, 1. } • . 
2, 2V 2 and 3. 



98 Guide to LocoScript 



Changing the line spacing changes the number of lines that go on one page. The bigger the 
line spacing, the fewer lines can fit on a page. 

You can change the line spacing wherever you like within a document, and use it to great 
effect when the document is printed. The line spacing is always 1 on the screen, but that does 
not mean that the number of lines on a page will be wrong. LocoScript always gets the page 

endings in the right place. 

You change the Line Spacing through the Lines menu ( \~f7~] ). 



Line layout! 



Centre line 
Right Justify line 



insert soft space 

insert hard space 

insert soft hyphen 

insert hard hyphen 



Line Pitch ? 



You first select Line Spacing and then type in the line spacing 
you want. Use the Vz key if you want Vz, Wz or 2Vz. Pressing [ enter | 
returns you to the document. 

Double line spacing is very useful for preparing the first few drafts 
of a document because it will leave you with plenty of space for 
marking corrections. 



Zero line spacing means that lines are printed on top of each other 
but this can be useful if you want to print a complex piece of 

mathematics, for example, with both subscripts and superscripts at a particular position. 

Normally, you can only print either subscripts or superscripts at one place on a line. 



Changing the Line Pitch 

You could also change the Line Pitch in which your document will be printed at this stage, 
again using the Lines menu. 

This also changes the number of lines that are printed on the page but in such a way that the 
End of Page line and the line number displayed at the top of the screen could be harder to 
interpret because these are worked out in terms of numbers of lines of the base line pitch. 

Because of this, it is very much wiser to change Line Pitch only through the document's File 

Header (see Stage 10). 

Where to start a new page 

Having decided on the line spacing you want to use, you should then think about how 
paragraphs are split at the bottom of pages. Even if you don't mind if a paragraph is started on 
the bottom of one page and finished at the top of the next, you still don't want to have just one 
line of the paragraph on one page and the rest on the other. 



Guide to LocoScript 



99 



- let LocoScript choose 

In fact LocoScript automatically prevents these 'Widows' and 'Orphans' from occurring by 
breaking one line early, so ensuring that you have at least two lines at the top of the second 

page. 

However you may weU decide that you don't want a particular paragraph or part of a 
paragraph to be split across two pages. LocoScript helps you to ensure this doesn't happen by 
keeping groups of lines together. All you have to do is to ask for so many lines before or after 
a particular point to be kept together. 

Having moved the cursor to the relevant part of the document, you call up the Pages menu by 
pressing fT] and select the Keep Lines together option. This asks you to type in the 

number of lines you want to keep together Above and/or Be Low this point in the text. 

Tust type in the number in the right place in this menu and then press [enTer] . This puts a 
'Keep code' into your document which tells LocoScript to keep the lines together. This is 
shown, along with all the other codes when you select the Codes option from the Show menu. 

For example, you might have something like this in your text: 

Unit cost Total cost 

150 Keyboards 6.50 975.00 

2000 Nuts 0,10 per 10 20.00 

2000 Bolts 0.20 per 10 40.00 

Total 1035.00 

This is six lines that you would be certain to want to keep together. To do this, you would 
move the cursor to either the top line of the group, call up the Pages menu and type 6 on the 
Be Low line of the menu, or move to the bottom line of the group, call up the menu and type 6 
on the Above line. 

If you accessed the menu from within the set of six lines - say, from somewhere on the third 
line - you would ask for 3 lines above and 4 lines below because the line you are on is counted 
both times. However, it is usually simpler to move the cursor to either the top or the bottom of 
the section you want to keep together and set up a single Keep code. 

When LocoScript prints a document, it throws away any blank lines that it carries over from 
the bottom of one page to the top of the next. It will do this whatever the current depths of the 
Header and Footer zones. 

This way you can be confident that you will have text on the top line of the new page. This is 
very much better than having to go through specially and remove the blank lines you put in 
between two paragraphs or part of a series of blank lines. 



TTjj " Guide to LocoScript 



— or choose yourself 

In addition to this, there will always be places in your document when you explicitly want to 
have a new page - for example, at the start of a new chapter. 

You may think that the way to ensure this is to put in a number of blank lines at the relevant 
place, but in fact this is very much the wrong answer with LocoScript. Because LocoScript 
knows to throw away blank lines at the end of any page, it won't go onto the next page until 
you type the next line of text. 

It is also the wrong answer from your point of view because the position this gives for the new 
page will not necessarily stay right when you make a change to the document or change the 
page size. 

LocoScript gives you two possible ways of ensuring the next piece of text appears on a new 

page: you can either put an 'End Page here' symbol at the precise position you want the new 
page to start or put in a 'Last line of page' code somewhere on the line after which you want 
LocoScript to start a new page. 

Both these options are accessed through the Pages menu ( | fe~] ). 



Page layout; 



Li si Line of page 



Keep lines together 
Above ?? 

Below 11 



insert page limber 
this Page Nunber 
Last Page Kimber 



The 'End Page here' option gives you the proper solution to 
ensuring that a particular heading or paragraph starts a fresh page. 
Just put this symbol (i), rather than a carriage return, on the line 
below the one you want as the last line. Then carry straight on with 
the first line for the new page. 

The second option, 'Last Line of page' is intended for the case 
when you want to break a paragraph at a particular point. You just 
insert this code somewhere on the last line before the break you 
want to make and the next line will always be printed on the top 
line of the next page. 

In fact, you don't have to use the Pages menu to instruct LocoScript to 'End the page here'. You 
can also insert its code by holding down f alt ~] and pressing [ retur n j. 

Both these codes tell LocoScript to start a new page at this point whatever you have stipulated 
elsewhere about lines being kept together. 

Position these codes carefully, because they override the LocoScript feature that ensures that 
text is printed on the top line of the next page. Indeed, if you did want to have a sequence of 
blank lines at the top of a page, the way to achieve this would be to put in an 'End of page' 
followed by the relevant number of carriage returns. 



*•— Guide to LocoScript 101 



Making more fundamental changes 



The remaining control you have over how your pages are set out is through changing your 
Base Layout. Changing the Base Layout can only be achieved by changing the File Header of 
the document you are working on. 

Any alterations you make to the File Header should be carefully thought out in advance, 
because the File Header affects your whole document, not just the part after you decided to 
make the change. We describe editing the File Header in more detail in Stage 10. 

However, there are a couple of parameters that are relevant here: these are Page si ze and 
Breaks . Page size covers the both the length of the page itself and details of the Header and 
Footer Zones; Breaks controls how paragraphs are split across page breaks. 

The menu that gives you access to these parameters is Modes ( [ /? I ). 



Editor sub-nodes: 



■ 1MAW5P 



Insert text 
Disc aanagenent 



Selecting Edit Header from within this menu and then 
f 7=0pti ons , takes you back to the beginning of your document. It 
also changes the line of function keys so that they tell you what 
menus you can now call up. These refer to aspects of editing the 
File Header. 



— —end of header 1 

■—end of footer 1 

- —end of header 2 

—end of footer 2 



used for all pages« 
used for all pages- 



used for no pages at all- 
used for no pages at all- 



Pressing L_/7_l gives you the Page size menu. 

There are five pieces of information that LocoScript needs to set up 
a page for you. These are the Page Length, the depth of the Header 
Zone, the depth of the Footer Zone and the Positions for the top line 
of the Header text and the top line of the Footer text, both measured 
from the top of the page. 

These pieces of information are all given in terms of numbers of 
lines in your document's base line pitch. This is usually 6 lines per 
inch and in the description that follows we assume that this is the 
case. If you have changed the base line pitch to 8, you should bear 
this in mind in working out the values to insert in the Page Size 
menu. 

The Page size menu lets you change the current settings of these five page parameters. 
To work out what values you want these to change to, take a sample sheet of paper and start 
by measuring its length in inches. Multiply by 6 and write down the nearest whole number to 
your answer. This is the maximum number of lines you could put on this page and it is what 
LocoScript calls the Page Length. If your paper is A4, the Page Length will be 70. 



Page size: 


ISEMSBBJ^WaJ 


Header zone 
position 


9 
7 


.', page body 


54 


Footer zone 
position 


7 
66 



102 



Guide to LocoScript 



You now need to work out how much space you want to reserve for the Header Zone and the 
Footer Zone. If you plan to use single sheet stationery, remember that you will need to allow at 
least an inch (6 lines) above the Header text at the top of the page and half an inch (3 lines) 
below the Footer text at the bottom of the page. This is because the printer cannot grip the 
paper properly and print on these areas. 

Suppose that you decide that your Header text will be just one line and it will be printed on the 
first possible line - that is line 1 on continuous stationery or line 7 on single sheet stationery. 
This line number is the value you need for 'Header text position'. Draw a line representing the 
Header text on your sample page and write its line number beside it. 

You then decide to leave two blank lines between this Header text and the top of your 

document text. If your Header text is on line 7, the blank lines would be lines 8 and 9. The 
value you need for the Header Zone is the line number of the last of these blank lines, ie. 9. 

Now turn to the bottom of your page and the Footer Zone. It is usual for this to be a little 

smaller than the Header Zone and for the number of blank lines left between the bottom of 
your document text and the Footer text to the same as that left between the Header text and 
the top of the document text. Suppose you decide to make the Footer Zone two lines less deep 
than the Header Zone: that would make the Footer Zone 7 lines deep. 

You can now work out the line number of the last line of your document text. This will be the 
Page Length minus the Footer Zone: that gives a line number of 63 on our example A4 page. 
The two blank lines balancing those left at the top of the page will then be lines 64 and 65, 
making the line on which the Footer text will start - ie. the Footer text position - line 66. 

At the end of this process, the numbers you might have are: 

For single sheets of A4; 

Page length: 70 

Header Zone: 9 (must be 6 or more) 

Header text position: 7 (must be more than 6) 

Footer Zone: 7 (must be 3 or more) 

Footer text position: 66 

For 11 inch continuous stationery: 



Page length: 


66 


Header Zone: 


5 


Header text position: 


4 


Footer Zone: 


7 


Footer text position: 


61 



Guide to LocoScript 103 



Note down the difference between the Page Length and the Footer text position and check 
before printing the document out that the Gap length you have set for the printer is not bigger 

than this number. 

Compare your five numbers with the values currently displayed in the menu. Enter the 
changes in the appropriate slot of the menu, starting with the Page Length. As you change the 
values of the various parameters, the page body value will change and the word inconsistent 
will be displayed if the text zone is reduced by your settings to zero. LocoScript will stop you 
from 'entering' any combination of settings that is inconsistent. 

LocoScript won't insist that you position the Header and Footer text within the Header and 
Footer Zones but this is generally advisable. Otherwise, the whole text could be shifted down 
the page and you could lose the spacing between the Header and Footer text and the mam 
body of your document. 

However if you are using Footer text such as 'contd' or 'ends' and you would Uke this to 
appear on the line immediately below the last line printed on the page, set the Footer text 
position to a low number such as 1. 

A feature of LocoScript is that you can produce correctly paginated draft versions of your 
document on continuous stationery, with the Page Size parameters set up for the single sheet 
stationery you plan to use for the final version. The pages of the continuous stationery should 
be no more than one inch shorter than the single sheets. So if you intend to use A4 use 1 linch 
or ll%inch continuous for drafting; if you intend to use A5. you could use 1 linch, ll%inch or 
8inch as you wish. You will, of course, have to ensure each time that you have set up the 
printer for the paper you are actually using (see Stage 8). 



Pa9* breaks: 



Hidws ft orphans 



ATloVeT 



Broken paragraphs 



Prevented 
Allowed ^ 



The Breaks menu ( | ~fc 1 ) works like any other menu that gives 
you simple either/or choices. To select one of the two possible 
settings, you can either move the menu cursor to the one you want 
and press the [Tj key or move it to the one you don't want and press 
the E] key. 

Preventing 'Widows and orphans' means that you never get just one 
line of a multi-line paragraph at either the bottom of one page or at 
the top of another. Preventing 'Broken paragraphs' means that a 
page break cannot occur in the middle of a paragraph. 



104 



Guide to LocoScript 



Stage 6 

Headings and page numbers 



As we have already mentioned, LoeoScript divides each page into three parts. There is a 
short space at the top known as the Header Zone and a similar one at the bottom known as the 
Footer Zone. And between these two is the area of the page set aside for your text. 



Left Margin 



Right Margin 




i 
Header Zone 



Text Zone 



Footer Zone 
. T 



In this chapter, we describe how to put 'headings' and page numbers in either or both of the 
Header and Footer zones. We will demonstrate this by adding headings and page numbers to 
one of the sample documents - DOCUMENT, EG. This file should be called up onto the 
screen before you do anything else. 



Setting up Headers and Footers 



The first thing to decide about the text you use in the Header and Footer zones is whether you 
want to have the same texts on every page of the document. The other options are to have 
different text for odd and even pages, different text on the first page or different text on the 
last page to that you have on every other page. In addition, you can omit either the Header text 
or the Footer text from the first and/or the last page. 



Guide to LoeoScript 



105 




Details of the Header and Footer texts and how these are applied are stored as part of a 
document's File Header and the menu that helps you select from these options is the 
Pagination menu - one of the menus available to you when you edit the File Header. Call up 
this menu by first selecting Edit Header from the Modes menu ( f fr 1) and then 
f7=0ptions to bring on screen the Header Editing functions. The Pagination menu is then 
brought onto the screen by pressing f fe ]■ 



Pagination; 



imJUlUJEEMI 



fill pages saw 
First page differs 
Last page differs 
Odd/ even pages differ 



1 First page 

Header enabled J 
Footer enabled J 



Last page 
Header enabled v 
Footer enabled ^ 



The Pagination menu is split into four independent sections. The 
first section is there so that you can specify the page number the 
first page should have; the numbers for the other pages are then 
calculated accordingly. This feature is particularly helpful if you 
use LocoScript to prepare a book because it means that you 
won't have to keep all the chapters as one long document. 

The second section covers where different Header and Footer 
texts will be used (if anywhere), while the third and fourth 
sections allow you to choose whether to leave off the Header 
text and'or the Footer text from the first and/or last pages, quite 

independently of any other decisions you have made. 



106 



Guide to LocoScript «—■ 



Set up the features you want by moving the menu cursor to the appropriate line of the menu 
and pressing [+] to select (enable) a particular option or f~] to clear (disable) a previous 
setting. If you want the first page number to be different, move the menu cursor to the 
Fi rst page number line and type in the number you want, followed by [enter | . The biggest 
number this page (or any page) can have is 9999 . 

Which options to select is best illustrated through a few examples. 

Suppose your document is a chapter in a book. In this case, you will probably want to set the 
first page number so that it follows on from the previous chapter. You are also likely to want 
different text on odd and even pages and to omit the Header text from the first page (ie. the 
Header and Footer both enabled on the Last page but just the Footer enabled on the first 
page). 

For a long formal report, you are likely to want most of the pages to have 'contd' at the bottom 
of all pages except the last, which should finish with the word 'ends'. The option to use is 'Last 
page differs'. 

You should also choose this option for letters that may run over more than one page. A 
multi-page letter could then have the appropriate continuation Header and Footer text, with 
for example 'contd' at the bottom of the first page, but some appropriate finishing Footer text 
at the bottom of the last page. 

A single-page letter would still have the appropriate finishing Footer text at the bottom of the 
page because LocoScript arranges that the Header text on a single page document will be the 
one for a first page and its Footer text the one for a last page. 

Once you have made your selection, you will want to set up the texts themselves, This is done 
on a special four-sectioned screen that appears after you leave File Header editing and 
confirm that you want these changes made. It also appears on selecting 'Edit Header' from the 
Modes menu ( | fr [). If some Header and Footer text has been set up already, this will be 
displayed on this 'Pagination' screen. 



Mlhl ^IMM I'M.l^imill^Mli'MillMM'IIM^*! ■MlllilMJI^MNIW'irri 



i 



•end of header 1 : used for all pages- 
■end of footer 1 ; used for all pages- 



■end of header 2 : used for no pages at alia 
■end of footer H : used for no pages at alN 



Guide to LocoScript 107 



The messages incorporated into the lines dividing up the screen tell you how the piece of text 
inserted above will be used, based on the current settings in the Pagination menu. If you 
change from, say, odd and even pages different to a different first page, the messages on the 
Pagination screen will change but the texts will stay the same. In this particular case, what had 
been the texts for odd pages become the texts for the first page and those for even pages, the 
texts for the remaining pages. 

Preparing and editing these texts (Pagination editing) is similar to preparing and editing a 
document. You can use all the effects of underlining, bold, italic, different character pitch etc. 
and most of the functions that help you prepare the text normally still work here. However, the 
only layout you can use here is the document's Base Layout, 

On top of these, you can now use some new codes. These are specifically intended to help 
you position page numbers precisely where you want them. What these are and how they 
work is best described through setting up some sample Header and Footer text, so let's set 
about making 'Commercial Software for the PCW8256* (centred) the text to go in the top 
section of the screen and the page number (also centred) the associated Footer text. 

To get the heading in, we first put in a text centring code using the Lines menu ( l ~fe I ) and 
then type in: 

Commercial Software for the PCW8256 

That's set up the heading. 

Now move the cursor down to the top line of the second section. Our aim here is to put in the 
page number neatly centred, both on the line and between a pair of hyphens so that you will 
get . i -, - 2 -, etc. ( - 1 -, - 3 - if you opted for different odd and even pages), 

To do this, we want to first put in a text centring code as for the heading at the top; then the 
first hyphen. What comes next is the page number code. 

The first part of this to put in is a 'This page' code. The menu that helps you insert this is the 
Pages menu, so press [ fe _]. 



Page layout; 



Last Line of page 



Keep lines together 
Above J' 

Belw W 



insert page nwber 
this Page Nunber 
Last Page Niwber 



Then move the menu cursor to Thi s Page number and press 
[enter J . The correct code is now inserted in the Footer zone 
text. 

Now you have to tell LocoScript how much space you want to 

allow for the page number. You have to tell it this or no number 
will be printed. 

What you do is to type one of three possible symbols as many 
times as the space you want is columns wide, 



108 



Guide to LocoScript 



The symbols you use also tell LocoScript whether you want the number to the left of this 
space, to the right of the space or in the middle. If you use the centre symbol, the page 
number will still be centred whether it is just one digit (1...9), or two digits (10.. .99), or three 
digits... 



The symbols are: 

< If you want the number to the left 
> If you want the number to the right 
- If you want the number to be centred 

We have already chosen to centre it and we will make the total gap four characters wide. So 
the next thing to type is: 



And that's the page number in place, the final hyphen balancing the one we put at the 

beginning. 

When you set up Header and Footer text for real, you would now insert similar text in the 
lower two sections of the screen - unless you opted to have ihe same texts on every page. 

Another option LocoScript gives you is to number the pages as 'Page 1 of 4', 'Page 2 of 4', etc. 
where in this example the whole document is four pages long. An example where this is used 
is the 'template' called MANUSCRP on Side 1 of your LocoScript disc, 

This style of page numbering requires a Footer text with two groups of '<'s, '>'s or '='s. The 
first group is preceded by a 'This page number' code and the second group by a 'Last page 
number' code. Both these special codes are inserted with the help of the Pages menu. Once 
again, remember to put in appropriate numbers of '<'s, ':>'s or '— 's to reserve the space in the 
Footer text for the numbers. 



The end result 

When you have finished setting up these texts, press [ exit |. 

The EXIT menu from Pagination editing gives you four choices: 

Using the pagination text you have just set up and returning to working on your document; 

Rubbing out all the changes you have made to this text since calling up the Pagination 
screen and starting again; 

Rubbing out all the Pagination text and starting again; and 
Guide to LocoScript 109 



Abandoning the edit altogether. This throws away all the changes you have made to the 
document and its File Header since starting the current edit, and returns you to the Disc 

Manager screen. 

The first of these will be your most common choice and it is already selected for you when the 
menu appears. If you want one of the other options, move the menu cursor first ■- but 
otherwise, just press I enter] . That takes you back to your document. 

If this is the first time you have used Header and Footer texts, we suggest you finish editing 
your document, load some paper into your printer (if necessary) and select Save and pri nt 
from the EXIT menu. (If you are not yet confident about printing out documents, turn to Stage 8 

and follow the instructions given there.) 

You will see that the texts in the Header and Footer zones are totally independent of the word 
processing codes being used in the document itself. These are temporarily suspended while 
the Footer Zone text is being added to one page and the Header Zone text to the next. The 
document then continues, independent of the Header and the Footer. There is no risk of the 
Footer text being affected because the last line of the document on one page is underlined or 
bold, for example. 



110 Guide to LocoScript 



Stage 7 



Cutting and pasting 



When you are preparing a long document - say, an article for a magazine or a report for your 
client or your manager - you will frequently find yourself wanting to change the order of 
whole sections of the text. 

How to approach this problem is just an extension of the moving sections of text from one 
place to another that you have done before. 

You will remember that the procedure to move a piece of text was to move the cursor to the 
beginning of the piece of text; press [copy]; move the cursor to the end of this section; press 
I cut J, followed by 0; move the cursor to where you want the text to go in; and press [paste], 
followed by 0. You will also remember that the section of text was temporarily deleted from 
the document. 

What actually happened was that this section of text - including any embedded layout and 
word processing codes was moved into a Block, and when you pressed ["paste], the 
contents of this block was 'pasted' into the document. 

Similarly when you duplicated a section of text, what happened was that a copy of the section 
you marked out was put in a block. Again pressing [paste], pasted the contents of the block 

into the document. 

LocoScript has a total of ten such blocks, numbered 0..9. The one we used was Block 
- that's why we followed both | cut | and | paste | with a 0. But we could just as well have 
used any of the other nine blocks. 

There was also no need to paste the text back into the document immediately. The text 
remains in the block until it is replaced by something else or you finish editing the document. 
You can therefore paste it into the document as many times as you wish. 

So if you want to really chop your document around, fill up as many of the ten blocks as you 

need and then paste the pieces of text back in in whatever order you want. You will find this 

very much more efficient than making the moves one by one. 

To see how this works, edit DOCUMENT. EG, which is one of the sample documents that were 
provided on Side 1 of the system discs. 



Guide to LocoScript 111 



Now use [cop^] and fcyr] to remove three paragraphs from this document and put each in a 
separate block, say Blocks 1, 2 and 3. Press [co^ with the cursor at the beginning ofthe 
paragraph you plan to remove, then cursor to the end of the paragraph and press rW] 
followed by the number of the block. 

Now paste them back in the document wherever you like in the order Block 2 first, then Block 
3 and finally Block 1. Each time, just move the cursor to the place you want the paragraph to 
go in and press [paste] , followed by the number of the block holding it. 

Maintaining your blocks 

If at any time you want to see which blocks you have something stored in, you can do this 
through the Blocks menu ( [7 foj )• 

The top section of the menu lists the numbers of the blocks that 
have text stored in them, 

This menu also offers you a way of saving blocks as separate 
documents for use in subsequent document editing. Unless you 
explicitly save a block, the text from it will be lost when you finish 

editing the document. 



Block 



Text storage: 



jgrnHM 



Phrase ftjjtt 
KH PRS 



Save all phrases 



If you want to save a block, select the Save block line from the 
Blocks menu and type in the number of the block you want to save. Then press [enter] ■ 
LocoScript will respond by putting up the Disc Manager screen and asking you for a filename 
for this block. You can use the Group and File cursors in the usual way to pick out where you 
want to store the new document. 

Then all you need to do is follow the instructions to save the block that you want as a new 
document. Press [eSter] when you. have finished setting up this information. 

Blocks that you save in this way can be pasted into documents by using the 'Insert text 1 facility 
(see below) just like other documents, but they cannot be edited. 

Pasting in whole documents 

While you are editing a document, you can paste in 

one of the other documents you have stored: 

a block that you saved in an earlier editing session; or 

an ASCII text file initially prepared under CP/M. 

You can paste in any document or file wherever you like and as often as you like. The process 
of pasting in does not erase the original copy. 



, , 2 Guide to LocoScript 



Call up the Modes menu ((./HI) from the point in the document where you want to paste in 
this external text and select 'Insert text*. This displays the Disc Manager screen so that you 
can use the File Cursor to pick out the document or file you want to paste in. 

Press [enter]. LocoScript then puts up a menu that gives you the chance to change the details 
of the document/file to be pasted in. The process of pasting this document in begins when you 
press [enter] to confirm these details. 

LocoScript recognises stored blocks, phrases and LocoScript documents, but assumes 
anything else you paste in is an ASCII text file. You will quickly know if you are pasting in a 
program file, for example, because the screen will start to fill with apparently meaningless 
characters. If this happens, press [stop] twice to stop more of the file being pasted in. 

The layout of the block, document or text file after it has been pasted in will, of course, 
depend on the document you paste it into and whereabouts you insert it. In particular, any 
changes of layout and tabs will be interpreted according to the layouts stored in the 
document's File Header. This will never be a problem if you have a consistent approach to 
layouts. 



*- Using phrases 

A similar facility LocoScript has is to allow you to paste in up to 26 short phrases. The phrases 
^ are known as Phrases A..Z. As you prepare your document you just press | paste] , followed by 

a letter, instead of typing in the whole phrase. 

Phrases are more useful than Blocks for a number of jobs, firstly because there is a simple 
procedure for keeping them up to date and, secondly, because they are always available to 

^ , , you. Phrases held in a special file called PHRASES.STD on your Start of Day disc are loaded 

mto the PC W8256's memory along with the LocoScript software and you can change or add to 

*— these phrases as you edit documents. 

Side 1 of your system discs has a PHRASES.STD file with a few phrases in it for you to 
"■- experiment with. Try, for example, moving to some appropriate place in DOCUMENT.EG and 

pressing [paste J followed by Z. 

""" Setting up phrases 

■— You set up Phrases in exactly the same way as you set up blocks. You mark the beginning of 

^ the phrase you want to save by pressing [copy] and mark the end of it by pressing either 

[copy] or | cut I, depending on whether you want to leave it in your document or erase it. The 
^- difference is that, instead of then typing a digit, you type one of the letters A..Z. 



*— Guide to LocoScript 113 



These phrases will be particularly helpful to someone like an estate agent preparing details of 
a number of houses. Much typing would be saved if phrases like 'Within easy access of all 
local amenities 1 and 'Gas fired central heating' could be inserted in the details by just pressing 
[paste] followed by the appropriate letter. 

You can't always use all 26 of these phrases. Individual phrases can be up to 255 characters 
long but their total length is limited to around 550 characters. 

If you type the letter of a Phrase that is already being used, you will overwrite the text stored 
there. If that text hasn't been stored in the PHRASES.STD file, then it will be lost for good. 

You can overwrite a phrase that was set up from the PHRASES.STD file and the new phrase 
will be used from then on. It doesn't affect what is stored in PHRASES.STD and so the 'old' 
phrase will be restored when you reset the PCW8256. 

Try setting up some new Phrases. We recommend that you start by storing something short in 
Phrase Z because the phrase that is stored there at the moment takes up quite a lot of your 

allocation of 550 characters. 



Maintaining your phrases 

You can always find out which Phrases currently have something in them through the Blocks 
menu ( [~~fe~ l ). 

The part of this menu referring to Phrases works very much like the 
part that refers to Blocks. Thus the Phrases line of the menu 
carries a list of the Phrases currently in use. 



Text storage: 



Block 



KEHMB3 



Phrase ABCD 
KK PBS 



Save all phrases 



The other line is the key to either creating or modifying your 

PHRASES.STD file. Selecting 'Save all phrases' automatically 
creates a special file called PHRASES.STD in the first group on 
Drive M (replacing any existing PHRASES.STD file there). You are 
returned almost immediately to editing your document. 



If this set of phrases is to be available in future editing sessions, this file has to be moved to the 
first group on your Start of Day disc. It will then be read into the PCW8256's memory at the 
same time as the LocoScript software. Erase any existing PHRASES.STD file on your Start of 
Day disc and then move the new file across as soon as it becomes convenient. 



114 



Guide to LocoScript 



Stage 8 



Printing 



LocoScript offers you two types of printer action - one where the job is to print out a copy of 
the document you have prepared on your PCW8256 and the other for when you want to use 
the system as a Line- by-Line electronic typewriter, for example to fill in a form. This second 
option is referred to as Direct Printing. 



Printing your documents 

Printing out even quite complex documents under LocoScript should always be a simple 
matter. 

You can start printing either from the menu of options you are offered when you finish editing 
a document or from the Disc Manager screen. In the first case, the document you print is the 
one you have just been working on; in the second, all you should need to do is to move the File 
Cursor to the document you want to print, press P and then | enter] . You can then turn attention 
to editing some other document while this one is being printed. 

The only other things you need to pay attention to are loading paper into the printer, making 
sure that the printer is set up properly for the paper you want to use, changing the quality of 
the printing between 'High quality' (suitable for business letters) and 'Draft quality', and 
releasing the last sheet of paper printed on. 

If you are ever unsure how to load paper into your printer, turn to Appendix II where loading 
the printer is described in detail. 



The Printer Control State 

The other printer operations all become possible when the PCW8256 is in its Printer Control 
State. It enters this state either when you press the | ptr | key or when you operate the Paper 
Load Knob on the printer. 

The PCW8256 also puts itself into Printer Control State while you load and adjust fresh sheets 
of paper. 

Going into Printer Control State halts printing. This means that if the paper becomes caught in 
the printer, you can quickly stop printing by just pressing the | ptr \ key. 



Guide to LocoScript 115 



If the printer is in the middle of printing out some text when you press the [ ftrJ key, it will 
halt as soon as it is finished either printing the current line or moving the paper to the next 

print position. 

The top line of your screen now teUs you about the state of the printer. It tells you, for instance, 
that the printer is On-line de. ready to print) or that it is Off-line (ie. on stand-by). It will also tell 
you whether it is currently printing or that it is idle. 

The next line down shows you the keys to press to make particular changes to the printer 
state. Most of these put up menus on the screen from which you can select options or initiate 
actions, just like you can from any other LocoScript menu. Press [enter | to confirm; [can J to 
abandon. The exception is [_fe~ | which switches between On-line and Off-line whenever it is 
pressed. 




Options 



Draft quali t a 



Single sheet paper • 
Continuous stationery 



For* length: 
Gap length: 
Paper out defeat 



TO 
3 



fl -Options The options available through this menu 
cover the quality of print, the type of stationery you plan to 
use and at what point the PCW8256 signals that it is out of 

paper. 

The choice of print quality is between professional 
High quality printing and the quicker Draft quality 
that you would typically use to check that your document 
is how you want it. Obviously, you must have one or the 
other of these options and so setting Draft quality, clears 
High quality and clearing Draft quality, sets High quality. 

Single sheet or continuous stationery is another either/or choice. Moreover, if you select 
Si ng Le Sheet , all the rest of the settings will be automatically adjusted to those needed by 
A4 paper - ie. 70 lines to the page, a gap of six lines at the top, a gap of three lines at the 
bottom of the page and no special signal at the end of the page. 

Similarly, selecting Continuous automatically adjusts the settings to those needed by 
standard Hindi continuous paper - in particular, 66 lines to the page and a gap of five lines 
at the perforations. This, in fact, gives you the same number of print lines on 1 linch continuous 
stationery as on A4 single sheet. 

Any additional settings you want to change, you alter through this Options menu. Note that the 
length of each sheet of paper is measured in l/6ths of an inch (ie. it is the maximum number of 
standard lines that can be printed on the page), and the length of the gap you want left at the 
bottom of each sheet of paper is again given as a number of standard lines. Making sure that 
these parameters are set correctly is very important. 



116 



Guide to LocoScript 



Paper out defeat is used to prevent the printer automatically stopping when it detects that 
it is nearing the bottom of the paper. When this option has a / beside it, the printer won't stop. 

Normally you will want to select this option when you are using single sheet stationery 
(because you want to use its full length) but not when you are using continuous stationery 
(because you will often want to leave a long print-out unattended), 



Clear "Halting for Paper* 



■/ unce 



f2- Paper This menu is used to take the printer out of its 
Waiting for Paper state. 



When printing on single sheets of paper, LocoScript will wait at the end of each sheet of 
paper for you to insert the next sheet. Inserting the new sheet will normally let LocoScript 
continue printing once you leave Printer Control State. You will only need the Paper menu if 
this is not the case. 

It is possible for the printer to be waiting for paper when there appears to be lots of paper 
waiting to be used. What is likely to have happened here is that you are using continuous 
stationery while the printer is still set up for single sheets of paper: put this right first. 
Alternatively, you could have inserted the paper into the printer without using the paper load 

mechanism. 

Pressing [en ter | will clear the Waiting for Paper state. 



* to : 



' FeeaTo top of for* 



op 
Set top of forn 



Set left offset 

Offset size: 



f3- Actions This menu enables you to release the current 
sheet of paper (by selecting Feed to top of f orm ) and 
to set the position of the left hand edge of the printed 
document relative to your sheet of paper (the Left Offset). 
It is also used when you axe using continuous stationery to 
tell the printer that the current print position corresponds 
to the Top of Form, ie. the level on the page at which the 
first line will be printed. 



Nane: HEZAM.QZ 

hw page i 

This page 1 

To page i 



This page 
hm beginning 



f5- Document/Reprint This menu has two roles. It gives 
you access to details of the document that is being printed 
and it enables you to reprint pages if the paper gets 
mangled in the printer for some reason while you are 
printing the document. Turn to Appendix I for advice on 
how to get paper passing freely through the printer again. 

The Reprint part of the menu gives you three choices, 
once you have sorted out the paper in the printer. You can 
either start printing again at the top of the page it was 
printing when you stopped it, or you can start at the top of 
the previous page, or you can start all over again. 



- „ Guide to LocoScript 



117 



Move the menu cursor down to the option you require and press the H key. You will be 
prompted to ensure that the next print position is at the top of a new sheet of paper before 
continuing. Do this before pressing [ixTr_ J to leave Printer Control State and continue printing. 

If you decide to reprint from the top of the previous page and the paper becomes mangled 
again almost immediately, you will only get the first and third of these options when you try 
again. You can't go back and print the page previous to that one. 



I flhawl tffl wrintiiw and reset 

I Cancel 



n= Reset This menu enables you to reset the printer. This 
option is used only rarely. 

It is also used to abandon printing, if required. 



f8= On/Off Line Pressing [~SJ switches between these two states of the printer. 

The printer must be On-line to print. If you want it to stop printing while you do something 
else, you will normally just press |>~™] to put the printer into Printer Control State. 

However, it will automaticaUy start printing again when you leave Printer Control State. If this 
is not what you want, you should put the printer Off-line. 

When you are ready to go back to printing, press [ exit ] 

Once all the various settings have been made, there is only one way in which your document 
might not come out right - the text could be wrongly positioned on the page. 

This indicates that the physical dimensions of the paper you are printing on are different from 
the dimensions you told LocoScript when it was laying out and paginating the document. 

If the paper the document was laid out for was smaller than the paper you are using, then you 
should be all right: the printer will just print everything towards the top and to the left of each 
sheet of paper. 

But if the paper you are using is the smaller one, you could have a relatively poor result, with 
text for one page spread over two or more sheets of paper. 

Either change the paper you are printing on, or edit the document so that it has the correct 

layout and pagination (see Stage 10). 



Direct printing 

LocoScript's Direct Printing mode allows you to type in and print text line by line. This is 
useful, for example, for filling in forms It is one of the options you are offered from the Disc 
Manager screen. The key to press is D. 



j jg Guide to LocoScript 



What happens when you press D is that a short menu is put up, asking you to confirm that you 
want the Direct Printing feature by pressing [enter]. Then the screen changes to the usual 
editing screen and you can type in text in the normal way. 

But instead of waiting for you to complete the whole document before printing it, what you 
type m is printed part by part as you press the Return key. It then is erased from the screen: 
your document never gets stored. 

The advantage of this mode of operation is that you can pause between lines, as and when you 
wish, and reposition the print head so that the next line with appear on the page in exactly the 
place you want it. (We will tell you how to do this shortly.) 

However, you can only correct the text you have on the screen, just like a line-by-line 

electronic typewriter. 

All the word processing actions that you use on your other documents are still available to 
you. You can underline words, print them in bold script, change the pitch, centre text or right 

justify it as you will. 

In particular, you may find it useful to set the line spacing to when you are filling in 

especially complex forms, as then you can set up the individual entries on a line separately 
and not worry either about their spacing or about getting them properly aligned. 

Another setting you might consider is that of the right margin so that there is no danger of 
printing too far over to the right. 

The key facility LocoScript gives you is that of setting the Left Offset for each piece of text you 
type in. The Left Offset determines where the first character of the text will be printed. The 
ruler LocoScript gives you to set up the text has the left margin at the left-hand edge of the 
screen to help you make best use of the Left Offset facility. 

You set the Left Offset by first putting the printer into Printer Control State (by pressing the 
[ ptr'1 key) and then selecting f3=Actions . 



* to 



feed one line 
Feed to top of for* 
Set top of for* 



Set left offset 



The option you need from this menu is Offset si ze . With the 
menu cursor on this line, you can use the left and right cursor 
keys to set the print position on the current line directly. Use the 
Paper Feed Knob for any adjustments you want to make up and 
down the page. 



As you use the cursor keys, you will see that this both moves the 
print head column by column and changes the value recorded 
on the Offset size line of the menu. But if you hold down the [jhift| key as well as the cursor 
key. the print head will move an inch at a time and the Offset size will change in tens. 



Guide to LocoScript 119 



Alternatively you can set the Offset directly by typing in a number on the Offset si ze line of 
the menu. Whatever the character pitch you are currently working in on the screen, this 
number must be in terms of lOcpi characters - le. tenths of an inch. 

The Offset you set remains in force until you change it. If you move to the Of f set si ze line of 
the menu and press the [ ] key, then the offset goes back to zero offset - printing from column 
1. 

Press | exit ~] when you are ready to go back to printing. 

Printing part of a document 

If you wish to print only a certain number of pages out of a multi-page document, you must 
first finish editing and return to the main Disc management menu (you cannot use the 
Save and Print option that is available during editing). 



Print docuwe.it 



Na*e: 

Group: 

Drive: 



DOCUMiNl.W 

LETTOS 

M 



When you have finished editing, select Print 
document by pressing P. At the bottom of the menu 
that appears, you will see the option Print some 
pages. Move the cursor down to this option (notice 
that the tick moves down with the cursor) and press 
[enterJ , 



i Print soae 

i _ 


pages 




j Hawe: 


DOCUKINI.W 


First page 




1 


Froft page 




_2 


Last page 




5 



You will then receive another menu which indicates 
the first and last page numbers in the document, and 
lets you select the range of pages to be printed. Use 
the cursor to move to the page you wish to specify, 
then type in the required page number. LocoScript 
will make sure that you do not choose an invalid 
range of page numbers. When you are satisfied with 
your page selection, press | ente r"] and the pages 
will be printed. 



If printing the document is interrupted by pressing the I ptr I key, for example because 
the paper becomes jammed, the Reprint menu (called up by pressing I is I ) gives 
you a choice of where to reprint from, including from the beginning. If you 
originally asked for just a section of the document to be printed, then this means reprinting 
from the first page of that section. 



120 



Guide to LocoScript 



Stage 9 



Eliminating keystrokes 



LocoScript has a menu to assist you in setting each parameter needed to arrange your 
document the way you want it. These menus are intended to be particularly helpful when you 
are unfamiliar with how LocoScript generates the various word processing features. 

LocoScript also gives you more direct ways of putting the relevent codes into the document to 
use when you are accustomed to word processing with LocoScript. These save you much of 
the time that is inevitably taken in going through a series of menus and submenus. 

However, the menus are always there to help if you need to use them. 

To understand how these shortcuts operate, it would be easiest if you have one of the sample 
documents up on the screen and the display in the Show Codes state. Use the Show menu for 

this. 



Using the Set and Clear menus 

The first shortcut uses the so-called Set and Clear menus, which you bring up on the screen 

by pressing the [•_■ and keys respectively, 





1 *: 




Hi 


Centre 


Double 


! double 




Italic 


Italic 




Keep ?? 


: Keep ?? 




LayouT ! 


j Layoul ?? 




Line Pitch 


i Line Pitch ? 




Line Spacing 


I Line Spacing ?? 




Pitch 


i Last Line 




Rel/erse 


j Last Page Nunber 




SuBscr ipt 


! Pitch ?? ? 




SupeRscript 
Underline 


■ Page Nunber 
ReQerse 






<J soft space 


! Right Justify 
1 SuBscr ipt 

1 SupeRscript 
; Underline 




<-) soft hyphen 






1 Word underline 




! UniT 




; - hard space 




! h hard hyphen 







If you just press either of these keys, there will be a pause before the menu appears, but if you 
press the key and then press the \f}U\ key, the menu will come up immediately. 



— - ■ Guide to LocoScript 



121 



The Set and Clear menus cover every word processing parameter that you either specifically 
set or specifically clear as you work through your document. 

Once you are familiar with the names for the various word processing actions, you will 
probably find it much easier to use these menus for frequently used effects such as Bold, 
Double-strike and Italic characters; Centred or Right Justified text; or changes of Line Spacing 
or Character Pitch. 

Layout is also an option of both the Set and Clear menus. Use the Set menu to change to using 
one of the numbered layouts, remembering to press [enter | after typing the layout's number. 
Use the Clear menu to return to using the Base Layout. Inserting a layout using one of these 
menus doesn't give you the extra carriage return. You can similarly use the Clear menu to 
return to using the Line Pitch, Line Spacing and Character Pitch specified in the Base Layout. 

The Set and Clear menus work very much like all the other menus. You use the cursor keys to 
put the menu cursor over the feature of interest^You then have the option of typing in a 
parameter and-'or pressing either the U key or [enter] to make your selection. 

The difference is that while you can often set several features at once through a 'functional' 
menu pressing either of these keys immediately plants the relevant code in the document 
and takes you out of the menu. If you want to put in another code at the same place in the 
document, you have to press QJ or QJ all over again. 



Using abbreviations 

The real shortcut is that you don't actually have to move the cursor at all. 

As you may well have noticed, all the messages in the menus and the corresponding codes 
that get planted in the text have certain letters in capitals and the rest in lower case. These 
capital letters are important. 

The moment you enter any of the menus - not just the Set and Clear ones - you can quickly 
move the cursor to the line you require by typing in any abbreviated form of its name 
provided this includes the letters shown in capitals. You can, of course, type in either 

upper case or lower case. 

To see this work, put up the Set menu by pressing the [£| key. 

Now suppose you would like to set Right Justification here. You could instantly move the 
cursor down to this line by now typing just RJ or rj or right^or rt j or any other suitable 
abbreviation containing both R and J. Then just press [ 1 1 or [ enter 1 as before. 

Try this out for yourself. Notice that the Set and Clear menus get shorter as you type your 
abbreviation: LocoScript cuts out any option that is no longer valid. 



j 22 Guide to LocoScript 



Doing without menus 

If you prefer, you don't have to use the menus at all. 

Suppose you want to right justify a line; each line of your address would be a suitable 
example. All you need to type is j ■ ] followed by RJ (or whatever your favourite abbreviation 
for right justification is): you don't even have to press a final [ enter ! • LocoScript only needs 
you to press [enter^ if the menu has appeared on the screen, as it will do if you pause for a 

while between keystrokes. 

As you type this in, LocoScript compares the letters you type with entries in the Set and Clear 
menus and so homes in on the word processing code you require. As soon as it has identified 
the code, it inserts this in your document. 

If you hit a key by mistake while typing in the code's name or abbreviation, LocoScript will 
spot this if it cannot find any entry that matches the letters you have typed. The PCW8256 wiU 
bleep and throw away the wrong character just carry on from there. 

But if there is an entry that matches what you have typed, LocoScript won't spot your mistake. 
In this case, what to do depends on whether what you typed resulted in LocoScript inserting a 
code If a code is inserted, press [Wl to erase the code inserted in error and start inserting 
the code again. If no code has been inserted, press ^deI] to erase the last character you 
typed and carry on from there. 

You can do this with any of the codes included in the Set and Clear menus. The only 
differences in operation are that you press the hyphen key for soft and hard hyphens, the 
space bar for soft and hard spaces, and that you need to press [enteV] after typing a number 
as part of the code. 

If you ever get confused, press the [Ml key. This will put the relevant menu up on the screen 
and show you more clearly what you need to do to get the right effect. 



Guide to LocoScript 



123 



Stage 10 



Setting up a group template 



A major feature of LocoScript is the way like documents are grouped together, not just on the 
Disc Manager screen but also in terms of having a similar layout and maybe the same initial 
text. The common layout and the common text are regarded as the template for the group and 
they are held in a special file called TEMPLATE.STD. 

We advise you to use this grouping facility of LocoScript wisely. Take care over selecting 
which group to put a document in and standardise on a few standard layouts for all the 
documents in one group. Make these layouts part of your TEMPLATE.STD. This will save you 
from having to set up layouts afresh for each new document. 

TEMPLATE.STD is in fact just like a document. It has exactly the same structure and can be 
created and edited in the same way. You can also move templates, copy them and erase them 
like any other documents. 

The only thing that is special about it is that when you create a new document, what 
LocoScript actually does is to make a copy of this document and then lets you edit this copy. 



_ A new template 

■— If a group has no TEMPLATE.STD file, you can create one from the Disc Manager screen by 

pressing C - just as you would to create a new document. 

_ LocoScript then looks to see if you have another TEMPLATE.STD available. The way it 

searches for a template to use instead is best explained by example. 

Suppose the group you are working on is the fourth group on the disc in Drive A. LocoScript 
' first looks to see if you have a TEMPLATE.STD in the fourth group on Drive M. If that fails, it 

„ will next examine the first group on Drive A, followed (if necessary) by the first group on 

Drive M. 

If all else fails, LocoScript will use the template built into the software: this gives you a simple 
"~ layout suitable for A4 paper, with the text printed in the standard character pitch of 12 

_ characters per inch. 

■- You can take advantage of the way LocoScript searches for a template to put the eight 

TEMPLATE.STD files you want to use on your Start of Day disc, rather than on Data discs. The 
PCW8256 will automatically copy these files into Drive M as part of loading the LocoScript 
*_ software. 

._ Guide to LocoScript 125 



Editing TEMPLATE.STD 

Note the editing actions described here are not limited to editing TEMPLATE.STD - they 
apply equally well to editing any individual document. 

The first thing to edit is the Base Layout within this document, if this does not meet your 

requirements. 

You edit the Base Layout by editing the document's File Header. The editing menu that 
includes this option is the Modes menu - so start by pressing [ fr | . 

The line to select from this is Edi t Header, which puts up a new screen (the one for editing 
the Header and Footer zone text) and a new set of function key actions. 

■^■■end of header 1 : used for all paws^w— — — ■■ 

■nd of footer 1 : used for all pages i i^ — — — — — * 



end of header 2 : used for no pages at alii 
nd of footer 2 : used for no pages at a !!■ 



Select f?=Options . This puts up a further set of function key actions. 

a, ■■» ■> * I nl ...... I - ... i ......... » i ......... I ............... . Li*A»**t****»A*ifc« 

To change the Base Layout from here, you need f 1= Layout . Selecting this puts you into the 
Layout Editor. You now have all the facilities to change the parameters of the Base Layout that 
you had when you edited other layouts. There is no difference in their operation here. Turn 
back to Stage 4 if you are unsure how to change these parameters. 

Once you have the Base Layout set up to your satisfaction, we suggest you spend some time 
setting up a few 'standard' layouts for you to use. Either work from your Base Layout, creating 
some new layouts, or examine the layouts you already have set up (if any), sort out the ones 
you really want to use and get these just right. 

Again, turn back to Stage 4 if you are unsure how to do this. 

You can also set up (and change) the text part of a TEMPLATE.STD - exactly like you 
change the text in any document. For instance, one of your first actions might be to replace 
the phrase Your address' in the template for the LETTERS group with your actual address. 

You could, at the same time, ensure that your address is right justified and that 'Addressee' 
and 'Dear' are in exactly the right place for your window envelopes. 

126 Guide to LocoScript 



You can also make a copy of this template as the TEMPLATE.STD for another group but this 
time replace your address by blank lines. This would give you a suitable template for use with 

headed notepaper. 

When you have finished, it would be a good idea to print out your TEMPLATE.STD files and 
keep the print-outs for reference. If you would like to keep a record of the layout information 
as well, you can do this by getting the printer to produce a dot by dot image of the screen 
while it has the layout on it. All you need to do is press [extra ) and | pt"r | simultaneously and 
then wait while the image is printed. 



Other changes to File Header 



The other changes you can make to the File Header are accessible both directly from the 
Modes menu and additionally through the Options menu. 

Selecting Edi t Header from the Modes menu gives you the chance to edit the Header and 
Footer zone text for your documents. You could, for example, set up a group that would have 

'CONFIDENTIAL' printed at the top of each page. 

The other possibilities come from selecting f 7=0ptions from within Header and Footer text 
editing. 

Three of these - Breaks , Page si ze and Pagination we covered in discussing ways of 
enhancing how your text is set out on the page (see Stage 6) You might use the Page size 
option to ensure that a particular group of documents would be laid out properly for some 
special size of paper. 

The others set up your documents in a more technical way, so you are likely to use them 
rarely. 

Characters gives you two choices. One is the option of 
changing between using zeroes with and without slashes 
through them. The other is between using a decimal point (.) and 
a comma (,) as the character used by LocoScript to align 
columns of numbers at a decimal tab. You might need this if you 
have to produce a report for use abroad. 

Tab count allows you to reset the maximum number of layouts 
allowed in the document and the maximum number of tab stops 
allowed in each layout. 

The absolute maximum for either of these is 99 but you will 
rarely need anything like this number. Choose a number that 
reflects what you need: asking for more than that will waste disc 

space. 



; r — — — — "ll 

!! Characters: 


;< nmSfKMVH ' : 


2ero is j 


Decinal is . V 

Decimal is , jj 




Haxifta: __; 


KiniMi; 

W tabs each m 



■ ■— - Guide to LocoScript 



127 



Summaries off your documents 

As a further step in refining a document, you might like to set up a short piece of text, called 
an Identity, that you can use later to quickly discover what text the document holds. 

You can look at a document's identity without editing the document. One of the actions you 
can carry out directly from the Disc Manager screen is to 'Inspect' the identity of a document 
you pick out. You just press \\_\ and identify the document you want to know about the 
usual way. Whatever text has been set up will be displayed. 

Setting up this text involves calling up the Modes menu from within document editing and 
then selecting Edit Identify text. A special area is then marked out on the 
screen which gives you precisely three lines of 30 characters in which to set up a summary 
of the whole document, 

Set up each line in tum. If you make any mistakes move the cursor back over what you have 
typed and make whatever corrections are required. You do not have to delete characters 
back to where you made the mistake and type in the remaining text from there. You can also 
use the LD key to clear from the cursor position to the end of the line. As you complete each 
line, move down to the next. 



128 Guide to LocoScript 



LocoScript summarised 



This chapter provides an easy reference guide to the facilities of Locomotive Software's 
LocoScript word processing software, intended to be used when you are familiar with using 
LocoScript but just wish to check some aspect of the system. 

In practice, you will rarely need to refer to this chapter as the menus give you all the 

information you need. 

How LocoScript views your documents 

LocoScript records any document as a long sequence of characters - some of them spelling 
words; others of them codes that tell it how to process the following characters, rather than 
specifying their exact positions, 

In this it is unlike many word processing systems which view documents as if they were 
already printed on a page. 

Codes can be inserted anywhere within the document and they can be deleted just as if they 
were simple characters. Some of them have a predefined length of effect: others are paired - 
one to turn the effect on, the other to turn the effect off. 

The information LocoScript needs to interpret these codes is stored separately. Some of this 
information is permanently part of the LocoScript software; the rest - Layouts and File 
Headers - you can set up as you wish. All you need to ensure is that you have inserted the 
codes you want, 

This view of a document gives LocoScript a lot of flexibility. You do not need to edit a 
document line by line or paragraph by paragraph, just because you decide to change the 

position of the left hand margin. Similarly, it is easy to undo any change of layout that you later 
regret. 



Guide to LocoScript 129 



Key features of LocoScript 

The things about LocoScript to always keep in mind aie: 

• LocoScript uses Current information as the starting point for any change. The idea of 
this is to minimise the amount of work you need to do to carry out a minor change. Thus 
the layout you are offered as a starting point when you create a new layout, is the one 
you have just been using. 

It also views the document you have just been working on as the Current document until 
you direct it to another file. This means that if you want, for example, to copy a 
document immediately after you have edited it, you don't have to tell LocoScript the 
details of the file all over again. 

Similarly on the Disc Manager screen, directing the file cursor to the document you 
want is enough to tell LocoScript that this is the file you are interested in. You don't have 
to type a single character of its name. 

This notion of what is current can be used to great effect. 

. The top line of the Document Editing screen displays what codes are active at the 
current cursor position. The line of function key assignments tells you only what actions 
you can access from your current state by pressing these. 

. Some keys have specific roles - for example, the textual movement keys [char], [woro|, 
[ une~1 . reoi- 1. I para I, \ page 1 and [~P°I3- 

[enter] is always used to confirm an action; ["camJ to tell LocoScript that you want to 
abandon the current action; and | exJF ] to leave the current state - whether that is editing 

a document or controlling the printer. 

The key is always used to set some parameter or to insert the code that turns on 
some word processing action. The f J key is always used to clear a previous setting or 
turn off the effect of a previous code, 

[cuT| followed by a second [cut 1 deletes the text between the places the two cuts 

were made. 

[copy] followed by a second [cop y] and a digit (or a letter) copies the text between into 
the Block (or Phrase) identified by the number (or letter), leaving the original text intact. 
If the second [c opy! is replaced by [cut! the text is copied into the Block but deleted 
from the document. 

[p^Fe| followed by a digit or a letter pastes the contents of a Block or a Phrase into the 

document at that point. 



I oq Guide to LocoScript 



1 UNIT 1 moves the cursor to a marker inserted in the text. It works like the other Textua] 
Movement Keys. Pressing the [unitJ key will move you to the next marker in the text; 
holding down the [jvltJ key at the same time as pressing \wn} will move you to the 
previous marker. The markers are inserted through the UniT option of the Set menu. 

I ™ D I asks for a P^ce of text to match against the document and searches forward tc 
find this. 

[exch] asks for a piece of text to search for in the document and for a second to replace 
this text by. If the next key pressed is (Vara], [page] or [joe], LocoScript will make the 
exchange within the indicated parts of the document. If the next key pressed is [enter] 
LocoScript will prompt for confirmation at each possible exchange. Press [+j tc 
exchange; [ ' j to go on to the next case; and [ can - ) to exit. 

The cursor keys always move the cursor that is relevant to what you are doing, whethei 
this is typing in additions to a document or moving between options in a menu 01 
moving from parameter to parameter as you edit the details of a layout. 

LocoScript accepts a wide range of different layouts and print styles in the same 
document. This will often mean that the right hand edge of the text on the screen will be 
distorted, particularly as you change from one character pitch (size) to another, because 
only one style of characters can be displayed on the screen. But these lines correspond 
exactly with the lines when the document is printed, both in terms of where each line 
breaks and where each page breaks. 

LocoScript constantly corrects any mis-setting of the text following major editing all the 
way up to the point in the text you are currently working on. 

LocoScript will also provide you with as much or as little information about the codes 
that are setting out your document as you want. The choice is yours whether to display 
the mnemonics of the various codes, the changes of margin and tab settings associated 
with changes of document layout or even the difference between the spaces in the 
document you have typed and those that have resulted from the way the document is 
being laid out. 

When LocoScript detects a problem, for example in storing or reading a document for 
you, it displays a message in a box on the screen advising you of the problem and 
telling you what possible actions you can take. In particular, you will be warned if an 
action will result in the loss of the editing you have just done. The box incorporates a 
cursor, rather like a menu cursor. Make your selection of which action to take in exactly 
the same way as you select options from a menu. This action takes precedence over any 
other actions you might be expecting LocoScript to carry out. 

For all its sophisticated features, the PCW8256 running LocoScript has Shift, Shift Lock 
and Tab keys that work in the same way as those on traditional typewriters. If you wish, 
it can also act as an electronic typewriter, printing out prepared material line by line. 



Guide to LocoScript 131 



Operating the menus 

Menus form an important part of LocoScript because they are the medium through which most 
of the codes are inserted, particularly when you are new to using LocoScript. 

You call up most of the menus by pressing the key suggested in the information lines at the 
top of the screen. 

You then move the cursor to the right option in the menu, either by using the Up and Down 
cursor keys or alternatively by typing an abbreviated form of the name of the option. This 
abbreviation must include the letters shown in capitals but can otherwise be as much of the 
full name as you choose. 

If the option is something you might want to set or to clear, then press the I : ~ key to set it - this 
puts a / next to the item on the menu. If you want to clear it (le. there ^already a /next to it), 
press the Q key. When you are happy with all the settings, press the [i^ key: this puts the 
right code into your document and takes you out of the menu. 

If the option is one you select rather than set, then press either E or L^l- These keystrokes 

Either 

put the right code into your document and take you out of the menu 

or 

put up a submenu from which you make a further selection 



put up a special screen for you to work on. 

Pressing [e_nHrJ from either the submenu or the special screen will return you to your 
document. 

The above should gave you a good picture of the general principles involved^ They are 

necessarily very general. If you are in any doubt as to what keys to press, refer to the sections 

below where the word processing actions and the menus that access them are described in 

detail. 

If, at any time, you want to leave a menu without setting the codes, press [_«nJ 



132 



Guide to LocoScript 



LocoScript shortcuts 



The Set and Clear menus 

The Set and Clear menus provide an alternative to 'functional' 
menus. They offer a quick way of setting and clearing word 
processing features such as underlining and justification, but you 

need to remember which codes do what in more detail than you do 
when you use their functional counterparts. 

The menus are accessed by pressing [7] for the Set menu and |~" | for 
the Clear menu. Press the \gjf] key if you want to see the full menu. 
This, however, will appear anyway after a short while. 

Each time you access either menu, you may only make one 
selection which you do by moving the cursor to the right line and 
pressing either \T\ or | ent er |. Alternatively you can type in an 
abbreviation of the title of the code you want, whereupon the menu 
shrinks - leaving you with just the code you requested. This 
abbreviation must contain the letters shown as capitals. 

Note: 

that a hard space is inserted by pressing the space bar from the 
Set menu and a hard hyphen by pressing the hyphen key 

that a soft space is inserted by pressing the space bar from the 
Clear menu and a soft hyphen by pressing the hyphen key 

Avoiding the menus 

Where you want to insert a code in the document that either sets or 
clears a word processing feature, you can do this by typing either 
\T] or Q followed by an appropriate abbreviation for the code you 
require. This abbreviation must include any capital letters in the 
name of the feature, as displayed in either the Set or the Clear 
menu. 



Si 



99 

9 



,entre 
Double 
Italic 
Keep 
LayouT 
Line Pitch 
Line Spacing ?? 
Last Line 
Last Page Nunber 
Pitch ?? ? 
Page Nuaher 
ReOerse 
Sight Justify 
Subscript 
SupeRscript 
UnderLine 
Hon! underline 
Ihiil 

m hard space 
H hard hyphen 



Double 



99 



Italic 

Keep 

Layoul 

Line Pitch 

Line Spacing 

Pitch 

Reverse 

SuBscript 

SupeRscript 

UnderLine 

(J soft space 

<-) soft hyphen 



- This is, in fact, the same as using abbreviations within the Set and Clear menus - except you 

don't wait for the menu to pop up and you don't press [enter] to finally insert the code. 

What you type is shown in a patch on the screen. If you make a mistake, press [*5eTJ and 
correct from there. Note, LocoScript may have already planted a code in your document - so 
^_ make your corrections according to the effect what you type has on what is displayed in the 

patch. 

You can always erase unwanted codes from your document by using the [*del] key. 



fc— Guide to LocoScript 



133 



Summary off the word processing menus 
The Show menu 



AH the options on this menu can be either set (with a / beside them) 
or cleared. The current state of these settings is stored with each 
document. 

The description below describes the action when the option is set. 



Shw state of: 



suiers 
Blanks 
Spaces 
Iffectors 1/ 



Codes 

All the codes within the document that control word processing features are displayed on 
the screen as part of the document. 

Rulers 

Any rulers that have been set within the document are displayed above the first line to 
which they apply. 

Blanks 

All places within the document where nothing has been typed are shown as dots. 

Spaces 

All spaces (as distinct from blanks) within the document are shown as bullets. 

Effectors 

All carriage returns, tabs and 'End page here' symbols are displayed as part of the 

document, rather than hidden. 

The Layout menu 

Selections from this menu are made using the L±J key. 

Insert Layout 



brand New Layout 

The screen changes to allow you to set up a new layout, taking 
the layout you have just been using as your starting point. The 
keys you need to press to change the various parameters of the 
layout are indicated in the information lines at the top of the 
screen. Press f exit ] when you have finished setting up the new 
layout. LocoScript automatically gives this layout a new number 
which is displayed in the information lines while you are using it. 
It also inserts a carriage return so that the ruler part of the layout 
can be effective immediately. 



;Docimerit layout : 

; Insert layout 



I Base layout 

■ Edit layout 



Layout 



tn 



134 



Guide to LocoScript 



You will not be offered this option when all your layouts are in use. If you need more 
layouts, you must go into Header Editing (through -f7=Modes). 

Layout ?? 

Type in the number of the layout you want to use and then press [ enter"]. The layout you 

requested will be used from the beginning of the next line and its number displayed in the 
information lines. 

Base Layout 

Makes the current layout the one specified as your base layout. It will become effective at 
the beginning of the next line. 

Edit Layout 

current Layout 

The screen changes to allow you to alter the layout line. The keys you need to press to 
change the various parameters are indicated in the information lines at the top of the 
screen. Press [enter | when you have finished setting it up. The new version of the layout 
becomes effective at the beginning of the next line. 

You will not be offered this option if the current layout is the Base Layout. To edit the Base 
Layout, you must go into Header Editing. 

Layout ?? 

Type in the number of the layout you want to change and then press [+] or [enter | The 
screen changes to allow you to alter the layout you have just specified. The keys you need 
to press to change the various parameters are indicated in the information lines at the top 
of the screen. Press [enter | when you have finished setting it up. These changes will only 
affect those parts of the document that use this layout. 

The Emphasis menu 



The items in this menu can either be set or cleared by pressing the 
| '"] and [J keys, [enter] is pressed when you have the combination 

you require. 

The description here describes the state when the parameter is set. 
Only setting the Under Line option calls up a further submenu. 



Enphasis codes: 



♦ Underline 



^sra 



me 



- Bold 

- Double 

- Reverse Mideo 



Underline 

_^ a FuLL under Line Both words and the spaces between words 

are underlined. The underlining appears both on the screen and when the document is 
»■— ■ printed. 

*— Word under L i ne Words are underlined but spaces are not. The underlining appears both 
on the screen and when the document is printed. 

~— Guide to LocoScript 135 



Bold 

Subsequent characters are emboldened. This only shows when the document is printed. 
Bold is not shown on the screen. 

Double 

The printer is put into its Double-strike mode for printing subsequent characters. The 
effect is not shown on the screen. 

ReVerse Video 

Subsequent characters on the screen are shown in reverse video. The effect is not shown 
when the document is printed. 



The Style menu 

The items within this menu can be set or cleared using the [ - [ and 
[£] keys. The description here generally gives just the result of 

setting the option. 

Setting either Half height or Pitch calls up the associated 
submenus. 

Italic 

Subsequent characters will be printed as italic (ie. slanted) 
characters. The effect is not shown on the screen. 

Half height 

SupeRsc ri pt Subsequent characters are printed half height and 
raised. The effect is not shown on the screen. 



Character style: 



r. Half Height 



- Italic 



10 pitch 
12 pitch • 
IS pitch 
17 pitch 

Prop, spacing 



nornal width </ 
Double width 



SuBscript Subsequent characters are printed half height and lowered. The effect is not 
shown on the screen. 



Pitch 



Selecting a new pitch setting cancels any earlier pitch setting. Similarly, setting either 
Normal width or Double width cancels any earlier width setting. 

Clearing pitch sets the pitch to the base pitch for your document. 



136 



Guide to LocoScript 



The Pages menu 

Options are selected from this menu by pressing [£J 

Last Line of page 

Marks the line as the last line of the page. The next line of the 
document will always appear at the top of the next page. This 
overrides any Keep instructions that may apply. 

end page here 

Marks the current position as the place where the line will 
break. The next character will always appear at the top of the 

next page. This overrides any Keep instructions that may apply, 



Page layout; 



053 
me of 



page 



Keep lines together 
Above w 

Below « 



insert page niwber 
this Page Number 
Last Page Number 



Keep lines together 

Above ?? Allows you to set the number of lines above the current position that should not 
be divided by a page break. The current line is included. 

Be Low ?? Allows you to set the number of lines below the current position that should not 
be divided by a page break. The current line is included. 

insert page number 

this Page Number Inserts the code that precedes the string of Vs. '>'s or ' = 's that mark 
where you want the number of the current page to be inserted. 

Last Page Number Inserts the code that precedes the string of '<'s, '>'s or ' = 's that mark 
where you want the number of the last page of the document to be inserted. 



The Modes menu 

Allows disc management from within a document and editing of the 

document header. Selections are made by pressing ft] 

Disc management 

Allows general disc housekeeping, for example, deleting a file if 
the disc is full. 



■ [Editor sub-nodes: [ 

ij itfit Id en 1 1? y Text ! ; 

I- Insert text ! : 

•j Disc Management ! 



Edit Identify text 

Puts up an editing screen to allow you to edit the document's summary. The text can be no 
more than 90 characters long. Press [enter] when you have finished editing this text. 



138 



Guide to LocoScript 



Edit header 

First puts up the screen in which you edit the Header and Footer text. Most of the function 
key actions are those of document editing. 

Selecting Options gives you a second set of function key actions as follows: 

f1 Layout 

Puts you into Layout Editing so that you can edit the base layout 

f 3 ^Characters sets 

zero character is with or without a slash 
decimal tabs aligned on full stops or commas 

f5=Tab count sets 

the maximum number of layouts you wish to set 

the maximum number of tabs that can be set within a layout. 

The highest values either of these can take is 99, but the bigger this setting the bigger 

your documents will become. Ten of each should meet most requirements. 

f6-Breaks sets 

widows and orphans (one line of a paragraph on a different page) prevented or allowed 
breaking paragraphs between two pages prevented or allowed 

f 7-Page size sets 

the page length, the depth of the Header Zone, the position of 
the first line of header text within the Header Zone, the depth 
of the Footer Zone and the position of the first line of footer 
text within the Footer Zone. 

All parameters are given as a number of whole lines. The 
distances for the Header Zone are measured from the top of 
the page: those for the Footer Zone are measured from the 
bottom of the page. 

The number of lines in the page body resulting from your choice of other dimensions is 
displayed in the centre of the menu. If the net effect of your choices is impossible to 
achieve, then the message inconsistent will appear immediately below the page 
body. You will not be allowed to | enter] this choice. 



". _-. ■ — - ..; 

■ Page size; | 


<l£H%3n«K9! 


! Header zone 

] position 


3! 
? 


; .', page body 


S4i 


' Footer zone 
i| position 


7 i 

66 j 



Guide to LocoScript 139 



f8-Pagination j^ation: """^] 

First page number sets the number of the first page. jj llf^rai- ff^'il^TtffffS g; 
This cannot be greater than 9999. All other page numbers i> fi j| y ages sane "7 1 

are calculated from this value. J [£t paSfdilf J" 5 ! 

; • Odd/even pa9es differ [ 

Alt pages same uses the same Header and Footer text j r - — - | 

on all pages. » Header enabled J 

■ Footer enabled v* 



First page differs uses different Header and Footer \-- i AS ^ p age 
text on the first page to the rest of the document. Header ™J}j* ' 



Last page differs uses different Header and Footer 
text on the last page to the rest of the document. 

Odd /even pages differ uses one set of Header and Footer text for odd-numbered 
pages and another for even-numbered pages. 

First page sets whether the Header text and/or the Footer text are printed on the first 
page. 

Last page sets whether the Header text and/or the Footer text are printed on the last 

page. 

Insert text 

Puts up the Disc Manager screen so that you can pick out the document you want to insert in 

the current text. 

The Blocks menu 



Block 



Lists all the blocks that currently have text stored in them. iSiext storage; 



., , ~ "Block 

Save block ? 



Allows you to save a particular block to disc. Pressing [enter] ; |jg%^{!iMBWMi 

causes the Disc Manager screen to be displayed to help you ;fpj|^~ $£f~ 

choose what name to give this new document and where it J! K M P KS Z 

should be stored. I Save all phrases 



Phrase 

Lists all the Phrases that currently have text stored in them. 

Save all phrases 

Allows you to save the current set of phrases as your new PHRASES.STD file. 



140 Guide to LocoScript 



Appendix I 

Troubleshooting 



On pressing the Power button, the PCW8256 fails to display a bright green screen 

- Turn off the power by pressing the Power buttton a second time. 

- Disconnect the PCW8256 from the mains supply. 

Plug a table lamp that you know to be working into the mains supply to check your 
mains outlet. 

- Check that the plug on the PCW8256 has been correctly wired (see Chapter 1) 

- Disconnect and then reconnect the keyboard and the printer to the PCW8256 Monitor 
unit. 

- If an RS232C/Centronics Interface is fitted, disconnect this. 

- Plug the PCW8256 back into the mains supply, remembering to switch on any mains 
switches. 

- Finally, press the Power button again. 

If the screen still does not come up bright green, consult your dealer. 
You are unable to insert your disc in the drive 

- Check that there is not already a disc in the drive. If there is, you should be able to see 

its label. 

Any disc already in the drive will be released when you press the Eject button on the 
drive. 

Check that you are trying to insert the disc the right way round (see Section 3.1.2). 

On inserting a Start of Day disc (see Chapter 3), the screen does not show the 
appropriate welcome message. 

If the familiar pattern of lines appears on the screen but the wrong message appears, 
you have inserted the wrong disc. 



^ PCW8256 User Guide 141 



Release this disc, insert the right disc with the side you want to use to the left, then hold 
down | shift | and |extraJ and press [_exit""|. The correct software should now be read into 
the computer. 

- If the screen stays bright green or flashes and after a few moments, the PCW8256 
bleeps a few times, either you have not inserted a Start of Day disc or your disc is 
damaged. Release the disc and check that it is the one you wanted to use. 

If necessary, try loading the software from your master disc. If this works, make a new 
Start of Day disc (see Chapter 3); if it doesn't, consult your dealer. 

On attempting to move the cursor or to access one of the special functions or to type 
something in, nothing happens 

- Your keyboard might not be connected properly. Unplug the keyboard from the 

Monitor unit and then plug it in again (see Chapter 1). 

If it still fails to respond, either your keyboard or your Monitor unit may be faulty: 
consult your dealer. 

On attempting to print a document, the printer does not respond 

- Check that the bail bar is back on the platten and that there is paper in the printer. 

- Press the |~Fr I key to put the PCW8256 into Printer Control State (if the computer hasn't 
already done this for you) and check that the printer is On-line. In particular, check that 
it is not Waiting for Paper (see Stage 8). 

- Release the disc in the drive, switch the PCW8256 off and then check that the printer is 
properly connected (see Chapter 1). 

Paper does not autoload 

- You have inserted the paper too far by hand. You should simply rest it in the guide. 
On attempting to print a document, the printer appears to print but nothing is printed 

- Check that there is a ribbon cassette in the printer- 
While printing a document, the paper becomes jammed in the printer 

- Press the [ ptr j key. This halts printing. 

- Either pull the bail bar forward or turn the Paper Loading Knob a quarter of a turn 
towards you. 

- Free the paper jammed in the printer and reload with fresh paper. Select the 

Document/Reprint menu if you want to print the page again (see Stage 8), 



1 42 PCW8256 User Guide 



Document printed in wrong position on the page 

- Check that the Left Offset is the value you expected. You can check this by pressing the 
[ ptr 1 key and then selecting the Actions menu (see Stage 8). 

Check that the paper the printer is set up for is the same as that LocoScript paginated 

the document for. 

You can check the printer settings by pressing the [jptr'1 key and then selecting the 
Options menu (see Stage 8). 

You can check the document settings by editing the document. The length of the page 
is displayed in the information lines. 

The PCW8256 bleeps as you edit a document 

- You have called up a menu (eg. the Set or the Clear menu) and not pressed [enter] or 
fcAN 1 be fore c arrying on typing your document. Check your current position, press 
I enter 1 or | can | and then carry on with your edit. 

- You have put the PCW8256 into Printer Control State by pressing the \Tm] key, pulling 
the bail bar forward or loading paper into the printer. To leave Printer Control State 
press [ exit""]- 



PCW8256 User Guide 143 



Appendix II 

The printer: Loading and maintenance 
n.l Paper for the printer 

5£szx r !^K^sr d i » t no « ,o ° ■- *■ - «•« 

being printed. P (0n 4 ° 3Sm P"*^ at * e s ">e time as the originals are 

sssr for ~ *- - -*-^k s^iTo^s 

n.2 Autoloading the printer (single sheet paper) 

The actions you have to take are very simple. 




as* 



»»»»ii)«at«jKNo« 

— OUSTCOWR 



iTnTestrTd. P3Per ^ Kn ° b ^ •** °< * - ^ards you. T*e bail bar 

The printer itself now feeds the paper in. 

Turn the outer knob back to its original position. This puts the bail bar back too. 

If the paper needs any further adjustment, you can do this now. 



PCW8256 User Guide ~— " 

145 



A single sheet of paper will now be in the right position for you to start printing. 

Continuous stationery 

If you plan to use continuous stationery, you should have the additional tractor feed 
mechanism fixed to the top of the printer. Before fitting the tractor mechanism, remove the 
paper tray by hinging it to a vertical position and then lifting it off. 

Next, with the white cog-wheel (underneath the tractor mechanism) to your left, lower the 

two small outer hooks at the front of the mechanism into the two small holes (slightly 
forward of the platen) on top of the printer. Finally, clip the back of the mechanism down 
into position. 

Now feed in the paper to the printer from behind the back of the tractor mechanism as if it 
were single sheet paper. Then, with the bail bar back in position against the paper, take in 
a further few inches of paper for putting into the tractor mechanism. Open the tractor 
covers and place the paper over the tractor cogs (you may need to slide the tractors 

sideways to align the cogs with the paper's holes). Finally, close the tractor covers. 



TRACTOR COVER 
TRACTOR 

PAPER BAIL 

PLATEN 




FAN FOLD PAPER FEED PATH 



When the paper is loaded in the tractor mechanism, turn the Paper Feed Knob until the 
print position is approximately V 6 inch below the next line of perforations. This is its Top of 

Form position. 

You should now be ready to start printing (see Stage 8). 

Removing the tractor mechanism 

The tractor mechanism should be removed when you go back to using single sheet 
stationery. To remove the mechanism, simply pull it forward from the back and lift it off the 

printer. 

To replace the paper tray, simply hold it vertically over the hinge pegs, then lower it into 

position. 



146 



PCW8256 User Guide 



,-^J II-3 Changing the ribbon 

^*- The ribbon is contained in a cassette. When you need to change the ribbon, simply exchange 

the old cassette for a new one. 

4k. When you buy a printer ribbon, you should ask for an Amstrad Printer Ribbon (PR-1). 

Removal 

First lift the dust cover gently up. It is hinged, but you need to release it from the hinges 
.— -, before you can remove the ribbon cassette. 

■^— Hold the 'fin' on the top of the cassette and lift the old cassette out. 

Putting a new cassette in 

Hold the new cassette with its 'fin' upperwards and the ribbon away from you. 

Turn the ribbon feed knob to the left of the fin in the direction of the arrow to remove the slack 
in the ribbon. 

Then slot the cassette into position, taking care that the ribbon itself passes between the print 
*»— head and the ribbon guide. Be careful not to twist the ribbon. 

Do not touch the print head: if you have just been printing out a document, the head 
m could be very hot. 

«■_ Press down gently on both sides of the cassette to ensure it is properly located. 

~ Check that the ribbon is properly positioned in front of the print head and remove any slack in 

— the ribbon by gently turning the ribbon feed knob. 

— — Do not try to print without the ribbon cassette properly installed. 

_ II.4 Adjusting the print head 

— — The print head is moved with the aid of the head adjustment lever on the inner right-hand side 

of the printer. 

... This selects one of five positions. Use the lower settings for thinner paper, the higher ones for 

multiple thicknesses (for example, a top copy plus two flimsies). Position 2 should be right for 

' Mi ^- a single thickness of ordinary paper. 

Ir. correct positioning of the print head can result in light or smeared print. 



PCW8256 User Guide 147 



II.5 General hints 

Do not touch the print head immediately after printing because it may be very hot. 

The printer will work best if the room it is kept in is neither damp nor dusty. It is also better 

not to use it in direct sunlight, 

Clean the printer of paper dust once in a while. You can use a blower device or the suction 

extension of an ordinary vacuum cleaner to do this. 



148 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Appendix III 

Using LocoScript files in other programs 
III.l Making an ASCII file 

LocoScript documents contain a number of special codes that specify how the text anoears 

Z Z?™17JZ™. '° be pnn,ed These codes " — '° — ^ - 

When you want to use a LocoScr.pt document with another program, you have first to 
prepare a version of the document tha, has been cleared of ah theTcodes^L^Je 
for doing tlus is called 'Making an ASCII file'. proceaure 

IT.T T tYPeS ° f f " e y ° U Cm make - 0ne is a ' S ™Pte text file' which retains none of 

he de ailed layout information in the doormen, (though „ does retain any tabsTd c sTage 

returns you put in). It is a very standard text file. carnage 

nre e „° ther ,h yI ? " * 'I** *""** ^ * WW ° h Spaces have been 'Verted into the file to 

hTherTwh 6 yOU ' \ B d ° CUmeM M ° n ' he SCTeen - m the *» ***>" are ke Pt flJ ; h ° 
hyphens where words are broken, and ASCII form feed characters are inserted atThe 

ssssr Such a ae can be sent ° ver a — s ** - — - - 

wl^ T ffle *■" haS * e C °" ea Pagination < header »»» footer) text a, the top and 

bottom of each page, and the correct page numbers are inserted in place of the ,Ws pal 
and las. page' codes. The Simple text version does no, contain any pagination .ex, and n 

tSZtZZE? ' nStead ^ ™ S -o™ * ' • — Z^Z 

LocoScript has a number of special characters, for example 1j, n, ft and £ These 
^7 . do h NOT n haVe - '° ffl ^' ASCII represen,a„on, bu, ha™ been auloca ed cod 

PCwLserwhichTavtr C T a l? 0n ' he SCIeen WhCT USmS ,hS CP/M " -* V- 
1™ S i Wh ; h haVe be t n ilS,ed " ApPendix "• " *>« d °cumen, contains any of these 
special characters it may be necessary for you to use a small conversion progrL before 



PCW8256 User Guide 

149 



Select mAi 



pit docuaent 
Priit docment 
Crnte docwent 
Pirect j»f intin 



Hake ASCII file 



You can make an ASCII version of one of your files 
from the Disc Manager screen. With the file cursor 
positioned over the file you want to use, press | t? \ 
and select Make ASCII file from the menu 
that appears. The top two lines of the screen then 
display a message asking you to pick out the group 
(using the cursor keys) where you want the ASCII to 
be stored. You can either store it on a disc or 
temporarily in Drive M. When you have made your 
selection, press (ewter | . 

A menu then appears giving you details of the 

LocoScript file and the new ASCII file. You can 
change any of these details. The bottom section of the 
menu lets you select which type of ASCII file you 
want (Simple text file is automatically 
selected for you). Cursor down to the bottom of the 
menu if you wish to select Page image fi Le. 

When all the details in the menu are correct, press 
I enteh 1 . The ASCII version of the file is then 
created and stored. 

Before you can use the ASCII version, you will need to transfer it to an appropriate disc. 
Your LocoScript discs are best used only for LocoScript files. 

If you stored the ASCII file in Drive M, then you can change the disc in Drive A (remember 
to press | ft | after you have put the destination disc in Drive A) and then use the 
LocoScript |" fe \ function to copy the file to this disc. 



roup: 
Drive: 



Old Kane : 

Grow** 
fcrive: 



H 



v' Sinple text file 
Page iaage file 



(If you stored the ASCII file on your LocoScript disc, you can transfer it to another disc 
using the PIP utility the next time you load CP/M. You will find that this is much easier if 
you store the ASCII file in the first Group of the LocoScript disc.) 



c 

v. 

V 
V. 



m.2 File communication 

To send the resulting file to an alternative printer or electronic mail service please refer to 
the User Instructions for the CPS8256 Serial/Parallel interface, summarised below: 



MAIL232 

DEVICE LST:=CEN 
DEVICE LST:=SIO 
PIP L S T : =<filename> 



Electronic mail program from side 1 of the system discs. 

Menu | fa | includes Send-a-file function 

Says the printer you want to use is attached to the 
CPS8256 Parallel port. 

Says the printer you want to use is attached to the 
CPS8256 Serial port. 

Sends the file to the printer. 



150 



PCW8256 User Guide 



Index 



A4 paper, 116 
Accented characters, 52 
Actions (printer menu), 1 17, 1 19 
ALT key, 10 

plus textual movement keys, 64 
ASCII files, 149 
Auto-repeating keys, 15 
Back-up copies, 33 
Bail bar, 115, 146 
Base layout, 83, 135 

editing, 126 
Base line pitch, 98, 99 
Base pitch, 136 
Blank lines, 15 
Blanks, 84, 134 
Blocks 

listing those in use, 112 

maintaining, 112 

menu, 112, 140 

saving, 112 

to move text about, 111 
Blocks of text 

cutting, 68 

moving, 69, 70 
Bold, 55, 136 
Brand new layout, 134 
Brightness thumbwheel, 7 

CAN key, 130 
Caps lock, 10 
Carriage movement, 14 
Carriage return, 15 
Centre tab, 78 
Centred text, 87, 137 
Change discs, 43 
Changing a layout, 93 
CHAR key, 64 
Character sets, 139 
Characters, 129 

changing width of, 87, 89 

deleting, 15 

double width, 89 

typed on keyboard, 10 



used as decimal point, 127 
with accents, 52 

Characters menu, 127 

Clear menu, 121 

Codes, 59, 129, 134 
deleting, 60 :' r : 

direct entry, 121 
display of, 130 
mnemonics, 122 

Columns of figures, 76 

Comma as decimal point, 127 
Connecting up the PCW8256, 2 
Continuous stationery, 116 
COPY key, 130 

Copying discs, 33, ptHl 
Copying documents, 38, 43, ptm 
Copying text, 70, 130 
Correcting mistakes, 18 
CP/M Plus 

used to prepare discs, 31 
Creating a document, 12, 42, ptIII 
Current document, 41, 130 
Current layout, 78, 135 
Cursor, 15 

file and group, 41 
Cursor keys, 131 
Cut and paste, 69, 70, 130 

blocks, 111 

phrases, 113 

CUT key, 130 S* £1 •■■ 

Cutting text, 67 

to a particular word, 68 

Data discs, 47, 48 

Decimal point character, 127, 139 
Decimal tab, 76 
DEL keys, 15 
Deleting characters, IS 
Deleting codes, 60 
Deleting text, 67 

to a particular word, 68 
Direct printing, 43, 115, 118 

position, 119 



Disc drives, 40 
Disc management, 138 
Disc manager, 39 
DISCKTT, 31, 34, ptm 
Discs 

changing, 43 
copying, 33 
CP/M, 45 
data, 45, 47, 48 
errors, 30 

failure to insert, 141 
formatting, 30, 47 
holding LocoScript, 45 
housekeeping, 43 
how to handle, 31 
keeping documents on, 27 
loading and unloading, 31 
operations, 41 

organising your work on, 36 
preparing for use, 45 
sides of, 28 
start of day, 45, 46 
storage of, 31 

suitable for the PCW8256, 27 
system, 45, ptHI 
write protecting, 13, 29 
DOC key, 64 
Document header, 102 
Document/Reprint (printer menu), 1 17 
Documents 

content when created, 125 
copying, 43 
creating new, 12, 42 
current document, 41 
editing existing, 42 
erasing, 44 

exchanging text strings, 71 
group of, 36 

how instructions are stored, 59 
inserting other documents, 112 
inspecting, 43 
introduction to, 38 
keeping on disc, 27 
locating particular text, 68 
moving, 43 
moving about, 15 



moving backwards through, 64 

moving blocks of text about, 69, 70 

moving blocks of text around, 1 1 1 

moving forwards through, 64 

names of, 12, 36, 41 

organisation of, 129 

organising on disc, 36 

printing, 23, 42, 120 

recovering from Limbo, 43 

relaying, 65 

removing part of, 67 

renaming, 43 

reprinting pages of, 117 

setting identity, 128 

setting out, 73 

splitting into lines, 17 

splitting into pages, 97 

template, 125 
Dots, 84 

Double strike, 136 
Double width characters, 89, 136 
Down cursor, 15 
Draft quality printing, 115 
Drive A B and M, 40, ptm 

Edit header, 105 
Edit identity, 138 
Edit layout, 135 
Editing 

a layout, 93 

existing documents, 42 

file header, 127 

layouts, 79, 83 

ruler line, 79 
Editing keys, 63 
Effectors, 84, 134 
Emphasis 

how it is stored, 59 

in headers and footers, 109 

in page header and footer, 107 

removing from document, 60 

shown on the screen, 58 

turning off, 58 
Emphasis menu, 55, 135 
Emphasising text, 55 
End of line key, 64 



c 
c 



End of page line, 98 

End page here code, 101, 138 

Enhancing text, 55 

ENTER key, 130 

EOL key, 64 >pr. ; 

Equipment, 1 

Erasing characters, 15 

Erasing documents, 38, 44 

Errors 

track and sector information, 30 
Even and odd pages, 106 
Exchange text, 131 
Exchanging text, 71 

options, 71 
EXIT key, 130 
EXTRA key, 10 

Failures, 141 

File communication, 150 
FD-2 drive, ptlll 
File cursor, 41 
File header, 102 

editing, 127 
Filenames, 41 

rules for, 37 
Files, 36 

ASCII, 149 

hidden, 44 

Filing documents on disc, 36 
FIND key, 68 
Find text, 131 
Finding text, 68 

and replacing, 71 
Finishing 

editing a document, 23 

using the PCW8256, 26 
First page 

header and footer required, 109, 140 

number, 108, 140 
Footer zone, 97, 139 

putting text into, 105 
Form filling, 119 
Formatting discs, 30, 47 
Forwards movement, 64 
Full stop as decimal point, 127 
Full underlining, 55 



Function keys, 130 

Group cursor, 41 
Group of documents, 36 
Groups 

rules for names, 37 

templates, 125 p 

Half height, 61, 136 
Hard hyphens, 95, 133, 137 
Hard spaces, 95, 133, 137 
Header, 138 

file, 102 

options, 139 
Header zone, 97, 139 

putting text .into, 105 
Hidden files, 44 
High quality printing, 1 15 
Housekeeping of discs, 43 
Hyphens 

hard, 95, 133 

soft, 94, 133 

Identity, 128, 138 
Inconsistent page size, 139 
Indent, 74 
Indent tab, 74 
Insert layout, 134 
Insert page number, 138 
Inserting 

in emphasised section, 59 

hard hyphen, 137 

hard space, 137 

soft hyphen, 137 y 

soft space, 137 

text, 112 
Inserting discs 

failure to, 141 
Inspecting documents, 43 
Italic, 55, 61, 136 

changing in layouts, 93 

Justification, 88 
changing in layouts, 88, 92 

Keeping lines together, 100, 138 



Keyboard, 10 

caps shift and numeric lock, 10 
connecting up, 2 
foreign characters, 52 

Keys 
accents, 52 

auto-repeat, 15 

for deleting text, 15 

for moving the cursor, IS 

textual movement, 64 

used to control the PCW8256, 11 

using the editing keys, 63 

what character each produces, 10 

Last line of page code, 101, 138 
Layout menu, 134 
Layouts, 78 
base, 83, 102 
changing, 92, 93 
current, 78 
editing, 79, 83, 135 
editing base layout, 126 
in headers and footers, 109 
inserting, 134 
layout number, 82 
new, 92 

number of, 127, 139 
pitch, 92 

recalling existing, 93 
setting italic, 93 
setting justification, 92 
Left cursor, 15 
Limbo, 38 

recovering documents from, 44 

show documents in, 44 
LINE key, 64 
Line pitch, 98, 99, 137 

base, 98, 99 
Line spacing, 98, 137 
Lines 

blank, 15 

closing up, 20 

distance between, 98 

ending, 94 

information, 41 

keeping together, 100 



last on page, 101 

number blank on current page, 98 

on the screen, 6 

removing, 16 

showing end of page, 98 

spurting text into, 15, 17, 94 

splitting when inserting text, 20 
Lines menu, 87, 99, 137 
Loading discs, 31 
LocoScript 

failure to load, 142 

Mains supply, 1 
Margins 

changing, 81 

shown on ruler line, 14 
Maximums, 139 
Maximums menu, 127 
Menus 

avoiding, 121 

clearing options, 58 

experimenting with, 25 

how to avoid, 133 

operation of, 12, 23, 132 

selecting options, 56, 132 

setting and clearing options, 132 

submenus, 132 

typing names of options, 132 
Mistakes 

correcting, 18 

Mnemonics to remember codes, 122 
Modes 

of operation of the PCW8256, 44 
Modes menu, 138 

whilst editing, 105 • -■;&#&■• 

Monitor 

adjusting the brightness, 7 

connecting up, 2 

Moving about the screen, IS, 40 

Moving blocks of text about, 69, 111, 130 

Moving documents, 38, 43 

Names of documents, 12, 36, 41 
New page, 101 
New sheet of paper, 117 
Numeric lock, 10 



Odd/even pagination, 140 
Off-line, 116, 118 
Offsets, 119 
On-line, 116, 118 
Options 

in disc manager, 44 
Options (printer menu), 116 
Orphans, 100 
Overprinting, 99 

Page breaks, 98 
Page breaks menu, 127 
PAGE key, 64 
Page length, 139 
Page numbers 

choose first page number, 109 
positioning of, 107 
Page size, 139 
Page size menu, 127 
Pages, 97, 140 
controlling start of, 99 
even and odd, 106 
explicit start, 101 
first page, 108 
last page, 108 
number in document, 108 
numbering, 107 
reprinting, 117 
sizes of, 99 
Pages menu, 100, 107, 108, 138 
Pagination 
odd/even, 140 

Pagination menu, 140 
Paper 

auto-loading, 148 

dimensions of, 1 16 

failure to load into printer, 142 

jarnming in printer, 142 

loading into the printer, 25 

mangled in printer, 117 

thickness, 145 

waiting for, 117 
Paper (printer menu), 1 17 
Paper adjustment, 146 
Paper end detector, 1 17 
Paper loading knob, 25, 115, 146 



Paper out defeat, 1 17 

PARA key, 64 

Paragraph breaking, 103 

enabling, 139 

preventing, 103 

Paragraphs, 17 

indenting, 74 

not splitting between pages, 99 
Paste and cut, 69, 70 
PASTE key, 130 
PCW8256 
turning off, 8 
turning on, 4 

PCW8256 Format discs, 30 
PCW8256 pack contents, 1 
PCW8512, ptin 
Phrases 

listing those in use, 114 
loading, 113 
on start of day disc, 114 
saving, 113 
Pitch, 89, 136 
changing in layouts, 92 
line, 98, 99 
Plug 

fitting a, 1 ' ' ?"*'• 

Power switch 
off, 8 
on, 4 
Preparing discs, 45 
Printer 

connecting up, 3 
failure, 142 

failure to load paper, 142 
loading paper, 25, 145 
maintenance, 145 
on-line and off-line, 118 
operation, 25 
paper jamming, 142 
Printer control state, 1 15 
Printer offsets, 1 19 
Printer ribbon replacement, 147 



Printing 

copy of screen, 127 

direct, 43, 115, 118 

documents, 23, 42, 115, 120 

on same line, 99 

quality, 115 
Printing position, 119 
Problems, 141 
Proportional spacing, 89 
PTRkey, 115 

Quick entry of codes, 121 

RELAY key, 19, 65 
Renaming documents, 38, 44 
Reset (printer menu), 118 
Resetting the PCW8256, 10 
RETURN key, 15 
Reverse video, 55, 61, 136 
Ribbon replacement, 147 
Right cursor, 15 
Right justification, 88, 137 
Right margin 

ragged, 88 
Right tab, 78 

Rubbing out characters, 18 
Ruler cursor, 15 
Ruler line, 14 

changing pitch, 91 

editing, 79 
Rulers, 134 

visible, 80 

Save all phrases, 140 

Save block, 140 

Saving 
blocks of text, 112 

Saving a document, 23 

Screen 
adjusting the brightness, 7 
dump to printer, 127 
moving about, 15 
showing emphasis, 58 

Searching for text, 68 

Set menu, 121 

SHIFT key, 10 



Shift lock, 10 
Shortcuts, 121, 133 
Show 
blanks, 84, 85 
codes, 59, 100 
effectors, 84, 85 
ruler lines, 80 
spaces, 84, 85 
Show menu, 134 
Sides of a disc, 28 
Single sheet stationery, 116 :: 
Soft hyphens, 94, 133, 137 
Soft spaces, 94, 133, 137 
Software 
using add-on packages, 44 
Spaces, 84, 134 
hard, 95, 133 
soft, 94, 133 
Start 

failure to, 141 
Start of day disc, 46 
loading phrases, 1 14 
Start printing, 115 
Starting the PCW8256, 4 
Style menu, 89, 136 
Subscripts, 55, 61, 136 
Substituting text, 71 
Superscripts, 55, 61, 136 
Switching off the PCW8256, 26 

TAB key, 22, 74 
Tab stops 

shown on ruler line, 14 
Tables of figures, 73, 75, 76 
Tabs 

centre, 78 

changing, 78, 79 

decimal, 76 

indent, 74 

number of, 127, 139 

ordinary, 76 

right, 78 
Templates, 125 

disc search order, 125 
Text 

aligned right, 88 



M 



centred, 87 El key, 130 

changing the order of, 111 tWf^^ Am ^ menu, 133 

deleting sections of, 67 WCMRM' key, 130 

double width characters, 89 E3 menu, 133 

emphasising, 55 

exchanging, 71 

how to set out, 73 

indented, 74 

inserting, 19 

inserting in emphasised section, 59 

moving around a document, 69, 70 

moving backwards through, 64 

moving forwards through, 64 

proportionally spaced, 89 

relaying, 19, 65 

right aligned, 87 

splitting into lines, 17 
Textual movement keys, 130 
Tick used to show selection, 59 
Troubleshooting, 141 

Underlining, 55, 56, 135 
clearing, 58 
Unloading discs, 31 
Unpacking the PCW8256, 1 
Up cursor, 15 

Vertical hold, 8 

Widows and orphans, 100 

enabling, 139 

preventing, 103 
Wiring up the PCW8256, 1 
WORD key, 64 
Word underlining, 55 
Words 

not splitting between, 95 

splitting in middle of, 94 

wrapping onto next line, 17, 94 . 
Write protect holes, 29 

Zeroes with/without slashes, 127, 139 
Zones 

header and footer, 97 

text, 97 



— ■ Locomotive Software and AMSTRAD 



J Important Notice 



THE SOFTWARE CONTAINED IN THE DISKETTE PACKAGE IS SUPPLIED TO 
YOU ON THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS INDICATED BELOW THE OPENING 
OF THIS PACKAGE INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THESE TERMS AND 
CONDITIONS. IF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS ARE NOT ACCEPTED BY 
YOU, YOU MUST RETURN THE UNOPENED PACKAGE TO THE PLACE OF 
PURCHASE AND YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED. NO REFUNDS WILL BE 
GIVEN WHERE THE PACKAGE HAS BEEN OPENED UNLESS THE PRODUCT IS 
FAULTY AND SUCH REFUND BECOMES PAYABLE UNDER CLAUSE 7 BELOW. 

In this notice, the terms: 

"Locomotive" means Locomotive Software Limited 
"Amstrad" means Amstrad Consumer Electronics pic 
"The Program" means the programs on Side 1 of the 
diskettes supplied in the diskette package. 

1- Copyright 

Material within the Program is copyright Locomotive. Locomotive grants to the 
purchaser of this package a non-exclusive right to use the Program in 
accordance with these terms and conditions. Such Licence may be transferred 
only in accordance with Clause 3 below. Any other use or dealing not expressly 
authorised by these terms and conditions is strictly prohibited. 



2. Use 



The Program may only be used on a single machine or terminal at any one time 
but may be copied or merged into other programs in support of that use. Any 
such copying or merger is subject to there being no modification of the Program 
and in particular to the copyright notice of Locomotive being preserved in the 
copied or combined program. Save for copying or merger within other 
programs as aforesaid, any other operations (including modification or 
translation from machine readable form) are expressly prohibited. 



OJUIT2MA bfifi «ruswlio2 mwitwn* 



3. Transfer 

The Program may be transferred to a third party provided the original Program 
and all copies are transferred or otherwise destroyed and provided further these 
terms and conditions are produced to that third party and prior to the transfer 
that party agrees and undertakes to observe and continue to observe the same. 
Without such transfer and undertaking any application of the Program or copies 
thereof by any other person will not be authorised by Locomotive and will be in 
breach of Locomotive's copyright and other proprietary rights. 

4. Documentation 

The documentation accompanying the Program is also copyright Locomotive. 
However, no right to reproduce that documentation in part or in whole is granted 
by Locomotive. Should additional copies of the documentation be required for 
whatever reason, application must be made in writing to Locomotive which will 
be considered in its discretion. 

5. Breach 

b 

If the user for the time being acts in breach of any of these terms and conditions it 
shall indemnify Locomotive against all loss suffered (including loss of profits) 
and the licence granted hereunder shall be deemed to be terminated forthwith. 
On termination the user shall deliver up to Locomotive all infringing and lawful 
copies of the Program. M&t*m& .1 



6. Exclusions 



M 



Neither Locomotive nor any person authorised by it gives warranties or makes 
representations that the program is error free or will meet functions required by 
the user. It shall be the responsibility of the user to satisfy itself that the Program 
meets the user's requirements. The Program is supplied on an "as is" basis and 
save as expressly provided in these conditions all warranties of any nature (and 
whether express or implied) are excluded. 

7. Liability 

Amstrad warrants that the diskette on which the Program is stored is free from 
material defect and through normal use will remain so for a period of 90 days 
after purchase. In the event of any breach of this warranty (or statutory warranty 
or conditions incapable of exclusion by these conditions) the responsibilities of 
Amstrad shall be limited to replacing the enclosed program or to returning the 
price paid for the same as they shall determine. 



As the sole exception to the foregoing Locomotive will accept liability for death 
or personal injury resulting from its negligence. In no circumstance shall 
Locomotive be liable for any indirect or consequential costs damages or losses 
(including loss of business profits, operating time or otherwise) arising out of the 
use or inability to use the enclosed program and diskette and whether or not the 
likelihood of damage was advised to Locomotive or its dealer. 

This notice does not affect your statutory rights. 



AMSOFT 

A division of 



53 



CONSUMER ELECTRONICS PLC 



CP/M Plus for the PCW8256 and PCW8512 
including Dr. Logo 



© Copyright 1985 AMSOFT, AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic and 

Locomotive Software Ltd 

Neither the whole nor any part of the information contained herein, nor the product described in this manual may be adapted or 
reproduced in any material form except with the prior written approval of AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic ('AMSTRAD ) 

The product described in this manual and products for use with it are subject to continuous development and improvement. All 
information of a technical nature and particulars of the product and its use (including the information and particulars in this 
manual) are given by AMSTRAD in good faith. However, it is acknowledged that there may be errors or omissions in this 
manual A list of details of any amendments or revisions to this manual can be obtained by sending a stamped, self addressed 
envelope to AMSOFT Technical Enquiries. We ask that all users take care to submit their reply paid user registration and 
guarantee cards. 

You are also advised to complete and send off your Digital Research User registration card. 

AMSOFT welcomes comments and suggestions relating to the product or this manual. 

All correspondence should be addressed to; AMSOFT 

Brentwood House 
169 Kings Road 
Brentwood 

Essex CM 14 4EF 

All maintenance and service on the product must be carried out by AMSOFT authorised 
dealers. Neither AMSOFT nor AMSTRAD can accept any liability whatsoever for any loss or 
damage caused by service or maintenance by unauthorised personnel. This rriarmal is 
intended only to assist the reader in the use of the product, and therefore AMSOFT and 
AMSTRAD shall not be liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use of any 
information or particulars in, or any error or omission in, this manual or any incorrect use ot 
the product- 



Written by Jean Gilmour, Chris Hall and Ed Phipps 
Typeset by Interaction Systems Ltd 
Published by AMSOFT 

First Published 1985 
Third Edition 1986 

Dr. Logo, CP-TW. CP-TW Plus. GSX. DR Graph, CP/M 80, CCP M-86 and MP'M-86 are trademarks of Digital Research Inc 

Z80 is the trademark of Zilog Inc. 

Z19, Z29 and H89 are trademarks of Zenith Data Systems Inc. 

VT52 is the trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. 

Mallard BASIC, Locomotive and LocoScript are trademarks of Locomotive Software Ltd 

PCW8512, PCW8266, CPC6l?,8, CPC664, CPC464 and DD1 I are trademarks of AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic 

AMSTRAD is a registered trademark of AMSTRAD Consumer Electronics pic 
Unauthorised use of the trademark or word AMSTRAD is strictly forbidden 



This part of the manual tells you how to use the PCW8256 (or PCW8512) as a personal 

computer by running CP/M Plus - Version 3 of the industry standard operating system, 
CP/M. 

As before, text or examples which quote '...the PCW8256' are equally applicable to the 
PCW8512. 

If necessary, you should turn back to the PCW8256 User Guide for instructions on how to 
set up your system, handling discs, and printer maintenance. 



CP/1VI 

The CP/M operating system makes each computer it is used on look the same to a CP/M 
program. Today, there are thousands of CP/M programs - everything from computer 
games to accountants' spreadsheets - many of which can be run on the PCW. Provided 
alongside CP/M Plus are two easy-to-use programming systems: Locomotive Software's 
Mallard BASIC interpreter (described in the Guide to Mallard BASIC, available 
from AMSOFT- price £ 5), and Dr. Logo - Digital Research's implementation of 
the LOGO programming language. 

(Mallard BASIC will accept programs written for the industry standard Microsoft BASIC 
interpreter with little or no modification.) 

The three parts to this manual cover: 

The CP/M Plus operating system 
The LOGO programming language 
Two-Drive Operation 

Each part starts with a simple introduction. This is followed by more detailed descriptions 
of how to do some standard tasks. Finally, reference sections are provided (where 
applicable). 

The main contents list, given overleaf, catalogues only the principal headings of each 
chapter. A more detailed contents list (for Parts I and II) is given at the beginning of each 

part. 



The licence agreements relating to the use of the CP/M system discs and the 
Mallard BASIC system disc permit their use only on a single computer 
system You are prohibited from giving copies of these discs to any other 



person. 



In particular, the CP/M system discs incorporate an electronically encoded 
serial number and you are prohibited from giving any other person a disc 
with your serial-numbered copy of CP/M on it. 

Read carefully the End User Licence Agreements relating to these products 
at the end of this manual. 



CONTENTS 



Part I: The CP/M operating system 

1 Introduction to CP/M on the PCW8256 1 

2 Which commands to use 19 

3 Commercial software for the PCW8256 53 

4 Graphics on the PCW8256 59 

5 The CP/M Plus built-in commands and utilities 67 
Appendix I: CP/M Plus character sets 103 
Appendix II: Advanced use of the printer 119 
Appendix III: Terminal characteristics 139 
Appendix IV: Error messages 143 

Part II: The LOGO programming 
language 

1 Introduction to LOGO 1 

2 Starting to use Dr. Logo 3 

3 A summary of Dr. Logo primitives 1 1 
Appendix I: Primitives supported on the PCW8256 1 9 

Appendix II: Dr. Logo error messages 2 1 



Part III: Two-Drive Operation 

1 Introduction 1 

2 Discs and drives 2 

3 Formatting discs for Drive B 3 

4 Using Drive B with CP/M 4 

5 Drive B directory 4 

6 Disc files and file sizes 5 

7 Copying and Verifying using DISCKIT 7 

8 Using Drive B with LocoScript 8 

Licence Agreement 

Digital Research End User Program Licence Agreement 
Locomotive Software Licence Agreement 



cp/m pius 



CONTENTS 



Introduction to CP/M on the PCW8256 1 

1.1 What CP/M is i 

1.2 Getting started 3 

1.3 Essential preparation 4 

1.4 Using CP/M 6 
1.4.1 Using the utilities 6 

1.5 When programs need two drives 16 

Which commands to use 1 9 

2.1 Assessing the available space 21 

2.2 Copying discs 22 

2.3 Copying files 24 

2.4 Creating files 26 

2.5 Creating a Start of Day disc 27 

2.6 Editing the command line 28 

2.7 Editing text files 29 

2.8 Erasing files 34 

2.9 Finding the size of a file 36 

2.10 Formatting discs 37 

2. 1 1 Listing the directory 33 

2.12 Listing a file 40 

2.13 Operating the printer 41 

2.14 Personalising your system 46 

2.15 Renaming files 43 

2.16 Resetting the PCW8256 49 

2.17 Shortening the command line 50 

2. 18 Switching which disc is read or written 52 



Commercial software for the PCW8256 53 

3.1 Suitable software 53 

3.2 First steps ^4 

3.3 Running ready installed software 54 
3.3.1 Turnkey operation 55 

3.4 Installing the software 55 
3.4.1 Running the installation program 56 

3.5 PCW8256 parameters 57 

Graphics on the PCW8256 59 



60 



4.1 The PCW8256's GSX software 

4.2 GSX programs for the PCW8256 61 

4.3 Using other printers and plotters 

4.4 Errors associated with GSX programs 

4.5 Technical information 65 



62 
64 



The CP/M Plus built-in commands and utilities 67 

5.1 Disc housekeeping *" 



5.2 Setting up the hardware 87 

5.3 Advanced programming tools 

5.4 Help 



96 
102 



Appendix I: CP/M Plus character sets 103 

1.1 The language variants 104 

1.2 Characters available under CP/M 105 

1.3 Redefining the keyboard 108 

1.3.1 Setting up the key definition file 108 

1.3.2 Making the re-defined keyboard your standard 1 1 1 

1.3.3 The supplied set of expansion strings 112 

1.4 The complete character set 1 13 

Appendix II: Advanced use of the printer 119 



II. 1 The Printer Control State 
IL2 Further control of the printer 

11.2.1 Printer control codes 

11. 2. 2 Printing text 

11. 2. 3 Printing graphics 



119 
121 



11. 3 Page layout 126 

11. 4 Print position changes 128 

11. 5 Printer initialisation 130 

11. 6 Typestyles 131 

11. 7 Special characters 134 

11.8 Graphic effects 136 

Appendix III: Terminal characteristics 139 

Appendix IV: Error messages 143 

IV. 1 Disc handling errors 143 

IV. 2 Device errors 144 

IV.3 CP/M Plus error messages 145 



The PCW8256 keyboard under CP/M 



The main keyboard 

The lower character on any key and lower case letters are produced by single keystrokes. 
The upper character and upper case letters are produced by pressing the | shift | key 
simultaneously. 



HT 



^ 



40EL 



CR 



SP 



H|| "U 



Q 



W 



CR 



The keyboard with ALT 

The lower character on any key is produced by pressing it and the I alt | key simulta neous ly. 
The upper characters are produced by pressing the I shift | key as well. The extra | shift | is 
optional in producing the CP/M control codes f character). 

m 



Va 



% 



Vfe 



% 



% 







HT 



Q 



W 







£ 



=? 



CR 



M 



\t±\=L 



SP 



(''■ 



The keyboard with EXTRA 

The character shown on any key is produced by pressing it and the 1 extra \ key 

simultaneously. 



Pt 



10@00@O 



HT 



« 



» 



CR 



Q 



SP 



\ 



m 



CR 



Special key combinations 

r~Air| + |ENTER | acts as a Caps Lock key, setting/clearing the conversion of all lower case 
characters, except Greek characters, to their upper case counterpart. 

[alt]+ [relay] acts as a Num Lock key, setting/clearing the use of a group of special keys as a 
numeric keypad. 



[|mFT]+ [extra] +[1xF] resets the computer. 



Chapter 1 

Introduction to CP/1VI on the 
PCW8256 



An alternative to LocoScript on the PCW8256 is CP/M Plus - Version 3 of the industry standard 
Control Program for Microcomputers, CP/M. Running the PCW8256 with CP/M Plus converts 
it into a powerful general purpose microcomputer. 

CP/M makes each computer on which it is used behave in the same way and the PCW8256 is 
by no means the only computer to run CP/M. As a result, the PCW8256 user has many 
thousands of software packages from which to choose - everything from games to 

accountants' spreadsheets. 

If you want to write your own software, then you will also find included two easy to use 

programming systems: Locomotive Software's Mallard BASIC interpreter and Dr. Logo, 
Digital Research's implementation of the LOGO programming language. Mallard BASIC will 
accept programs written for the industry standard Microsoft BASIC interpreter with little or no 
modification. 

Mallard BASIC is on Side 2 and Dr. Logo is on Side 4 of the PCW8256 system discs. 



We should point out that none of the menus and other user friendly features of the PCW8256 
when it is working as a word processor are available when the PCW8256 is running CP/M. 
These features are unique to LocoScript. What sort of help you get while you are using CP/M 
programs will depend on the software you run. 

We should also point out that the actions that some of the keys have when you run CP/M are 
different from those they had while you were using LocoScript. They change again when you 
run Dr. Logo and Mallard BASIC. So always refer to the keyboard layout opposite when 
running CP/M. 



1.1 What CP/M is 



CP/M is an operating system which means its job is to run programs and help you organise 
your data. 

To do this, it has some special programs called the CP/M commands. These come in two 
groups, built-in commands and Transient Utility Programs - or Utilities for short. The built-in 

CP/M operating system 1 



commands are automatically read into the PCW8256's memory every time the CP/M operating 
system is loaded and they are always available to you. The utilities are stored on the system 
discs and have to be loaded into the PCW8256's memory each time they are used. 

Both programs and data are stored in Files, and to run a program what you have to tell CP/M is 
the name of the file holding the program you want to run. Often you also have to give CP/M the 

name of the file holding the data the program is going to manipulate for you. 

You give CP/M all this information by typing in what are known as Command Lines. These 
always start with the name of the file holding the program you want to run - which could be 

one of the CP/M commands or a utility. 

CP/M identifies files by a two-part name. The first part is called the Filename and the second 

part the Filetype. 

The filename can essentially be any combination of up to eight characters, though you can't 
use certain special characters: 

<>-! I *?&/$[](). :;W- 

Often just the letters of the alphabet A..Z and the digits 0..9 are used. 

The filename will usually have been chosen to suggest what the file contains but this doesn't 
have to be so. 

The filetype is up to three characters long, and again the characters recommended are A..Z 
and 0-9. But unlike the filename, the filetype can be fixed by the sort of operations that can be 

done using the file. 

When typing in your command line, you will always have to give the filename and often you 
will have to give the filetype as well. If so, the way to type this is the filename, followed 
immediately by a dot, followed immediately by the filetype. For example, if the file you want 
to specify has the filename MY FILE and the filetype TXT, you would type MYFILE.TXT in your 
command line. 

The other piece of information you may have to give CP/M is a letter that tells it which disc 
holds the file you want, 

CP/M can cope with up to 16 drives, which it calls A, B,..P. So, for example, if MYFILE.TXT is 
on Drive B, you might have to type B: MY FILE. TXT. The B: tells CP/M to look on the disc :r. 
Drive B. 

At any one time, CP/M calls one of these drives its Default Drive and you don't need to give 
the drive letter with files on the disc in that drive. This is usually Drive A but you can char. ere :• 
as we shall describe later. 



CP/M operating system 



1.2 Getting started 



Before you can run any application program under CPM Plus on the PCW8256, the computer 
has to read CP/M off the CP/M system discs into its memory. The PCW8256 loses the 
information it needs to run CP/M programs each time it is switched off or reset. 

As you will find yourself changing the disc in the drive quite often while you run CPM. you 
should remind yourself of the rules about handling discs given in chapter 2 of the User Guide. 
In particular, remember that you should never remove a disc while the light on the disc drive 
is on or flashing on and off: that could damage your disc, let alone the data on it. 

The steps involved in loading CP^M into the PCW8256 (the process often referred to as 

'booting CP/M') are as follows: 

Start by checking that there is no disc in the drive: then turn the machine on. 

Select Side 2 of the system discs, inserting the disc into the drive with this side to the left. 

Press the space bar. If all is well, you should see a pattern of green and black horizontal lines 
build up on the screen. The screen then displays a message like: 

CP/M Plus (tastrid Consumer Electronics pic 
v 1.4, filX TPA, 1 disc drive, 112K drive N: 



The second line just outlines what hardware you have available, while the A> that precedes 
the oblong is called the System Prompt. This tells you that CP M is ready to receive a 
command. 

The A> also tells you that the current Default Drive is Drive A. If the default drive is ever 
changed, for example to Drive B, the system prompt will also change in this case to B> 

The oblong is called the Cursor and its position marks where the next character you type in 
will appear on the screen. 

If you get a completely different message in particular, if you appear to go into the 
LocoScript system release the disc and check that you inserted the disc you intended and 
that you inserted it the right way round. Put the disc in the drive again, hold down (shift | and 
(extra } and then press | exit ] . Finally press the space bar to tell the PCW8256 to read the disc 

again. 



CP/M operating system 



If the disc is damaged in any way or there is no CP/M operating system on the disc, the screen 
will flash as the PCW8256 attempts to read it. After a few unsuccessful attempts, the computer 
will bleep before switching the disc drive motor off. The screen is left bright all over. 

The other thing to note about this loading process is that the printer is now set up to handle 
single sheets of A4. If this isn't the sort of paper you want to use, turn to 'Operating the printer' 

(section 2.13) before you use the printer. 



1.3 Essential preparation 

The next thing to do, if you haven't already done so, is to make a second set of system discs. 
You will use this second set to run CP/M programs and keep the originals safely stored away, 
to use only if your 'Working' set gets damaged. 

You will need two new blank discs for this second set because you will be copying a total of 
four sides. 

Copying a disc means copying all the data from one disc onto another in such a way that the 

second disc is identical to the first. 

On the PCW8256, the program that does this is called DISCKIT. This program is easy to use 
because all you have to do is follow the instructions on the screen. 

Still keeping Side 2 of the system discs in the drive, type: 

DISCKIT 

(You will see the characters appear on the screen after the A> prompt.) Then press the 

I return) key. 

Up on the screen will come a set of messages first telling you to remove your disc, then 
offering you the choice of Copy, Format or Verify (or Exit from DISCKIT) and showing you 
which key to press to select each option. In this case, you want Copy, so press the I fe | 
key. 

The order in which you copy the sides doesn't matter, but it will be simpler to keep track 
of what you have done if you copy the sides in order from Side 1 to Side 4. 

Assuming you are NOT operating a 2-drive system, the next message that appears asks 
you to '...put the correct side of the disc you wish to READ 
into the drive, then press Y. If this is the message you see on the screen. 
then simply insert the disc you want to copy from (in this case Side 1 of the system discs). 

and type Y . 



CP/M operating system 



I - If you ARE operating a 2-drive system, you will be asked which drive you want to read 
from (press f fa ] for Drive A - the upper drive, or press I ft 1 for Drive B - the lower 
one); you will then be asked which drive you want to write to (press | fa J for Drive A, or 
press r ft 1 for Drive B). Only after that will you be asked to insert the disc to READ and 
type Y). 

If you are using a PCW8512 (or a PCW8256 with a second (FD-2) drive fitted), full details of 
2-drive operation (including DISCKIT) will be found in Part III of this manual (towards the 

end). 

After you have typed Y , copying will take place. You should note that copying is a two-part 

process, and after a short while, you will see the message: 

Insert di sc to WRITE: 
Press any key to continue 

(This message may not appear if you are copying on a 2-drive system.) 

Release the system disc from the drive and insert one of the new discs with the side you 
want to copy the data onto to the left, 

After another short while, you will see the message: 

Insert disc to READ: 
Press any key to continue 

and you must again re-insert the original system disc you are copying from so that the 
second part of the copy can go ahead. After you have again changed discs (as instructed 

on the screen) you will eventually see the message: 

Copy completed 

Remove the disc from the drive 

If you accidentally mix up the disc you are reading from (the Read disc) and the disc you 
are writing to (the Write disc), DISCKIT will spot this and display an appropriate message, 

Any error messages that appear should also be self explanatory, but if you feel in need of 

extra help, refer to Chapter 5 where full details of the DISCKIT utility are given. 

Once the process of copying that side has been completed, release the disc from the drive 
and write 'Working system disc - Side 1' on its label. 

DISCKIT then gives you the option of copying another side. Copy the other three sides 

onto the remaining unused sides of new discs one by one until all have been copied. 

Once you have made your duplicate set of system discs, store your Master discs safely 
away somewhere where they will be away from any magnets - including the ones in your 
television, audio equipment and your PCW8256 - and where they won't get excessively hot, 

cold, damp or dirty. 

CP/M operating system 5 



1.4 Using CP/M 

In principle, you now know enough about CP/M to run any well documented CP/M program. 

Unfortunately, in practice, this will not always be the case. We give advice on how to go about 
choosing the software to buy in chapter 3 but, even so, you are advised to spend some more 
time learning about CP/M itself. Then, you'll be able to get the CP/M application software you 
buy working that much easier. 

The rest of this introduction takes you through some simple uses of CP/M. Although you can 
just read it, we suggest that you work through the instructions using the PCW8256 as it will get 
you used to how CP/M works and how it differs from LocoScrrpt. 

1.4.1 Using the utilities 

The PCW8256 is supplied with more than 30 utilities, with the more commonly used ones on 
Side 2 of the system discs. Some of these utilities extend a similarly named built-in command 
to give that command extra features. 

As we described earlier, you give instructions to CP/M by typing in what are known as 

Command Lines. 

These must be absolutely correct if they are to have the right effect but it doesn't matter if you 
make a mistake while typing in the line: just use the [~+del] key to rub out what you have typed 
back to where you made the mistake, and then type it in again from that point. 

At the end of each command line, press the [return] key: this sends the instructions to CP/M. 
We will remind you to do this throughout this introduction by putting [return | at the end of 
each command line we suggest you type in. But in line with almost every reference book on 
CP/M, these are omitted in the more advanced parts of the manual. 

Command lines will only be obeyed if they are typed when CP/M is ready to receive a 
command, which it shows by putting a system prompt (for example, A>) on the screen. 

The rest of this section is designed to help you learn what instructions to give CP/M. 

What's on your discs 

The first thing you will want to know about any disc you put in the drive is what files are on 
each side of the disc. 

The names of all the files on one side of a disc are held in a Directory and you look at the 
contents of the directory with the aid of DIR, one of the built-in CP/M commands. 



CP/M operating system 



Put Side 2 of your system discs back in the drive. To see the names of the files on this disc 
type in the instruction: 

DIR|rJturn| 

after the A> 

CP/M never distinguishes between lower case and upper case letters so you can use 
whichever you prefer. You don't even have to be consistent. 

Up on your monitor screen will come: 

!:%CPN3 EMS : BASIC COM : DISCXIT COM : LANGUAGE COM ; MB COM 

A; PAPER COM : SET24X80 COM : SETKEYS COM : TYPE COM SEEST COM 

ft: SETSIO COM : KEYS HP ! HWgE CM ; PIP COM RENAME COM 

ft- SET COM : SETBEF COM : SHOW COM : SUBMIT U* , xriu bhs 

fti PROFILE ENG i ED COM ; R FED SUB 
A>l 

The leftmost column is full of 'A : 's because the disc is in the drive CP/M has named Drive A. 

The rest of list is alternate columns of filenames and filetypes, starting with filenames. Each 
filename goes with the filetype immediately to its right - so J10CPM3 and EMS is one file, 
BASIC and COM another, and so on. 

The filename of a file never reflects the sort of operations that can be done using the file but 
the filetype can. 

For example you will see that most of the files listed on the screen have the filetype COM. This 
means that the file holds a program that CP/M can run. Other special filetypes in this list are 
BAS, meaning that the file contains a BASIC program, and EMS. The EMS file is the one that 
contains CP/M. 

Much of the time, you will be interested, not so much in what files are on a disc, but in whether 
the file or files you want are on the disc. The Dffi command can also do this for you. 

Suppose you want to see if you have a file with the filename RPED and the filetype BAS on this 
disc. The command line that does this is: 

DIR RPED. BAS [rIturn] 

Notice that we have quoted the name of the file by putting its filename and then its filetype, 
separated by just a dot. 

The response on the screen will be: 
A: RPED BAS 



CP/M operating system 



If the file hadn't been on the disc, you would have seen the message; 

No File 

If you had known that the filename of the file you wanted was RPED but you couldn't 
remember its filetype, you could have used the DIR command to list out the whole directory 
as before. A better solution would have been to give DIR a template and instruct it to search 
through the directory for all the files that match the template. 

Templates are constructed using the Wildcards * and ? - an asterisk represents any number 
of characters but a questionmark only represents a single character. 

The template for all the files with the filename RPED is RPED.* and so the command line you 
would type in is: 

DIR RPED.*[return| 

What will appear on the screen is: 

A: RPED BAS : RPED SUB 

which tells you that DIR has found two files matching the template, RPED.BAS and RPED. SUB. 

You would use a similar template if what you wanted listed out was all the program files on the 
disc. This time we would use an asterisk instead of any filename and type: 

DIR *. COM | return] 

You would also use an asterisk in the template if you knew just the first few characters of 
either the filename or the filetype or if you wanted to list all the files with the same few 
characters at the start of their filenames. 

Say, for example, that you wanted DIR to list out all the files on the disc that have filenames 
starting with R, regardless of their filetype. The command line that does this is: 

DIR R*.* [return | 

Notice that you have to use two asterisks: one for the filename and one for the filetype. 

So far, we have just described how to use the asterisk wildcard. You would use the 
questionmark wildcard if, for example, the files you wanted listed out all had filenames 
starting with PR but no more than five characters. 

Suppose you want all these files whatever their filetype. The command line you would need is: 
DIR PR???.*|return] 



8 CP/M operating system 



We will tell you shortly of some other uses of wildcards and how these will often save you a lot 
of typing, 



The 'Memory Disc' 



A special feature of CP/M on the PCW8256 is that you can use part of the PCW82S6's memory 
as a disc - the Memory Disc. As far as CP/M is concerned, the memory disc is just like any 
other disc: it just happens to be permanently in the drive it knows as Drive M. 

Operations involving the memory disc are very fast. However, you will lose everything you 

store there every time the machine is switched off or reset. 

You can find out about the disc in another drive by making that drive the default drive. The 

command line that changes the default drive to Drive M is: 

M : [return] 

CP/M will respond by changing the system prompt M> 

You can now find out what files are stored in the memory disc by typing: 
DIR | return! 

Up on the screen will come: 

No file 

because so far you haven't stored any files there. 

That being the case, there is not much point in keeping Drive M as the default, so go back to 
Drive A by typing: 

A : [return I 

In fact, you could have found out what was in the memory disc without changing the default 

drive. The command line you would use is: 

DIR M : [ retur n! 

Alternatively, you could have checked if a particular file - say, FILE.TYP - was stored in the 
memory disc by typing: 

DIR M:FILE.TYP|hjtuhn1 



CP/M operating system 



The M : that we have been using in these command lines is the final element in what is known 
as a file's File Specification, which indicates precisely which file you want by its location as 
well as its filename and filetype. 

We could have put an A : in front of all the filenames we have given so far but the whole point 
of CP/M nominating a drive as the default drive is to save you the effort of giving the location 
when the file is on the default drive. 

Later, when you use CP/M for real, you will probably store copies of the utilities you want to 
use in the memory disc. Then you won't have to change the disc in the drive merely because 
there is no copy of the utility you want on the same disc as the program you are running. We 
will tell you how to set up these copies in the next section. 



Copying files 

The CP/M utility that makes copies of files is called PIP, 

The information you give PIP is the name of the file you want copied (the Source) and the 
name of the file you want the copy stored as (the Destination). 

PIP will proceed to make the copy, provided that no file already exists with the same file 
details as the proposed Destination file and provided that there is enough room on the disc for 
the new file. 

To illustrate how the PIP utility works, we will copy the file called PROFILE.ENG and store the 
copy as the file TEMP on the same disc as the Source file. The command line to type in is: 

PIP TEMP=PRO F I LE.ENG [return] 

Notice that you give PIP the details of the Destination file, before you give it details of the 
Source file. 

Test that this new file now exists by typing: 

DIR TEMP[return| 

You can also use PIP to copy between drives. To demonstrate this, we will once again make a 
copy of PROFILE.ENG but this time we will store the new file, TEMP, on the memory disc, 

which you will remember is Drive M. 

The command line to do this is: 
PIP M:TEMP=PROFILE.ENG|returnJ 



10 CP/M operating system 



Now you have that copy on the memory disc, you can make another copy of the same file, but 
this time using the copy on the memory disc as the Source. The command line to type in is: 

PIP TEMP2=M: TEMP [return | 

The above examples have all just copied one file. You can also use PIP to copy a number of 
files at once. However, you must want to copy all these files to a different disc and to store 
them there under their present filenames and filetypes. 

You instruct PIP to copy the files by giving it a template that picks out just the files you 
want - in exactly the same way as you earlier used a template with the DIR command. 

For example, you could in theory (but don't try just yet) make copies of all the utilities on 
Side 2 of the system discs on the memory disc with the command line: 

PIP M:=*. COM [return | 

However, at least in a standard PCW8256, there wouldn't be room on the memory disc for all 
these files. 

The process of getting copies of the utilities you need on the memory disc certainly involves 
the PIP utility but, as you can imagine, typing in a long sequence of PIP commands is a fairly 
laborious job. Fortunately, there is a neat way of getting those copies made which we will 

come to later in this introduction. 



Organising your discs 

As well as letting you copy files, CP/M helps you to rename them or erase them from the disc. 

All these operations are often referred to as Disc Housekeeping. As you use CP/M more, you 
will find you need these quite often. 

The CP/M command to use to rename files is called RENAME - often abbreviated to REN. 
This command works purely on the directory of a disc, substituting the new filename and 
filetype for the old ones. The data itself is not changed. 

You can change the name of a file as many times as you want. All you have to give RENAME is 
first the new name and then the old. 

We shall illustrate this by changing the name of the file you just created. TEMP2, to TEMP.2, 
The command line that does this is: 

REN TEMP.2=TEMP2[rI7Urn| 



CP/M operating system 1 1 



In this case, the command alters the directory on the default disc. To rename a file on a disc in 
a different drive, you just need to add the drive letter - which obviously should be the same 
for both the new name and the old. 

To demonstrate this, we shall change the name of the file called TEMP on the memory disc to 
FILE.NEW. The command line to type in is: 

REN M:FILE.NEW=M: TEMP| return] 

So far, we have only described changing the name of one file. Templates like the ones you set 

up for use with the DIR and PIP commands can also be used with RENAME. However, the way 
you use wildcards in the new file specification must be identical to the way you use them in 
the old. 

For example, to change the names of the two files, TEMP and TEMP.2, on the default drive to 
NEW and NEW. 2, the command line to type in is: 

REN NEW. *=TEMP.*[ return] 

A command line like: 
REN NEW.*=TE*.*f return] 

would fail. 

You erase any files you no longer need with the ERASE command - often abbreviated to 
ERA. 

To show how to use the ERASE command, we shall erase the file on the memory disc - the 
one you have just renamed FILE.NEW. The command line that does this is: 

ERA M:FILE.NEW['r'eturn] 

Once again, the location part of the file specification has been included because the file is not 
on the default drive. 

The ERASE command also allows you to set up a template with wildcards and so use just one 

command line to erase a number of files. 

This should be used with care. There is no limbo for files under CP/M - that is a special 
feature of LocoScript and so files once erased cannot be restored. 

However, there is an extra feature of the ERASE command that ensures that none of the files 

that fit the template are erased until you confirm that you want this done. 



12 CP/M operating system 



T- TJ£Z2 *£"* featUre * «- «" - «* — - NHW,, on Drive 
ERA NEW.* CC] [retJrnJ 

The cc: tens cm tha, you wan, to use the 'Confirm' or 'C Opfton of the ERASE comm and. 

^Z^^^TZTC T have 0pt,ons ' whlch we COTer ™*» ™ - 

sc^e brackets a, tt "e Ltn^tT ^^ * PUt,m9 """ """ b ~ 
In this case, what you will see on the sereen after typmg in this command fc 
ERASE NEW (Y/N)? 

Type Y[retu„n| to confirm that you want this file erased. 
You will then get a similar message about NEW.2. 

File sizes 

You can ftnd ou, how big the PROFILE.ENG file is through the command fine: 
BIR PROFILE.ENG CSIZEj|rJ™toJ 

7my "SE^olrnm eXa \' e T ° l ^ DIR C ° mmand ^« b * °* DIR 
--^th^ «* - " 

Nofice the space between the .as, character of the filetype and the first square bracket. 
What should now be on your screen is: 
A: PROFILE ENG 1k 

zx :zt ts r™rsssr * ~ — ih * — - - - - 

CP/M operating system " 

13 



The 'k' here stands for Kilobyte and it is the unit in which disc space is always measured. It 

corresponds to roughly 1000 characters. 

The next thing to do is to find out how much free space there is on these discs. The utility to 
use here is SHOW and the command line you need is: 

SHOW [return] 

Up on the screen will come something like: 

A: RW, Space: 11k 

M: RW, Space: 111k 

which tells you that the amount of free space on the disc is Ilk, which is plenty to hold a 
second copy of PROFILE. ENG, and that the corresponding figure for the memory disc is 111k. 
The 'RW tells you that the PCW8256 is allowed to both read from and write to discs in Drives A 

and M. 

The fact that the status of the drive is RW is no guarantee that you will be able to write to the 
disc in the drive. If the Write Protect Hole is open, you will always be prevented from writing 
to that disc and from erasing or renaming any of the files. 

The remaining check is that there is room in the directory for the new filename. The maximum 
number of names that can be held in the directory is 64 and once that number has been 
reached, no more files can be written onto the disc, however much free space there is 
available on the disc. 

SHOW is again the utility to use, but this time with one of its options. The command line to use 
is: 

SHOW A: CDIRD [return] 

Up on the screen will come: 

A: Number of free directory entries: 38 

That confirms that you have both plenty of space and plenty of room in the directory for the 
new file. 

So far, you have been using the CP/M commands to manipulate PROFILE. ENG without 
knowing what this file contains. You can find out with the aid of another built-in command. 
TYPE 

The command line that lists out its contents is: 

TYPE PROFILE. ENG | retu rn | 

14 CP/M operating system 



If you do this, you will see that each line of the file is rather like the commands you have been 
:yping in yourself. We will explain why next. 

Some shortcuts to take 

A useful facility of CP/M is that it lets you put a number of command lines into a file and then 
just type one command line to get exactly the same effect as typing all the commands in 

separately. 

The command you type in uses the SUBMIT utility and the file holding the command lines must 
have the filetype SUB. 

To make use of the commands stored in PROFILE.ENG, you have first to change its filetype to 
SUB by using the RENAME command. So type: 

REN PROFILE.SUB=PROFILE.ENG[rFurn] 

Then type: 

SUBMIT PRO FILE [return] 

and you will see it all happen. (You don't have to give the filetype because it has to be SUB.) 
ft will take a little time because most of the operations copy fairly large files to the memory 

PROFILE.SUB is a special SUB file. It is accessed by a SUBMIT command embedded in the file 
thaUoads CP/M, and the command lines within it will always be obeyed every time you load 

If you now type in: 

DIR M:[nfTURii] 

you will see that a number of files have been loaded into the memory disc. 

If you leave this file as PROFILE.SUB, these utilities will be copied onto the memory disc every 
time you run CP/M Plus, y 

The other command line in the file uses the SETDEF utility to instruct CP/M to look for its 
utilities on more than one drive. This is another useful shortcut provided by CP/M. 

The particular form used here: 

SETDEF M:,* 



CP/M operating system " 77 



tells CP/M to look first on Drive M and then on the default drive. (The use of an asterisk to 
represent the default drive is special to the SETDEF utility.) 

A final shortcut to mention here are the keystrokes you can use to save effort in typing in and 
correcting command lines. 

Rather than use the [ - pel | key to move back to any part of the command line you want to 
correct, you can use the cursor keys \ ~~ ] and [ ~~^~\ . You can then use the [del*! and P+del] 
keys to erase characters and type in any new characters you want at the cursor position, 
before moving the cursor back to the end of the line. 

You can also use the | copy | key to recall the previous command line. This is covered, 
alongside details of other editing shortcuts, in the section on command line editing (section 

2.6). 

Your PCW8256 is now well set up for working with CP/M application programs. Chapter 3 
contains advice on buying and running software, while Parts II and III of this manual tell you 
about writing and running BASIC and LOGO programs. 

From time to time, you will need to check up on how CP/M itself operates. For this, we have 
provided chapter 2, the separate sections of which describe how to carry out particular 

actions - including setting up the printer. 



1 .5 When programs need two drives 

The PCW8256 with just one disc drive attached is capable of running commercial application 
programs that were written assuming that the user would have access to two disc drives. 

The way it does this is to pretend to CP/M that there are really two disc drives called Drive A 
and Drive B. CP/M then alternates between addressing the drive as Drive A and addressing it 
as Drive B, according to the needs of the application program. 

The moment the drive is changed from Drive A to Drive B, the message in the bottom 
right-hand corner of the screen changes to DM ve is B and you will get a message asking 
you to swop the disc currently in the drive for the disc that would be in Drive B if you had a 
second drive. 

Similar messages appear when the drive is changed from Drive B to Drive A. 

You can get a feel for how this works using the PIP utility to create a copy of GENGRAFCOM 
on Side 2 of the system discs. GENGRAF.COM is currently on Side 4. 

In this example, the disc to put in 'Drive A' is Side 2 and the one to put in 'Drive B' is Side 4. 



16 CP/M operating system 



Start with the first system disc in the drive with Side 2 to the left. The command line you need 

is: 

PIP A:=B:GENGRAF.COMfRiTURNl 

This tells CP/M to make a copy of GENGRAF.COM, which it will find on the disc in Drive B, 
and to store the copy under the same name on the disc in Drive A. 

The first message you will get is: 

Please put the disc for B: into the drive and press any key 

Release the disc from the drive and insert the second system disc in the drive with Side 4 to 
the left. Press, say, the space bar. The computer then reads GENGRAF.COM into its memory. 

It then puts up the message: 

Please put the disc for A: into the drive and press any key 

Release the disc from the drive and re-insert the first disc. Press the space bar and the 
computer will put the copy it has made on this disc. 

You can check that this has been done by typing: 

DIR G E NG RAF. COM [return | 

Although copying files from one disc to another can be done using just Drives A and B in this 
way, we would always recommend using Drive M as an intermediary storage area, ie copying 
the file first onto the memory disc, changing the disc in the drive and then copying the file 
from the memory disc to the new disc in the drive. 



CP/M operating system 1 7 



Chapter 2 



Which commands to use 



This chapter goes through one by one the things you are likely to want CP/M to do for you. It is 
not an exhaustive list of what the CP/M commands and utilities do. 

Each section covers one general activity in more detail than was possible in chapter 1. It 
describes the commands you will need and how to use them for the job in hand. If you need to 
know more about a particular command or utility, you can look it up in chapter 5. 

The topics covered are: 

Assessing the available space 

Copying discs 

Copying files 

Creating files 

Creating a Start of Day disc 

Editing the command line 

Editing text files 

Erasing files 

Finding the size of a file 

Formatting discs 

Listing the directory 

Listing a file 

Operating the printer 

Personalising your system 

Renaming files 

Resetting the machine 

Shortening the command line 

Switching which disc is read and written 

Throughout this chapter, we assume that the utility you require for any command is either on 
the disc in the default drive or that you have set the disc search order (see section 2. 17) so that 
the utility is automatically found. 

If neither is the case, you will have to include the drive the utility is on as part of its name. For 
example, you may have to type: 

M:PIP M:=///p 

to copy a file on the default drive into the memory disc, if the copy of PIP you want to use is on 
the memory disc. 

CP/M operating system 19 



Conventions 

Metalanguage This chapter uses words printed in italic to represent parameters that you 
will have to specify. For example, drive: should be replaced in your command line by A: , B: 
or M : (or omitted if the required drive is the default drive), while tile should be replaced by as 
much of the file's full specification (dnve: filename, fn'ctype) as is needed to identify the file. 

The terms used are always explained in the text accompanying the command line and 

supported by examples. 

Control codes are given as 'Control-character'. This is to be consistent with other guides 
to CP/M. There is no Control key on the the PCW8256 keyboard. 

The key to press will often be one of the special function keys but f alt J i character will 
always work as well. The actions of the special function keys are listed in section 2.6 'Editing 
the command line'. 

Internal codes are given in two forms. One way is as a decimal number; the other is as a 
Hexadecimal number. Hexadecimal numbers are to the base 16 and are made up by a # 
followed by two characters. Each of these characters can be one of the digits 0..9 or one of the 
letters A..F 



2Q CP/M operating system 



% 



2 . 1 Assessing the available space 

The easiest way of finding out how much free space there is on a particular disc is to use the 
SHOW utility. 

The simplest form of SHOW displays the free space on all iogged-in discs, along with what 
types of access are allowed to that disc. For example, the screen could look like this: 

A>SHOW 

A: RO, Space: 4k 

M: RW, Space: 58k 

This tells you that the discs currently logged in are the one in Drive A and the memory disc 
and that while you are allowed to read from and write to the memory disc, you may only read 
from the disc in Drive A. (RW stands for Read- Write; RO for Read-Only). It also tells you that you 
have 4kilobytes of free data space on the disc in Drive A but 58kilobytes still free in the 
memory disc. 

You can display just the information about one particular disc by typing, for example, SHOW M : 
The screen display would then be: 

A>SHOW M: 

M: RW, Space: 58k 

If you want to find out the number of free directory entries on a particular disc and thus the 
maximum number of new files you could store on that disc, the command to use is 

SHOW drive: CDIRJ 

For example, the screen could look like this: 

A>SHOW A:CDIR] 

A: Number of free directory entries: 12 



CP/M operating system 2 1 



2.2 Copying discs 



Making copies of discs on the PCW8256 involves using the DISCKIT utility. If necessary, 
DISCKIT will also format the disc being written to as part of the copying process. 

DISCKIT presents menus to help you select the correct options for the job you want to do and 
puts up messages to tell you what to do or to advise you of any errors that have occurred, 

Before you start copying, check that the Write Protect Holes on your system disc and the 
discs you intend to copy are open so that you cannot spoil them by accidentally writing to the 
disc. (There is a diagram in chapter 2 of the User Guide showing the position of the Write 
Protect Holes and how they open and close.) 

Start with your CP/M system disc in Drive A with Side 2 to the left or with DISCKIT copied onto 
the memory disc. 

Then type DISCKIT after a system prompt. This brings up the first set of messages, which 
offer the choice of Copy, Format or Verify (or Exit from DISCKIT),and tell you which function 
key to press to select the desired action. In this instance, you want Copy ie the | fe | key. 

If you have just one disc drive, the next screen merely asks you to type Y to confirm that you 
want to copy the contents of one disc to another. Remove the system disc from the drive. 

If your system has two disc drives, the next screen will ask which drive you want to read from 
(press [~S "| for Drive A; \_JiJ for Drive B). This is followed by a message asking which 
drive to write to (press |~' fc"l Ior Drive A; f "ft | for Drive B). You will then be asked to type Y 
to confirm that this is what you want to do. Remove the system disc from the drive. 

The next set of messages prompt you to put the right disc in at the right time. They are 
designed to be self explanatory: for example, if the PCW8256 needs a disc to be inserted in a 
particular drive, you will see a message like: 

Insert disc to READ 
Press any key to continue 



Insert disc to READ in B: 
Press any key to continue 

Put the disc to be copied into the drive with the side you want copied to the left. When the 
corresponding WRITE message appears, insert the disc you want to copy to with the 

appropriate side to the left. 



22 CP/M operating system 



L_' 

U 

LJ 

^— Once the process of copying one side has been completed, DISCKIT tells you to remove all 

L^ discs from the drives and then gives you the option of copying another. If this is what you 

want, type Y and go through copying the discs a side at a time until all have been copied. 



'.: ;r. swopping discs in and out of a single disc system, you mix up the disc you are reading 
:':Dm with the disc you are writing to, DISCKIT will display an appropriate message and allow 
;-3\: to change to the correct disc before continuing. 

Any error messages that appear should also be self-explanatory, but if you feel in need of 
extra help, refer to chapter 5 where full details of the DISCKIT messages are given. 



i 

I CP/M operating system 23 

I 



2.3 Copying files 



The utility that makes a copy of a file either on the same disc or on a different disc is the 
Peripheral Interchange Program, PIP. 

As you might suppose from its full title, this utility is used for many more actions than just 
copying files from disc to disc. Details of all the variants are given in chapter 5. 

The basic command needed to copy files is; 

PI P i leatii niiioii = source 

where source represents the name of the file to be copied and destination the name of the 
new file which is created to hold the copy. 

This command will work whatever the details of the file you want to copy and wherever you 
want to store the new file. 

For example: 

PIP NAME. TXT=MYNAME. ADR 

makes a copy of a file on the default drive called MYNAME.ADR and stores it on the 

default drive as NAME.TXT. 
PIP M : ABC. COM=A: XYZ.COM 

makes a copy of the file on Drive A called XYZ.COM and stores it on the memory disc 

as ABC.COM. 

If, however, you want to copy the file to a different disc but retain the original filename and 
filetype, there is a shorter command you can give: 

PIP i /<■ ? s / ; / ; a tiu i ; - dr< v c: = sour c e 

For example: 

PIP M:=MENU.C0M 

makes a copy of a file on the default drive called MENU.COM and stores it on the 

memory disc also as MENU.COM. 
PIP M:=A:USEFUL.SUB 

makes a copy of a file on Drive A called USEFUL.SUB and stores it on the memory disc 

also as USEFUL.SUB. 

This instruction can't be used to make a second copy of a file on the same disc because you 
cant have two files with identical filename and filetype on the same disc. 



24 CP/M operating system 



As a general rule, if the destination file already exists, the old file contents are erased as part 
of the copying process. 

In common with many other CP/M commands, PIP allows you to use wildcards to reduce the 
number of instructions needed to copy a number of files from one disc to the other. 

The characters that can be used as wildcards are * and ? 

An asterisk is used to represent any valid group of characters. It can replace a whole filename 
or filetype or complete a filename or filetype when you quote the characters ) that start it. 

A questionmark can only represent a single character or blank in the same position as itself. 

For example: 

PIP M:=A:*.COM 

makes copies on the memory disc of all the .COM files on Drive A. 
PIP M:=A:*.* 

makes copies on the memory disc of all the files on Drive A. 
PIP M:=A:PR0G??.* 

makes copies on the memory disc of all the files on Drive A whose filenames have no 

more than six characters and start PROG. 
PIP M:=A:PR0G*.* 

makes copies on the memory disc of all the files on Drive A with filenames starting 

PROG. 

These versions of the PIP instruction cannot be used to produce copies of a file on the same 

disc as the original. 



CP/M operating system 25 



2.4 Creating files 



There is more than one way of creating a new file under CP/M. The ways we suggest here use 
the various text editors supplied with the PCW8256. 

These have their own ways of handling the characters you type in, so follow the instructions 

carefully. 

The first thing to do is to check that there is enough room for the new file on the disc you 
propose to use. Use the SHOW command for this (see section 2.1). 

If the file you propose to create is less than 20k (approximately 20,000 characters), you can 
use the supplied BASIC text editor, RPED. This displays a constantly updated version on the 
screen and allows you to use the cursor keys etc to move around the text and edit it. 

If your system uses the supplied PROFILE.SUB, just type RPED after a system prompt and then 
follow the instructions that appear on the screen. If not, you will first need to put Side 2 of the 
system discs in the drive. 

Another way is to use the CP/M text editor ED. This is on Side 2 of the system discs. 

To open the edit, type: 

ED file 

where file stands for the name of the new file. 

ED will respond with: 

NEW FILE 
: * 

The asterisk is ED's prompt and shows that ED is waiting for one of its commands. 

If all you want is an empty file with a suitable filename, simply type E to leave the text editor. 

If you want to put text into the new file, type i . This takes you into ED's Insert Mode and you 
may then just type in whatever you want. The code to leave Insert Mode is 'Control-Z', so 
press [ alt ] - Z. Return to CP/M by typing E . 

If while typing in a line of data you make any mistakes, use | *del] to rub out characters back 
to the mistake. If you don't notice the mistakes until after you have left the line, turn to section 

2.7 where we describe editing text files. 



26 CP/M operating system 



2.5 Creating a Start of Day disc 

The idea of a Start of Day disc is that putting this disc in the drive immediately after you switch 
on sets up the PCW8256 ready to run your applications programs. 

It therefore needs to hold a copy of the file containing the CP/M operating system 
(T10CPM3.EMS), a copy of each of the utilities you use often and a PROFILE.SUB file that 
copies these utilities into the memory disc and makes them readily accessible to CP/M. 

The way to create such a disc for yourself is to use the DISCKIT utility to duplicate Side 2 of 
the system discs on a fresh disc (see section 2.2). This immediately gives you a disc that you 
can use both as a Start of Day disc and as a source of utilities such as DISCKIT that you don't 
copy into the memory disc. If you wish, you can use the ERASE command to erase any files 

you won't need. 



CP/M operating system 27 



2.6 Editing the command line 

You can always use the [*del] key to rub out characters when you make a mistake or change 
your mind about the command you want to execute. 

However, CP/M Plus provides some short cuts to getting the command line typed in 

correctly - including using an earlier command as part of the current command. 

These short cuts are taken by pressing particular keys or combinations of keys on the 
PCW8256 keyboard. The keys you want are as follows; 

[~ - | to move the cursor back one character 

( • | or [ char 1 to move the cursor forward one character 

[unjF] ( [shift] I [ eol] ) to move the cursor to the beginning of the line 

f eol j to move the cursor to the end of the line 

[ alt J + f ' ; J to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line without executing the 

current command line 
[del* J to delete the character under the cursor 

[♦delI to delete the previous character 

[m^] t |1>el*] to delete from the cursor to the end of the line 
["alt" 1 4 | ^del] to delete from the start of the line to the cursor 
| relay] to retype the line up to the current position of the cursor 

| copy | or [paste j to copy the previous command line into the current line at the cursor position 

When the cursor is not at the end of the current line, typing a character causes that character 
to be inserted at the position of the cursor. The cursor and the characters to its right are 
moved one character to the right. 

Using the [copy] key together with the other editing keys can avoid much re-typing if you 

want to execute a series of similar commands. 



28 CP/M operating system 



2.7 Editing text files 



If the file you propose to edit is less than 20k long, we suggest you use the supplied BASIC 
text editor, RPED. This displays a constantly updated version of your file on the screen and 
allows you to use the cursor keys etc to move around the file and edit it. 

Providing your system uses the provided PROFILE.SUB, just type RPED after a system prompt 
and then follow the instructions that appear on the screen. Otherwise, you will need to put 
Side 2 of the system discs in the drive. 

The alternative is to use the CP/M text editor ED. This utility is on Side 3 of the system discs. It 

will store the changed file under any name and on any disc you choose - provided, of course 
that there is room for it. 

ED has its own set of commands for inserting new material, deleting old material and so on. 
These are outlined below. Do not expect the cursor keys and the two DEL keys to have their 
usual effect. 

Preparing to edit The first thing that ED will want to know is the file it is to edit (the 

Source File) and the file in which the edited version is to be stored (the Destination File). 

The most general form of the instruction to open the edit is: 

E D s o t. i re e des U na tie i ; 

where source represents the name of the file to be edited and destination the name of the file 
that will hold the edited version. 

For example: 

ED OLDFILE.TXT NEWFILE.TXT 

takes OLDFILE.TXT as the source and stores the edited version as NEWFILE.TXT. 

Often you simply want to replace the old version with the edited version. In this case, the 
names of the source and destination files will be identical and so the instruction to edit the file 
can be shortened to: 

ED file 

where file represents the name of the file to be updated. 

For example: 

ED MYFILE.DOC 

will update a file on the default drive called MYFILE.DOC. 



CP/M operating system 29 



ED M:TEMP.$$$ 

will update a file on the memory disc called TEMP.$$$. 

Except where the edited file is going to directly replace the source file, the ED command will 
fail if a file already exists with the same file specification. 

Once you have typed in the appropriate edit instruction and provided there are no problems, 
ED will show that it is ready to start editing the file by displaying on the screen: 



The asterisk is the ED prompt and shows that it is ready to accept further commands. 

Starting the edit ED uses an area of memory as its workspace and before you can edit a 
file, you have to put it into this workspace. The workspace is big enough to hold most 
reasonably sized files, but sometimes the file to be edited is bigger than the workspace. Such 
a file will have to be edited in sections. 

The next thing to do is therefore to put a suitable number of lines of data from the source file 
into ED's workspace. For this, you need ED's Append command, which has the form nA where 
n is the number of lines you want transferred. 

Having to specify the number of lines you want to edit may well seem an unreasonable 
demand, although with practice you might find this useful because it means you can edit the 

source file a bit at a time. 

Fortunately, ED has two shorthand versions of the command: one (#A) to load as much 
material as possible from the source file into its workspace and the other (0A) to half fill the 
buffer. 0A is particularly useful because this will ensure that there is plenty of room for the file 
to grow as you edit it. 

Editing large files If not all of the file will fit in the memory buffer, you will have to edit it 

in sections. 

Use 0A to half fill the buffer, leaving room for new material, and edit this part of the file 
completely. Then move on to the next section. 

The way you move on to the next part is by first writing some or all of the buffer to the 
destination file by using ED's Write command. The instruction here is either W to write 
everything to the destination file or nW to write just n lines. 

This done, use the Append command to read more lines into the buffer from the source file 
and continue editing. 

Repeat this process until the whole file has been edited. 



30 CP/M operating system 



The editing commands ED's commands are essentially concerned with inserting or 
deleting material at the current position of an imaginary pointer within the memory buffer. 
They also cover moving the position of the pointer, searching for particular phrases, 
replacing these with other text and displaying the result of these actions. 

Details of the commands you are likely to want are given below. More information about the 
ED commands may be found in chapter 5. 

Moving the pointer You will often want to move the pointer forwards and backwards on 
the same line or to a different line. These actions are controlled by the C and L commands, nC 
moving the pointer n characters forward (backwards if // is negative) and nl_ moving it to the 

beginning of the line n lines forward (backwards if n is negative). 

For example, if you want to move the pointer back 10 characters, the instruction would be 
-10C, while the one to move the pointer forwards three lines would be 3 L. If you just want to 
move one character or line, you would just type C or -C, L or -L. 

To move the pointer to the beginning of the line, type 0L. 

Should you want to move the pointer to the beginning or the end of the text you are editing, 
the instruction to use is B to put it at the beginning or -B to put it at the end. 

Displaying what you are editing ED doesn't automatically show you what it is 
editing or the result of the edit. To see this, you have to use ED's Type command. 

The basic command is nT: this tells ED to display on the screen the n lines after the pointer (n 
lines before the pointer, if n is negative). 

If all you want to see is what is between the current position of the pointer and the end of the 
line, type T. To display a whole line, you have to move the pointer back to the beginning of the 
line before typing T. Type #T to see everything between the current pointer position and the 
end of the text you are editing. 

Inserting characters The command to start inserting characters is i . If you want 
everything to be inserted in upper case characters, type I . 

Everything you type after the i or I will be inserted wherever the pointer is. ED will not 
start a new line until you press the Return key. 

The code to leave this insert mode is 'Control-Z'. So press | alt" 1 f Z or \~1T~\ to move on to 

another command. 

Deleting characters Deleting characters either side of the pointer uses the D command. 
oD deletes the n characters after the pointer (before it if n is negative). 

For example, to delete the six characters before the pointer, type -6D. 

CP/M operating system 3 1 



Type just D or -D if you just want to delete one character. 

If you want to delete a whole block of text, you should use the Kill command. If n is positive, 

typing nK deletes everything up to the beginning the nth line after the current line. So if you 
are on Line 3 and you type 6K, ED will delete everything up to the beginning of the old Line 9, 
which is then appended to Line 3. 

If n is negative, ED will delete the specified number of whole lines plus all the characters in 
the current line to the left of the pointer. So if, for example, you are on Line 9 and you type -6K, 
ED will delete everything back to the beginning of Line 3. Any characters left on the old 

Line 9 form the new Line 3. 

As you might imagine, it is very easy to delete more than you intended with the Kill command. 
So until you become really familiar with how it works, always move the pointer to the 

beginning of the line first. 

If you want to join two lines together, use the L command to move the pointer to the beginning 
of the second line and then type -20. 

Search and Replace ED has a Substitute command to search through the buffer from the 

current pointer position and to replace a given string of characters when it finds it with a new 
string. 

The most general form of the S command is: 

nS search-st r/n g'Control-Z'new-sfr/ng'Control-Z' 

This replaces the next n instances of search -string with new-string, starting from the current 
position of the pointer. If n is omitted, the action is carried out just once. 

The pointer is left at the end of the last newly substituted string. 

ED doesn't allow more than 100 characters in any one command, so keep your chosen strings 
reasonably short. If necessary, split your search and replace job into two or more similar 
operations. 

Finishing the edit Most of the time, all you will need to type to finish your edit is 
E - typed in after one of ED's asterisk prompt symbols. 

Alternatively, you may decide to abandon the edit altogether. This is done by typing in Q after 
the asterisk. 

ED error messages AH the error messages generated by ED have the same forrr,: 
BREAK "symbol" AT letter 



32 CP/M operating system 



u 

L_ 

^ The symbol identifies the type of failure that has occurred, while the letter identifies the type 

I of editing process in which the failure happened - S for Substitute, W for Write, and so on. 

■ ■ Full details are given in chapter 5. 

■ Any other messages you see will be CP/M error messages. These are explained in Appendix IV- 



U 
U 
U 

u 
u 
u 
u 
u 
u 
u 

L 
L 



CP/M operating system 33 



2.8 Erasing files 



You delete files you no longer need by using an ERASE command. The space taken up on the 
disc by the data and the entry in the directory are automatically reclaimed for use by a later 

file. 

The most general form of this command is: 

ERASE We or ERA file 

where We represents the name of the file to be erased. 

For example: 

ERA MYFILE.COM 

erases the file on the default drive called MYFILE.COM 
ERASE M:TEMP.TXT 

erases the file on the memory disc called TEMP.TXT 

If no file is found with exactly the given name, the screen message No Fi Le will appear. 

The ERASE command also allows you to use Wildcards to reduce the number of instructions 

needed to erase a number of files. 

The characters that can be used as wildcards are * and ? 

An asterisk is used to represent any valid group of characters. It can replace a whole filename 
or filetype or it can complete a filename or filetype when you quote the character(s) that start 
it. 

A questionmark can only represent any single character or blank in the same position as 

itself. 

Needless to say, the wildcard version of the ERASE command needs to be used with care. 
Under CP/M, a file erased in error cannot be restored. 

A way of guarding against this while still taking advantage of the compact wildcard 
instruction is to use the Confirm Option of the ERASE command. The usual command is 
followed by CG or [CONFIRM] 

As CP/M finds entries in the disc's directory that match the given specification, it displays the 
filename, along with a message asking you to confirm whether this file is to be deleted. It then 
proceeds to find the next match. 



34 CP/M operating system 



For example: 

ERA *.DAT CC] 

finds all the files on the default drive that have the filetype DAT and asks you to confirm 
that you want each one erased, 

Notice the single space before the CCH 



CP/M operating system 35 



2.9 Finding the size of a file 

If you want to know the size in kilobytes of one or more files, the command to use is the DIE. 
command with its SIZE option. CP/M recognises that you want this additional information if 
you add [SIZED to the end of your DIE command. 

You get this information only for the files you want, either by going through one by one giving 
the full name of each file you want or by making appropriate use of Wildcards. 

The characters that can be used as wildcards are * and ? 

An asterisk is used to represent any valid group of characters. It can replace a whole filename 
or filetype or it can complete a filename or filetype when you quote the character(s) that start 
it. 

A question mark can only represent a single character or blank in the same position as itself. 
For example: 

DIR PR???.* CSIZE] 

displays the names and sizes of all those files with at most five letter filenames starting 

with PR 



36 CP/M operating system 



^ 2.10 Formatting discs 



Formatting is the preparation a blank disc needs before data can be stored on it. 

If you also want to be able to load CP/M from the new disc, it is easiest to copy a suitable disc 
(see section 2.2). Formatting is automatically a part of the copying process. You can then use 
the ERASE command to erase all but CPM3.EMS from the newly copied disc (see section 2.8). 

Simply to format a new disc involves using the DISCKIT utility. 

You can format an old disc but you should remember that this will destroy all the old data. 

Start by checking that the Write Protect Holes of your system discs are open so that you 
cannot accidentally format these discs. (There is a diagram showing the position of the Write 
Protect Holes and how they open and close in chapter 2 of the PCW8256 User Guide.) 

Ensure that Side 2 of the system discs is in Drive A or that the DISCKIT utility has been copied 
into the memory disc. 

Type DISCKIT. This brings up the first set of messages, which offer the choice of Copy, 
Format or Verify (or Exit from DISCKIT), and tell you which key to press to select the required 
option. In this instance, the Format option is required and so the | fe ] key should be 

pressed. 

Users with just one disc drive will then get a message asking them to remove the system disc 
and replace it with the disc to be formatted. Those with two drives at their disposal will be 
asked which drive will be used for formatting, and then asked to type Y to confirm that this 
information has been entered correctly. 

Place the new disc in the specified drive with the side to be formatted to the left. 

Throughout the formatting process, messages can appear at the top of the screen. Most of 
these should be self explanatory: for instance, no disc in the drive could lead to the screen 

message: 

Insert disc to format 
Press any key to continue 

The messages that indicate that some error has occurred should also be self explanatory, but 
if you need extra help turn to chapter 5 where the DISCKIT messages are given in full. 



CP/M operating system 37 



2.11 Listing the directory 

The command normally used to display information about your files is DIR. This is a built-in 
command: in some circumstances, it is supported by the DIR utility. 

If you simply want a list of the files on a disc, type: 

DIR drive: 

where drive is the letter representing the drive holding the disc and is omitted in the case of 
the default disc. 

For example: 

DIR 

lists out all the files on the default disc 
DIR M: 

list outs all the files in the memory disc 

If there are also some special files called System Files on that disc, you will be told this once 
all the Non-system files have been listed. 

System files are not covered in this manual except to say that the command needed to list 

these files is the DIRSYS command. 

A detailed discussion of the DIRSYS command is inappropriate here. All you need to 
remember about DIRSYS is that it works very much like DIR, but only DIR can be enhanced 
through the various directory searching options. 

You can also use the DIR command if you just want to see if a particular file is on a disc you are 
working with. The command line to type is: 

DIR file 

where ///(; represents the name of the file. 

For example: 

DIR M: MYPR0G.COM 

tests if there is a copy of the file MYPROG.COM on the memory disc 

If there isn't, then No Fi Le will appear on the screen. 

You can use this version of the command, but with wildcards, to list out details of a group of 

files. 

38 CP/M operating system 



The characters that can be used as wildcards are * and ? 

An asterisk is used to represent any valid group of characters. It can replace a whole filename 
or filetype or it can complete a filename or filetype when you quote the character(s) that start 
it. 

A questionmark can only represent a single character or blank in the same position as itself. 

For example: 

DIR M:*.COM 

lists out just those files on the memory disc that have the filetype COM 

DIR PR???.* 

lists out only those files on the default disc with filenames that start PR and have no more 

than five characters 

You can obtain more information about the files by using the Options associated with the DIR 

command, 

To use these options, you must have the DIR utility on a disc in a logged-m drive. 

Some of the more useful options are EXCLUDE, FULL and SIZE. EXCLUDE enables you to list 
all files except those with the given filename; FULL makes the directory listing include size 
and all the special characteristics along with the name of each file; and SIZE gives the size of 
each file listed. 

The SIZE option is used most often to discover how big a particular file is, typically just before 
it is copied from one disc to another. 

For example: 

DIR M:MYPR0G.C0M [SIZE] 

displays the filename, filetype and size in kilobytes of a file on the memory disc called 
MYPROG.COM 

Notice the single space before the first square bracket. 



CP/M operating system 39 



2.12 Listing a file 

If you want to examine the contents of any file on the screen, type: 

TYPE hlfi 

where hie represents the name of the file to be listed. 

The contents of the file are displayed on your monitor, a screenful at a time. Press the space 
bar to see more. 

If you would like to get a print out of the file at the same time, type 'Control-P' ( [_alt ] I P) 
before you type the above command. The PCW8256 will bleep when you do this. Now all the 
text that appears on the screen will be 'echoed' on the printer. 

A second 'Control-P' will turn the printer off. 

Alternatives to both of these instructions are provided by the PIP utility. 

PIP COH:= file 

copies the named file to the screen 
PIP LSI : = file 

copies the named file to the printer 



40 CP/M operating system 



2.13 Operating the printer 



When you turn your PCW8256 on, its printer is set up to print on A4 paper. This will give you 
up to 61 lines of text, the first line on each page being an inch down from the top and the last 
half an inch from the bottom. 

That will probably suit most of your purposes very well but occasionally you may want the 
printer to handle a different sort of paper. If you are to continue to use the printer efficiently, 
you must set the printer up for this new paper. Some application software will do this for you 
but not all. 

You will also want to load paper into the printer and release the paper after the current job is 

completed. We describe all of these actions below. 



Auto -loading the printer 

The printer is set up so that paper resting in the paper guide will be automatically fed into the 
printer and left so that printing will begin in the correct position. 

The actions you have to take are very simple. 

First place the paper you wish to use centrally in the paper guide so that its top edge rests 
against the printer. If you plan to use continuous stationery, you should have the additional 

tractor feed mechanism fixed to the top of the printer. 



o o 




PAPER TRAY 
EXTENSION 



PAPER TRAY 

PAPER LOADING KNOB 
PAPERFEED KNOB 

DUST COVER 
PAPER BAIL 



CP/M operating system 



41 



TRACTOR COVER 

TRACTOR 

PAPER BAIL 1 



Next Turn the Paper Loading Knob one quarter of a turn towards you. This also moves the bail 
bar forward. 

The printer itself now feeds the paper in. If the paper is slightly crooked, do not adjust it yet. 
Turn the knob back to its original position, and only then adjust the paper if this is necessary. 

A single sheet of paper will now be in the right position for starting printing. 

If you are using continuous paper, you will now have to move the paper through further using 
the Paper Feed Knob until you can engage the paper holes in the tractor feed clips. 

Then turn the Paper Feed Knob until the print position is approximately '/« inch below the next 
line of perforations. This is its Top of Form position. 

You should now be ready to start printing, but before you press | exit ], check that the printer 
is set up for the paper you are using. This is described below in 'Changing the paper settings'. 



Other printer operations 



Further printer operations become possible when the PCW8256 is put into its Printer Control 
State. These include: 

« making the printer ready to print (putting it On-line) 

. putting the printer on stand-by (Off-line) 

• changing the quality of the printing from the usual Draft quality to one suitable for 
business letters (High Quality) 

• and releasing the last sheet printed on. 

These are the sort of operations that are often done on other printers by pressing buttons or 
the printer itself. 

42 CP/M operating system 



The PCW8256 enters Printer Control State either when you press the | ptr | key or when you 
operate the Paper Load Knob on the printer. The PCW8256 also puts itself into Printer Control 

State if you try to print something while it is waiting for paper. 

If the printer is in the middle of printing out some text when you press the [ ptr ] key, it will 
halt as soon as it has finished either printing the current line or moving the paper to the next 

print position. 

The operations that can be carried out in this state are now indicated on the bottom line of 
your screen. This line also gives you information about the state of the printer. 

Scanning from left to right, you will see that the line is divided into either seven or eight 
separate parts by vertical bars. The first of these is highlighted, indicating that the cursor is on 
this one. 

Each section is effectively a 'button' which you press by moving the cursor to that button and 
pressing either the |-| or the [ ] key. The set of buttons you get depends on the state the 
printer is in. 

The first button displays the current state of the printer. This will tell you, for example, if the 
printer is On-line (temporarily halted), Off-line (permanently halted), Waiting for paper or the 
Bail bar is out. 

You must be On-Line for the printer to print. Change from Off-line to On-line (by pressing [~j) 
or from On-line to Off-line (by pressing ;__■_)). 

If the printer is either On-line or Off-line, the next message will be either at Line: n or 
Top of Form . This gives the current position of the paper as a number of lines of text (n) 
printed with a line spacing of Vein. If the message is Top of Form , this means Line 1 on 
continuous stationery but Line 7 on single sheet stationery. 

The next two buttons are usually LF (for Line Feed) and FF (for Form Feed). Move the cursor 
to one of these buttons and press |_+ J to get these actions. One Form Feed will release the 

current sheet of paper. 

The next four buttons allow you to choose to print in Draft quality or High quality, to override 
the automatic system that detects the end of a sheet of paper, to have everything printed as 

the equivalent hexadecimal number and to reset the printer. 

The one you are most likely to use is the Draft Quality/High Quality button, because this gives 
you the option of producing professional style letters and documents. Pressing either the ~ 
or the ( ] key will swop the printer between these two print styles. 

The effects the other buttons have are described in Appendix II, along with fuller details of all 
the printer control operations. 



CP/M operating system 43 



When you are happy with the printer settings, just press | exit | and continue with whatever 
you want to do. 



Changing the paper settings 

Changing the paper settings on the PCW8256 involves the PAPER utility. This is on Side 2 of 
your system discs. 

A PAPER command includes one or more parameters that describe the paper you want to 
use. Some of these parameters are used to make small adjustments to the way print appears 
on the page: others set a whole new standard format. It is the ones that set standard formats 
that you are most likely to use. 

For example, the PAPER command to use when you change from using A4 paper to A5 paper 
is: 

PAPER A5 

Another common change you are likely to make is from A4 to continuous stationery, the 
commonest form of which has perforations every 1 1 inches. The command to use here is: 

PAPER 11 

In either case you would change back by typing: 

PAPER A4 

As these commands are executed, various messages will appear on the screen. These in fact 
tell you all the setting changes that are made, not that you should need to worry about these. 

If you need to change the paper parameters in any other way, turn to chapter 5 where full 

details of the PAPER utility are given. 



Troubleshooting the printer 

If anything strange seems to be happening when you are printing, put the PCW8256 into 
Printer Control State by pressing [ Vtr ) unless the computer has already done this for you. 
This automatically halts the printer: it also lets you see precisely what the printer is doing. 

To show what to do next, we have tabulated some common printer problems. 

. Printer does not respond: Printer Control message says Offline 

With the cursor on this message, press [tj. Then press [ exit ] to return to printing. 



44 CP/M operating system 



• Printer does not respond: Printer Control message says Bai I bar out 

Turn the Paper Load Knob away from you to return the bail bar to its normal position. Then 
press [exit j to return to printing. 

• Printer does not print: Printer Control message says Wai ti ng for paper 

Check first that paper is loaded into the printer. If it is, check the cursor is on this 
message and then press I j . Finally press | exit | to return to printing. 

It is possible that you are using continuous stationery but the printer is set up for single 
sheets of paper. Check this at your earliest opportunity, changing the settings as 
required with the aid of the PAPER utility. 

• Printer does not print: Printer Control message says Out of paper 

Check first that paper is loaded into the printer. If it is, move the cursor to PO DEFEAT 
and then press ' - '. Finally press | exjtJ to return to printing. 

. Printer does not respond: Printer Control message says No printer 

This says that the printer is either not connected or is faulty. 

First check that both the power and ribbon cables that go between the printer and the 
PCW8256 system unit are connected properly. Then move the cursor to the RESET 
button and press [ - ■ 

If the No printer message does not go away, then either your printer or your PCW8256 
could be faulty. 

Press \ exit ] to go back to whatever you were doing. 



CP/M operating system 45 



2-14 Personalising your system 

rhere are a number of features of both the PCW8256 and CP/M that you can set up to make 

four applications programs easier to run. You can: 

. Put sequences of commands you use often into special files. Then you will need just one 
command to get CP/M to carry out the whole sequence. 

. Make certain actions happen automatically when you load CP/M. For example, copying the 
utilities from the system disc to the memory disc. 

. Make the function keys generate special characters or whole commands. 



Generating command sequences 

rhe first of these options involves the use of the SUBMIT utility. 

suppose, for example, that you often follow the loading of CP/M by copying all the COM files 
on the disc in Drive A into the memory disc and then set the disc search order to M: followed 
by the default disc (see section 2.17). The commands that you usually type would be: 

PIP M:=A:*.COM 
SETDEF M: r * 

If you were to put these into a file, which you called TRANS.SUB and stored on Side 2 of your 

system discs, you could then just type: 

SUBMIT TRANS 

to get the same effect. 

Extending what happens when you load CP/M 

If you want to make copying the utilities into the memory disc and setting the program search 
order an automatic part of loading CP/M, you should just put these instructions in a special file 
called PROFILE.SUB instead of storing these instructions in TRANS.SUB. 

Any commands in PROFILE.SUB are always executed as part of loading CP/M. You never 
need to type SUBMIT PROFILE 



46 CP/M operating system 



— Making use of the function keys 

To make the function keys generate special characters or whole commands, you will need the 
_ SETKEYS utility. 

*"- Suppose, for example, that you would like to run your spreadsheet program (which we will 

_ call MYSPREAD.COM) by pressing \~T' | , instead of typing MYSPREAD [rIturnJ 

^— To make this happen, you will need a file (which we will call FNKEYS) holding the line: 

■— E #81 "MYSPREAD TM" 

The #81 is the code that represents the ][J1~\ key. The other function keys, |~fe~]to L~ *~~] - 
=— have the codes #82 to #88. These may be set up through similar lines in the FNKEYS file. The 

* M represents 'Control-M', which is the control code equivalent to pressing the Return key. 

Then you will have to type the command: 

SETKEYS FNKEYS 

Thereafter, pressing | fi~\ will command CP/M to run your MYSPREAD program. 

This SETKEYS command is another worth putting in your PROFILE. SUB file. 

A more complete description of the SETKEYS utility is given in Appendix I. It should, 

— however, be pointed out that while the commands themselves are easy to use, it is also easy to 
re-define your keyboard so that it is impossible to use. You should therefore always plan and 
check over any changes very carefully. 



CP/M operating system 47 



2.15 Renaming files 

The renaming of files is handled by the built-in RENAME command, in some cases supported 
by the RENAME utility. 

Renaming is just a change of name: the data or program file itself is not altered in any way by 
RENAME. 

The most general form of the command is: 

RENAME new name^dd-name or REN new -name= old- name 

where old-name represents the current name of the file and new-name the name you wish to 

change it to. 

For example: 

REN DOC.BAK=DOC.TXT ^ nn; 

changes the name of the file DOC.TXT on the default disc to DOC.BAK 
REN M: RECORDS. Y85=M: RECORDS. LST * Frn *nq YRS 

changes the name of the file RECORDS.LST on the memory disc to RECORDS.YBb 

The only restriction on your choice of new name is that it must not be the name of any existing 
file on that disc. 

The command will fail if you quote a different drive for the file under its old name to that you 
quote with its new name. 

If CP/M fails to find old name in the directory, the message No Fi Le will be displayed on the 
screen. 

You can reduce the number of instructions needed to rename a number of files by 
appropriate use of wildcards. 

The characters that can be used as wildcards are * and ? 

An asterisk is used to represent any valid group of characters. It can replace a whole filename 
or filetype or it can complete a filename or filetype when you quote the character(s) that start 
it. 

A question mark can only represent a single character or blank in the same position as itself. 

But if you do decide to use the wildcard option, you must remember to make the wildcards in 
old name and new name identical. For example, REN *.TX1=*.TEX and REN A*.T*=S*.T* 
are valid commands but REN A*.TEX=A*.T* isn't. 



48 



CP/M operating system ;— ■ 



- 2.16 Resetting the PC W8256 

Resetting the PCW8256 returns it to the state it was in just after you switched on. 

^ Remove all discs from the disc drives: then hold down the [shift] and [extra | keys before 

pressing the ["exit 1 key. This clears the PC W8256's memory, including the memory disc. 

Then insert your Start of Day disc (see section 2.5) and press the space bar, just as if you had 
= "" just turned the machine on. 

You will see the familiar pattern of horizontal lines appear, followed one by one by command 
— lines from PROFILE.SUB, if this exists. 

3fc When the PCW8256 is ready, an A> system prompt will appear on the screen on a fresh line. 



CP/M operating system 49 



2.17 Shortening the command line 

You can shorten many of your command lines by extending the way CP/M interprets the 

commands you give it. 

The utility which redefines how CP/M handles your commands is called SETDEF. It has two 
principal actions: extending the number of drives automatically searched for utilities; and 
instructing CP/M to treat SUBMIT files as additional utilities. 

Searching additional discs 

If you just load CP/M, any utility you use such as PIP is assumed to be the filename of a .COM 
file on the default drive. 

To change this, you use the SETDEF utility with the drives you want searched as its 
parameters. The order in which you list the drives will be the order in which they are 
searched for utilities. 

An asterisk is used to represent the default drive. It is not followed by a colon. This use of an 

asterisk is special to SETDEF. 

For example: 

SETDEF M:,A: 

instructs CP/M to look for utilities first on Drive M and then on Drive A 

SETDEF M:,* 

instructs CP/M to look for utilities first on Drive M and then on the default drive. 

This second command line is included in the PROFILE.SUB file we suggested you set up in 
chapter 1. 

Including SUBMIT files in the search 

The ORDER option of the SETDEF utility is used to extend the search to cover SUBMIT files 
you set up. 

You can either specify that CP/M searches .SUB files first and then .COM files or vice versa. It 
executes the first file it finds with the given name. 



50 CP/M operating system C" 



The two possible SETDEF commands are: 

SETDEF CORDER=(SUB,COM): 

and 

SETDEF CORDER=(COM,SUB)] 

Notice the single space before the first square bracket. 

The first of these is your more probable choice as the SUB file you have set up is likely to carry 
out more actions than the .COM file of the same name. 

Suppose you had made this choice. Then, the command line: 
MYCOMM 

would make CP/M search first for a file called MYCOMM.SUB and only if it cannot find it 
would it carry on and search for a file called MYCOMM.COM. 

If it finds MYCOMM.SUB, CP/M will execute the command as if you had typed: 
SUBMIT MYCOMM 



CP/M operating system 



51 



2.18 Switching which disc is read or 
written 

You switch discs either by changing which drive is treated as the default drive or by 
physically changing the disc in a drive. 

The default drive is changed by simply typing in new drive: 

For example, suppose you would like the memory disc to become your default drive. The 
command to type in is just: 

M: 

Most of the time when you want to change which disc is in Drive A or Drive B, all you need to 
do is release the old disc and put in the new one. 

But there are some circumstances in which the data on the new disc could be damaged if you 
don't tell CP/M that you have changed the disc in the drive immediately after putting the new 
disc in. Always resetting the drive is therefore a good habit to get into. 

The drive is reset by the control code, "Control-C, which is generated either by pressing 
| al-T] + C or by pressing the j stop] key. 



52 CP/M operating system 



Chapter 3 

Commercial software for the 
PCW8256 



The advantage of running CP/M Plus on the PCW8256 is that you can then run a number of 
programs bought 'off the shelf from your computer dealer. These could be computer games, 
accountants' spreadsheets or project planners. 

Unfortunately, although CP/M software will run on the PC W8256. it won't always produce the 
results you expect. It may not control the screen or the printer properly, or it may not respond 
correctly to the keyboard. 

If it is to work correctly, it will usually have to be Installed on the PCW8256. 

This chapter provides a guide to avoiding the pitfalls and generally getting the best out of 
CP/M programs you buy. It will be useful to have this chapter handy when you buy software 
from an independent software dealer so that the dealer can check whether the software will 

work properly on the PCW8256. 



3 . 1 Suitable software 

Software for the PCW8256 must be: 

. Written to run under the CP/M 2.2 or CP-'M Plus (CP M 3) operating systems 

And: 

. Supplied on a 3inch Compact Floppy disc in either Amstrad CPC664/CPC6128 or Amstrad 
PCW8256 format 

It is also advisable to choose, if possible, software that has been installed to run on the 
PCW8256. 

Your dealer will be able to tell you whether a suitable version of the software you want to use 
does exist. If the software is available in the right format but has not been installed on the 
PCW8256, you (or your dealer) will need to modify the program so that it will work correctly 
in your machine. This is a straightforward task but it may require detailed background 

Knowledge. 

J the program was written specifically for another computer, it may not be possible to modify 
• without specialised help. Check with your dealer that this is not the case! 

CP/M operating system 53 



The process of modifying the program is called installing and it is covered in section 3.4 of 
this chapter. 



3.2 First steps 



Whether your software is ready to run on the PCW8256 or whether it has to be installed first, it 
is wise to start by making a copy of the software discs you have just bought. That way you can 
keep the originals as the Master Copy, safely stored away in case of accidents. 

A good move before you get involved in copying is to open the Write Protect Holes on your 
system disc and the discs you intend to copy so that you cannot spoil them by accidentally 
writing to them. So do this before you go any further. 

There is a diagram showing the position of the Write Protect Holes and how they open and 
close in chapter 2 of the User Guide. 

The way to make your working copy is to format as many new blank discs as you will require 
using the DISCKIT utility (see section 2.10) and then copy the files on the Master discs one by 
one using the PIP utility (see section 2.3). 

You are now ready to go on either to run the software or to install it. 



3.3 Running ready installed software 

The next step is to organise your working discs to make the software easy to use. You can do 
this in two ways; 

Either: 

Create and use a Start of Day disc from which you load CP/M and any utilities you expect to 
need. Once you have loaded CP/M, you replace this disc with the one holding the copy of 
the software 

Or; 

Use PIP to add CP/M and the utilities from your Start of Day disc to the disc holding the 

copy of the software 

The second of these options is only possible if all these programs can fit on the same side of 

the disc. 

Another thing to pay attention to is where you are going to store any data that the program 
generates. You can either plan to store this on the same disc as the program (if there is 



54 CP/M operating system 



enough room) or use a special disc just for data. If you take the second option, either use a 
disc that has already been formatted or format a new blank disc using DISCKIT. 

You can now run the software by loading CP/M and then running your program, following the 
instructions in the program's own instruction manual/user guide. The final piece of advice is to 
keep duplicate copies of all your important data files: the quick and simple way of doing this 
is to copy the whole disc, using DISCKIT. 



3.3.1 Turnkey operation 

If you take the second option for organising your discs, you can additionally use the 
PROFILE. SUB file to load the application software immediately after CP/M. 

The precise details will depend on the software you want to run in this way, but essentially, 
what you have to do is edit PROFILE.SUB so that it ends with the command line you would 
normally type to run the application. This is described in section 2.14: 'Personalising your 

system'. 

Using such a disc is known as Turnkey Operation because you just turn the computer on and 
the software runs. It is particularly useful if you want other people, who may not understand 
CP/M, to use the software you have bought. You can then just tell them to turn the PCW8256 
on, put in the disc, press the Space bar and follow the instructions both on the screen and in 

the program's own instruction manual/user guide. 



3.4 Installing the software 

This section advises you on how to go about installing software. If your software comes ready 
installed, this section should be ignored. 

The first thing to find out is whether the application you would like to install on your PCW8256 
was written specifically for another computer or for a range of computers. If it was written 
specifically for another computer, you will probably need specialised help. 

If it was written for a range of computers, there will be a program (either with the software or 
as a special part of it) that is designed to help you install the application. The job of this 
installation program is to set parameters within the main program according to information 
you supply about how the PCW8256 works. 

The relevant information about the PCW8256 is tabulated at the end of this chapter. However, 
the form in which the details will be reguested varies from software package to software 
package, and so there is no guarantee that you will be able to use this information directly. 



CP/M operating system 55 



If you are lucky, how the installation program works will be explained in the documentation 
supplied with the software. 

Your best source of advice is your dealer who will know both the PCW8256 and the software 
you propose to install. 

3 -4 . 1 Running the installation program 

The installation program will usually request information from you through a sequence of 
questions on the screen. 

Software suppliers typically include a fairly detailed set of instructions with any software 
package that needs installing, and we strongly advise you to read this. 

The questions that appear on the screen mainly refer to the codes generated by keystrokes at 
the keyboard, the codes required by the screen in order to move the cursor around or display 
information, and the form in which data needs to be presented to the printer. Many of these 
codes have been standardised over the years: it is just the ones that can vary from machine to 
machine that need to be specified. 

The installation program is likely to start by asking you what kind of monitor and what kind of 
printer you have. It may well do this by offering you a list of possibilities. 

If Zeni th Z 19/Z29 is on its list of monitors and/or Epson FX-80 or Sei kosha SP-800 are on 
its list of printers, select these. The PCW8256's screen and printer are sufficiently like these to 
allow most programs to run properly. 

Other programs may require you to specify the parameters more precisely. You will need to 
draw the answers to specific questions one by one from the tables on the following pages. 

However, an option you can take in matching the keyboard to the program is to use the 
SETKEYS utility to redefine the codes the keyboard produces. The way to do this is described 

in Appendix I. 

This can be simpler than giving the installation program details of the codes produced at 
present, particularly when your software is one of many to use a certain set of codes. For 
instance, a number of programs use a similar set to some word processing packages. We 
have put a key definition file, KEYS.WP, on Side 2 of the system discs that can be used with 
the SETKEYS utility to set the PCW8256 up to suit these programs. 

The installation program of the software package should only ever need to be run once. The 
program ensures that the special parameters are set to the right values throughout t he- 
software package. However, if you do use SETKEYS, this has to be run each time. 



56 CP/M operating system 



3.5 PCW8256 parameters 

Keyboard operations 



Cursor up 

Cursor down 

Cursor right 

Cursor left 

Delete character under cursor 

Delete last character 

Escape (Exit) 

Return 

Space 

Tab 



Hex value 


Decimal value 


Key number 


//IF 


31 


14 


//IE 


30 


79 


#06 


6 


6 


ffOl 


1 


15 


#07 


7 


16 


#7F 


127 


72 


#1B 


27 


8 


#0D 


13 


18 


#20 


32 


47 


//09 


9 


68 



Further details of the keyboard control codes are given in Appendix I 

Printer operations 



Backspace 
Carriage return 
Line feed 
Form feed 
Set bold 
Cancel bold 
Set underline 
Cancel underline 
Set superscript 
Cancel superscript 
Set subscript 
Cancel subscript 



Hex value 


Decimal value 


# 08 


8 


#0D 


13 


#0A 


10 


//0C 


12 


#IB #45 


27 69 


#1B #46 


27 70 


#1B #2D #01 


27 45 1 


#1B #2D #00 


27 45 


#1B #53 #00 


27 83 


// IB #54 


27 84 


#1B #53 #01 


27 83 1 


#1B #54 


27 84 



Further details of the printer control codes are given in Appendix II 



CP/M operating system 



57 



Screen operations 



Sound bleeper (Bell) 

Move cursor back one space 

Move cursor forward one position 

Move cursor down one line 

Move cursor up one line 

Carriage return 

Line feed 

Delete character under the cursor 

Delete character to left of cursor 

Clear the screen 

Clear all the screen up to the cursor 

Clear all the screen after the cursor 

Clear the line to left of cursor 

Clear the line to right of cursor 

Move the cursor to Home position 

Move cursor to left hand edge of screen 

Move cursor to row r, column i; 

(/ and ::: are actual values plus it 20 (hex), 
Insert a line 
Delete a line 
Enter inverse video 
Leave inverse video 
Enter underline mode 
Leave underline mode 



Hex value 


Decimal value 


#07 


7 


'/IB 4 44 


27 68 


//IB #43 


27 67 


#1B #42 


27 66 


//IB .7 41 


27 65 


#0D 


13 


#0A 


10 


//IB #43 


27 78 


ft 08 


8 


4 IB #45 


27 69 


#1B //64 


27 100 


H IB # 4A 


27 74 


#1B #6F 


27 111 


#1B *4B 


27 75 


#1B #48 


27 72 


#0D 


13 


ft IB "59 ■• ■: 


27 89 r c 


32 (decimal)) 




#1B #4C 


27 76 


a IB # 4D 


27 77 


#1B #70 


27 112 


#1B #71 


27 113 


#1B #72 


27 114 


*1B #75 


27 117 



Further details of the screen control codes are given in Appendix III 



58 



CP/M operating system 



Chapter 4 



Graphics on the PCW8256 



One of the benefits of having the CP/M operating system on the PCW8256 is that PCW8256 
users can run programs with graphical output everything from simple data plots to quite 
complex pictures - through the Graphics System Extension to CP-'M. 

GSX, as this additional system software is called, converts all the graphics instructions 
produced by a CP/M program into instructions understood by whatever 'Output Devices' (ie 
which particular monitor, printer and/or plotter) you have. 

This means that you will be able to run programs that create bar charts and pie charts, even if 
these have been written for other CP/M computers. 

GSX doesn't itself have the power to draw such pictures for you: for that you need dedicated 
graphics application software. The examples below were drawn using Digital Research's DR 

Graph program. 



):-.r-'\- 



■fill :■ 100. BB 



ill .' l"i0.0B 



iii 4 i Be , 



100. ep -fiii i 




100.00 *il! 



10B.00 fill 



f'.rsi (fii(trf( r product vr//f-s 

ii! 1 1: on >;!(■ (|s of pounds 



CP/M operating system 



59 



Although it is possible to generate such graphics through your own programs, you will need 
to know GSX's controls and calling sequences to do this. You should refer to Soft 97 1: "A Guide 
to CP M Plus' for these as they are outside the scope of this manual. 

The chief advantage of GSX is that it is device independent. Despite all the differences in the 
way individual monitors, printers and plotters draw lines, fill in areas and add text to graphics, 
the application program shouldn't need to be altered if you choose to use a plotter rather than 
a printer, say. 

Moreover, you will get essentially identical output on your printer as you would on your 
monitor, simply by telling the program to send the data to your printer. 

GSX can't, of course, operate every printer or plotter that has ever been built, nor can it be 
used by every program producing graphical output. The software has to have been designed 
to run under CP ; M with the GSX extension, and the data about driving the printer, plotter must 
exist in the right form to be interpreted by GSX. This data is supplied in special files known as 
Device Drivers, one for each output device. 

It must also be remembered that not all output devices have the same facilities. For example, 
a number of monitors have no way of filling in an area outlined on the screen. In such cases, 
the program will still run but the full graphic effect will not be produced. For example, the 
outlined area will be left unfilled. 

GSX is a standard understood and designed for by a number of computer manufacturers and 
programmers. You will therefore be able to choose from a wide variety of output devices and 

applications programs. 



4.1 The PCW8256's GSX software 



Most of the system software needed to run GSX programs on the PCW8256 is on Side 4 of the 
system discs. The remaining file - DDHP7470.PRL - is on Side 3. 

This software comprises: 

GSX.SYS the file holding the GSX extension itself. 

ASSIGN.SYS the file that records what output devices you have and the 

Logical Device Numbers by which the program refers to them. 
GENGRAF.COM a utility that is used to ensure that GSX will be loaded 

automatically at the same time as the program needing it. 
DDSCREEN.PRL the device driver file containing the relevant information about 

the PCW8256"s monitor. 
DDFXLR8.PRL the device driver file containing the relevant information about 

the PCW8256's printer. 



60 CP/M operating system 



DDFXHR8.PRL an alternative device driver file which makes the PCW8256's 

printer print with higher resolution. 
DDHP7470.PRL The device driver file containing the information that will be 

needed if you add a HP Compatible pen plotter to your system. 

You may add to this list as you acguire new peripherals for your PCW8256. 
GSX needs these files to run on the PCW8256, so take care not to delete them. 

4.2 GSX programs for the PCW8256 

There are a number of commercial software packages that produce graphs and so on from 
data you enter. You will be able to run any of these programs provided that they have been 
developed to run under CP/M 2.2 or CP/M Plus (CP/'M 3) with the GSX extension and that they 
are available on Amstrad format 3inch discs. 

You can also develop your own programs to draw graphs and pictures on the PCW8256 in 
very much the same way as you would develop any program to run under CP/M on the 
machine, except that it has its own vocabulary of instructions. Details of these are beyond the 
scope of this introduction: you will need to refer to Amstrad's Soft 971: 'A Guide to CP-'M Plus'. 

Any software you buy will either already be in the correct version for running on the 
PCW8256, or come with an installation program to help you set the parameters needed to 
allow the software to run on your computer. 

A bonus in installing an GSX program over installing any other CP/M program is that the 
device drivers already hold much of the information needed. The amount of data you have to 
supply is therefore much reduced. 

The application's manual should provide all the information you need to run it on the 
PCW82S6, especially if used along with chapter 3 of this manual which describes the 
installation of application software. If not, consult your dealer. 

The discs you will use to run any graphics software won't be the original software discs but 
copies to which you have added the necessary GSX system files from Side 4. You should store 
away the originals as your Master copies. 

To create these copies, first use DISCKIT to format as many blank discs as you need. Then 
use PIP to copy the files from the discs you have bought and to add copies of GSX.SYS, 
ASSIGN. SYS, GENGRAF.COM and whichever device driver files you require. 

The manual with the application software will tell you how many and what types of 
peripherals it is designed to send its output to. 



CP/M operating system 51 



Commercial GSX software will almost certainly be set up to include an extra program, the 
GSX Loader, which adds the GSX extension to the operating system when loading the 
software into memory. 

You can tell that the Loader is included if the screen immediately after you have loaded the 

software looks like this: 



A>«: 

H>a: graph 



GSX-W 1,1 ei Oct 83 Serial Ho 5W-1232-6S4321 
Copyright (C) 1983 ,«...« 

Digital Research, Inc. All Rights Reserved 



If this screen doesn't appear, you need to add the Loader to the application. 

The utility that will do this is GENGRAF. which you earlier copied onto your working discs. 
You run this utility with the application's filename as its parameter. 

For example, suppose the application program is called APPLIC.COM. Put the disc with both 
GENGRAF.COM and APPLIC.COM in the drive, then type: 

GENGRAF APPLIC 

GENGRAF attaches the Loader permanently to the application program - so you won't need 
to run it again when you want to use this program. 

With the GSX Loader in place, all you need to do to start running the program is to type in its 
filename after a system prompt. Any additional information it requires from you will be 

explained in the application's manual. 



4-3 Using other printers and plotters 

If you have a plotter that is compatible with the PCW8256, you may prefer to use this rather 
than the printer for the output from your GSX programs. The quality of the graphics is usually 
better on a plotter. 

After checking with your dealer that the plotter you want to use is suitable, you should a:?: 
check whether an appropriate device driver exists. 

If your plotter is described as 'HP Compatible" and has a Serial Interface', you should :.i- -:r .• 
to use the plotter driver supplied on Side 3 of the system discs - DDHP7470.PRL. All vo\: .■■:. 
need as well is the Amstrad RS232C/Centromcs Interface. 



52 CP/M operating system 



Alternatively, you might choose to use the higher resolution printer driver DDFXHR8PRL 

notT;" 1 z d r better **** than the iow — — — — " -" 

ss k^s r^r wa " you need to copy this me ont ° - gsx d - 

You will also need to modify the ASSIGN.SYS file. Tins is a list of the devices available to the 
program and the names of their device driver files. 

The devices are referred to both in the application program and m the ASSIGN.SYS file by 
Logical Device > Numbers. These are two digit numbers, monitors usually having numbers 
between 01 and 10, plotters between 11 and 20 and printers between 21 and 30. 

I^hT Ve ?H 0r ; ^ that lf VOU ° nlV ^ ° ne ° f My type of device > ^ its logical device 

loafr/ k RUmbGr " ^ rel3ted band ThuS ' as *» °^ have one monitor hs 

logical device number will be 01. The maximum number of output devices that can be 
referenced via the ASSIGN.SYS file at any time is five. 

To see the current form of the ASSIGN.SYS file, type in TYPE ASSIGN.SYS after a system 
prompt. You should see: bysiem 

21 A:DDFXLR8 
01 A:DDSCREEN 

To add a plotter to the system, you need to edit the ASSIGN.SYS file and insert the line 
11 A: plotter -driver. 

The ASSIGN.SYS file can be edited using any text editor. We suggest you use RPED. 

To start the edit, type: 

RPED 

and follow the instructions. 

The position in which you insert the new line in the ASSIGN.SYS file will depend on the size of 
its device driver file. GSX needs the largest file to be named first. 

ddsSprl °Dn™f*™ ma T^ secti ° n 29) wm estahIlsh whlch ° f the three ^ 

Ifn f ,u E and DDHP7470 - PRL ^r whatever) is the largest. Typically 

the printer file will be the largest and the monitor file the smallest. 

Ss^WTmf ^ ^^ t0 mSen ^ ^ Hre b ™ *» ™ «~ *~ - the 



CP/M operating system 



63 



For the application to use the plotter instead of the printer, it needs to be told to use logical 
device 11 instead of 21. 

Many applications help you to do this (see the application's manual) but if it doesn't, go back 
to the ASSIGN.SYS file, delete the reference to the printer driver and change the plotter's 
logical device number to 21. The choice of numbers was merely according to a convention 
which doesn't have to be adhered to. 

Further information about device drivers and the ASSIGN.SYS file may be found in Soft 971: 'A 
Guide to CP/M Plus'. 

4.4 Errors associated with GSX 

programs 

Message Action 

d: filename. PRL not found The device driver listed in ASSIGN.SYS cannot be found 

on the specified drive: check that you specified the right 
drive and that the filenames match. If all else fails, re-copy 
the device driver onto your GSX disc. 

d: filename. PRL empty The device driver file has been found but there is no data 

in it. Delete the empty file and re-copy the device driver 
onto your GSX disc. 

d-.filonamc.PRL contains absolute segment This is probably the result of a corrupted 

drive file. Re-copy the device driver onto your GSX disc. 

d: filename. PRL c lose error You probably changed discs while a file was open. Insert 

the correct disc and try again. 



rl- hi 



t.'.PRL load error You probably haven't got the largest device driver file 

listed first. Check and re-do. 



64 



CP/M operating system — ^ 



4.5 Technical information 



The following table gives details of types of the graphical output produced on the standard 

PCW8256 hardware. 

You will only need this information if you write your own graphics programs or to help your 
dealer establish whether the graphics program you want to buy will work fully on vour 

PCW8256. y 



Device driver 
Resolution 
Line styles 



Number of line sizes 

Marker types 



Number of text sizes 
Text Directions 
Fill area 



Generalised 
drawing primitive 
Escapes 



Input 



Monitor 

DDSCREEN 
720/248 

1 solid 

2 short dash 

3 dotted 

4 dash dot 

5 long dash 

1 

1 . 

2 i 

3 * 

4 o 

5 x 
1 
0° 

Outline area 



Yes - except 
no tablet 

no hardcopy 
No 



Printer 

Low resolution 

DDFXLR8 
480 '. 672 

1 solid 

2 short dash 

3 dotted 

4 dash dot 

5 long dash 

6 dash dot dot 
12 

1 . 

2 

3 

4 

5 



i 
* 

o 
x 
12 

90° intervals 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
Outline bar Bar fill 



miiiio 
p=3 



High resolution 

DDFXHR8 
960 ■ 1368 

1 solid 

2 short dash 

3 dotted 

4 dash dot 

5 long dash 

6 dash dot dot 
12 

1 . 

2 i 

3 * 

4 o 

5 x 
12 

90° intervals 




Bar fill 



Inquire addressable character cells 



No 



No 



CP/M operating system 



65 



Chapter 5 

The CP/M Plus built-in 
commands and utilities 

The following pages contain descriptions and explanations of the CP/M Plus built-in 
commands and transient utility programs on the PCW8256. together with examples of their 
use. 

The built-in commands are an integral part of the CP/M Plus operating system and are thus 
automatically loaded from the CP/M system disc when the PCW8256 is booted. 

The utilities are held on Sides 2 and 3 of the system discs, with the exception of the HELP 
utility which is located on Side 4 together with the system software for supporting the GSX 
graphics system extension and Dr. Logo. The most commonly used utilities are all on Side 2. 

The built-in commands have limited power and four of them, DIR, ERASE, RENAME and 
TYPE, have an associated utility of the same name to give them their full functionality. In 
particular, the utility is needed if any of the command's options are to be used. 

The following descriptions of the commands and utilities have been grouped into four 
sections so that information on related instructions can be found within a few pages of each 
other. Within each section, the instructions are treated in alphabetical order. HELP is treated 
on its own in the fourth section 

The index on the following page lists the commands and utilities under their appropriate 
section headings, together with the location of the associated utility on disc and references to 
where else they are discussed. 

Full details of the CP/M commands and utilities are given in the Amsoft publication Soft 971- 'A 

Guide to CP-M Plus'. 

Some of the utilities may only be of use to experienced CP/M programmers. In those cases 
the description here is intended only as a brief introduction to the utility. For information on 
these utilities, you should turn to Soft 971: 'A Guide to CP/M Plus' where their use is discussed 
m detail. 

Throughout this chapter it is assumed that the system disc on which the required utility is 
stored is in the default drive. If this is not the case, the name of the utility should be preceded 
by A: , B: or M: as appropriate. 



CP/M operating system 02 



Conventions 

This chapter makes great use of Metalanguage to describe the syntax of the various 
commands. This means that where you should put the the actual name of a file or a drive, we 
have put a brief description of the parameter that is required. 

For example, we have put '-invi ■: ' where you should put 'A : '. 'B : ' or 'M : ' (or omitted if the 
required drive is the default drive). >'e,\;><v is used as shorthand for 
l drive:iilcnwiiu.i!!t!tvix-' and should be replaced by as much of the required file's file 
specification as is needed to specify the file. 

In addition, optional parts of any instruction are surrounded by slanting square brackets: 
these parts may be omitted altogether, included just once or included as many times as 
appropriate. Attention must be paid to separating like items by single spaces or commas as 
specified in the instruction. 

For example: 

DIR > Lopuonl. option!] : 

is used to represent any of 

DIR loptiO'il 

DIR Zon!ioti,Of)!iOn] 

DIR Loi)t'On,apHon, option! 



or simply 
DIR 

Anything not printed in italic or enclosed between slanting square brackets must be typed 
exactly as shown. 

The examples given with each command or utility should clear up any uncertainty in how any 
particular metalanguage instruction should be interpreted. 

Another convention used here is to represent CP Ms control codes as 'Control- ■i;.r..n:!c;' in 
line with other guides to CP M. The codes have usually been associated with one of the 
special function keys (see the table in Appendix I) but they can always be accessed by 
pressing | alt ) - i./iriMOV. 



68 CP/M operating system 



Disc housekeeping 



DIR 


Built-in 


DIRSYS 


Built-in 


DISCKIT 


Side 2 


ERASE 


Built-in 


GET 


Side 3 


INITDIR 


Side 3 


PIP 


Side 2 


PUT 


Side 3 


RENAME 


Built-in 


SET 


Side 2 


SETDEF 


Side 2 


SHOW 


Side 2 


SUBMIT 


Side 2 


TYPE 


Built-in 


USER 


Built-in 


Setting up the h 


DATE 


Side 3 


DEVICE 


Side 2 


LANGUAGE 


Side 2 


PALETTE 


Side 2 


PAPER 


Side 2 


SETKEYS 


Side 2 


SETLST 


Side 2 


SETSIO 


Side 2 


SET24X80 


Side 2 


Advanced 


progi 


DUMP 


Side 3 


ED 


Side 2 


GENCOM 


Side 3 


HEXCOM 


Side 3 


LIB 


Side 3 


LINK 


Side 3 


MAC 


Side 3 


PATCH 


Side 3 


RMAC 


Side 3 


SAVE 


Side 3 


SID 


Side 3 


XREF 


Side 3 



Side 2 Page 70 

71 
73 

Side 2 75 

76 
77 
78 
80 

Side 2 82 

83 
84 
84 
85 

Side 2 86 

86 



87 
87 
89 
90 
90 
92 
93 
94 
95 



96 

97 

99 

99 

99 

100 

100 

100 

100 

101 

101 

101 

Help 

HELP Side 4 102 



CP/M operating system 69 



5.1 Disc housekeeping 

DIR 

Displays the names and associated details of non-system files accessible to the user through 
either the default or the specified drive. 

DIR displays the names and filetypes of all such files on the disc in the default 

drive. 
DIR drive: displays the names and filetypes of all such files on the disc in the specified 

drive. 
DIR fiicspec is used to check whether the required file is on a particular disc. 
DIR lilespec-inciuding-wildcards is used to display files on the default or specified drive with 

similar names and/or filetypes. * matches with any number of characters in 

the same part of the file specification, whereas ? has to match with a 

character or a space in the same position. 

All the above variants may be enhanced by the use of one or more of the DIR command 
options. 

These should be listed at the end of the command line, between square brackets and 

separated by commas or single spaces. A single space should separate the basic command 
from the bracketed options. 

The options include: 

DRIVE=ALL causing search and listing of all accessed drives 

EXCLUDE giving the names of all files except those with the given file specification 

FULL giving name, size (both in kilobytes and number of 128byte records) and 

attributes of every file listed 
RO or RW causing search and listing of just read-only files or just read- write files, 

respectively 
SIZE giving name and size in kilobytes of every file listed 

USER=ALL causing search and listing of all files on the disc in the specified drive, 

whatever user number they were created under 

This time the files are listed in alphabetical order of filename. 

If searching the directory fails to find any file meeting the given specification, the message 
No Fi Le is displayed. 

If system files exist matching the given specification, the message SYSTEM F I LE ( S ) EX I ST is 

displayed. 



70 CP/M operating system 



If the listing fills more than one screen, the system pauses when it gets to the bottom of the 
screen. Press the space bar to see the remainder of the listing. 

Examples 



A>DIR 








A: PLOT TX 


PRIME 


TX 


: PRINT 


A>DIR PR*.T* 








A: PRINT TEX 


PRIME 


TX 




A>DIR PR*.T? 








A: PRIME TX 








A)d:r Cdr ive=al 1 ] 









TEX 



Scanning Directory, , , 
Sorting Directory,,, 
Directory For Drive ft: User 



Naae 



Bytes Sees Attributes 



Ha«e 



PROCESS MIX 



Bytes Recs Attributes 



BASIC 

DISCKIT 

ERASE 

KEVS 

PAPER 

PROFILE 

RPED 

SET 

SETDEF 

SETLS7 

SHOW 

TYPE 



COM 

COH 

COH 

HP 

COM 

BAS 
COM 
COM 
COM 
COM 
COM 



28k 
Sk 
4k 
2k 
2k 
Ik 
4k 

ilk 
4k 
2k 
9k 
3k 



224 D 
64 D 
29 D 
14 
16 
2 

29 
81 

32 D 
16 D 
66 D 
24 D 



RH 
RH 

m 
m 

RW 
RW 
RH 
RH 
RH 
RH 
RH 



DIR COM 

ED COM 

J10CPM3 EMS 
LANGUAGE COM 
PIP COM 

RENAME COM 
BPED SUB 
SEI24XW COM 
SETXEYS COM 
SEISIO COM 
SUBMIT COM 



lSk 

m 

39k 
Ik 
9k 
3k 
ik 
ik 
2k 
2k 
6k 



114 

73 

312 

8 

68 

23 

1 

8 

16 
16 
42 



Dir RW 
Dir RW 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 
Dir RH 



Total Bytes = 

Total ik Blocks = 

A)l 



167k 
167 



Total Records = 1278 Files Found = 23 
Used/Max Dir Entries For Drive A: 26/ 64 



This command is described in section 2.9 and 2.1 1 ('Finding the size of a file' and 'Listing the 
directory'). 



DIRSYS 

Displays the names and associated details of all system files accessible by the user through 
the default or the specified drive. 

DIRSYS displays the names and filetypes of all such files on the disc in the default 

drive. 
DIRSYS drive: displays the names and filetypes of all system files on the disc in the 

specified drive. 



CP/M operating system 



71 



OIRSYS filespec is used to check that the required file is on a particular disc. 

DIRSYS tiicspec-including wildcards is used to display all system files with similar names 
and/or filetypes. * matches with any number of characters in the same part 
of the file specification, whereas ? matches only with a character or space 
in the same position. 

If searching the directory fails to find any file meeting the given specification, the message 
No Fi Le is displayed. 

If non-system files exist matching the given specification, then the following message is 
displayed NON-SYSTEM FILE(S) EXIST 

If the listing fills more than one screen, the system pauses when it gets to the bottom of the 
screen. Press the space bar to see the remainder of the listing. 

Examples 

A>DIRSYS 

A: GENCOM CMD : HEXCOM CMD : PATCH OVR 

A>DIRSYS *.CMD 

A: GENCOM CMD : HEXCOM CMD 

This command is described briefly in section 2.11 ('Listing the directory') 



72 CP/M operating system 



DISCKIT 

Makes an exact copy of one disc on another, gives a disc the required format or verifies that 
all the data on a disc is readable by the PCW8256. 

The utility is invoked by typing DISCKIT. This brings up the Main Menu. 

The menus are graphical representations of the relevant part of the keyboard, labelled to 
show which key selects which option. 

System messages about movement of discs and error messages appear in the Prompt 
Window at the top of the screen. The messages are intended to be self-explanatory. 

The first letter of ' R-etry', ' I-gnore' or ' C-ance L' is sufficient to produce the desired effect. 



Copying 

Entered by selecting f ts ] from the main menu. Note that any formatting required is carried 
out automatically as part of the copying process. 

Single-drive systems 

a) Select from menu asking for confirmation that copying is required: Y confirms; any other 
key returns to the main menu. Remove the system disc from the drive. 

b) remove and insert discs in accordance with messages in the prompt window. 

Two-drive systems 

a) select from menu which drive to read from; | f-T~\ to read from Drive A; [ ' ft"~\ to read 
from Drive B; (jxjt~| to return to the main menu. 

b) select from menu which drive to write to: Q_fe_J to write to Drive A; [ n | to write to 
Drive B; | exif'l to return to the mam menu. 

c) select from menu asking for confirmation that copying is required and that the source 
disc and the destination disc have been correctly specified: Y confirms; any other key 
returns to the main menu. Remove the system disc from the drive. 

d) insert and remove discs in accordance with messages in the prompt window. 

After the completion of each copy operation, duplicating one side of one disc on one side of 
another disc, the user is offered the option of repeating the copy operation with either the 
second side of the same discs or a different source disc and a different destination disc: Y 

selects this option; any other key returns to the main menu. 



CP/M operating system 73 



Formatting 

Entered by selecting \~f3 | from the main menu. Note that formatting a disc on which data is 

stored erases that data. 

Single-drive systems 

a) select from menu asking for confirmation that formatting is required: Y confirms; any 
other key returns to the main menu. 

b) insert and remove discs in accordance with messages in the prompt window. 

Two-drive systems 

a) select from menu which drive will hold the disc to format: [~h 1 for Drive A; | ~tl~\ for 
Drive B; [jexit J returns to the main menu. 

b) select from menu asking for confirmation that formatting is required and that the disc to 
be formatted has been correctly specified: Y confirms: any other key returns to the main 

menu. 

c) insert and remove discs in accordance with messages in the prompt window. 

After the completion of each format operation, the user is offered the option of repeating the 
format operation with either the second side of the same disc or a different disc: Y selects this 
option; any other key returns to the main menu. 



Verifying 

Entered by selecting [">> ] from the main menu. The whole of one side of the disc is read 

track by track. 

Single -drive systems 

a) select from menu asking for confirmation that verifying is required: Y confirms; any 
other key returns to the main menu. 

b) insert and remove discs in accordance with messages in the prompt window. 

Two-drive systems 

a) select from menu which drive will hold the disc to verify: [ h\ for Drive A; { f< ] for 
Drive B; ["exit J returns to the main menu. 

b) select from menu asking for confirmation that verifying is required and that the disc to 
be verified has been correctly specified: Y confirms; any other key returns to the main 
menu. 

c) insert and remove discs in accordance with messages in the prompt window. 



74 CP/M operating system 



If errors are found, the utility stops after each one and displays a message advising which file, 
if any, the error affects. 

After the completion of each verify operation, the user is offered the option of repeating the 
verify operation with either the second side of the same disc or a different disc: Y selects this 
option; any other key returns to the mam menu. 



DISCKIT messages 

Please insert the disc to operation into the drive 
Press any key to continue 

There is no disc in the drive 

Please insert the disc to operation into the drive 

R-etry or C-ancel? 

The disc is w ri t e-prot ec t ed 

Please insert the disc to operation into the drive 

R-e try or C-ancel? 

That is the wrong disc 

Please insert the disc to operation into the drive 
Press any key to continue 

Disc error on [drive: I track number, sector number 
- comment about error type 
[corn nicm about its location j 
R-etry/', I-gnore/or C-ancel? 

This utility is described in Chapter 2 ('Copying discs' and 'Formatting discs') 



ERASE 

Deletes the reference to one or more files from a disc's directory. Directory and data space 
on the disc are automatically reclaimed for subsequent use by other files. 

ERASE can be shortened to ERA. 

ERASE filespec erases the file with the given file specification. 

ERASE filespec-including -wildcards erases all files with file specifications that match the 
given specification. It first asks for confirmation that the file specification 
has been entered correctly. This version should only be used with great 

care. 



CP/M operating system 75 



ERASE filespec-including-wildcards CCD prompts for confirmation before erasing each file 
with a file specification matching the given specification. Type Y to confirm 
the action; N to keep the file. 

If the system fails to find any file matching the given specification, the message No Fi Le is 

displayed. 

Examples 

A>ERASE MYFILE.10 

erases MYFILE.10 from the disc in the default drive (Drive A). 

A>ERA *.BAK 

ERASE *.BAK (Y/N)?Y . 

erases all files with the filetype BAK from the disc in the default drive (Drive A), having 

first asked for confirmation. 

A>ERA B:*.* 

ERASE B:*.* (Y/N)?Y 

erases all files from the disc in Drive B, having first asked for confirmation. 

A>ERA B:*.BAK CC] 

erases the files with the filetype BAK from the disc in Drive B one by one, asking each 

time for confirmation. 
This command is described in section 2.8 ('Erasing files') 



GET 

Instructs the system to take the input it would normally get from the console (ie the keyboard) 
from a named file. This input can be either CP/M commands or the data needed by a program 
or both. 

The console input is taken from the named file until that file is exhausted or the program 
terminates. 

Unless instructed otherwise through one of the GET utility options, the input is echoed on the 
monitor screen. Options are listed between square brackets, separated by commas or single 
spaces . 

GET CONSOLE INPUT FROM FILE tilespec tells the system to get the input for the program 
that is about to be run from the file with the given file specification, until that 
file is exhausted or the program terminates. The command to run the 
program must be the next instruction typed in at the keyboard. All the inputs 

from the file are displayed on the screen. 



~ " CP/M operating system 



GET CONSOLE INPUT FROM FILE fiicspec [SYSTEM] tells the system to take ail the input it 

would normally expect from the console from the file with the given file 
specification, until that file is exhausted. This file will include instructions to 
run programs as and when required. All inputs from the file are displayed 
on the screen, 

GET CONSOLE INPUT FROM FILE tilespec CNO ECHO] tells the system to get the input for the 
program that is about to be run from the file with the given file specification, 
until that file is exhausted or the program terminates. The command to run 
the program must be the next instruction typed in at the keyboard. The 
inputs from the file are not displayed on the screen. 

GET CONSOLE INPUT FROM CONSOLE tells the system to once again get its input from the 
keyboard. This terminates a preceding GET FILE command. 

Examples 

A>GET CONSOLE INPUT FROM FILE CONSIN.DAT CNO ECHO] 

A>MYPR0G 

tells the system to get all the console input required by MYPROG from a file on the disc 
in the default drive called CONSIN.DAT. This input will not be displayed on the screen 
as the program is run. 

A>GET CONSOLE INPUT FROM FILE B:CONSIN.CAD [SYSTEM, NO ECHOT 

tells the system to take all its console input from the file on the disc in Drive B called 
CONSIN.CAD, until that file is exhausted. This input will not be echoed on the screen. 



This utility is not covered any further in this manual, 



INITDIR 

Used in conjunction with the SET utility either to allow date and time stamping of the files on 
the disc in a specified drive or to remove this facility if it is already in force. INITDIR reformats 
the directory and, if there are any files already on the disc, checks that there is enough room 
in the directory for date and time stamping of these files. If not, it fails to reformat the 
directory and puts up an error message. 

INITDIR drive: reformats the directory of the disc in the specified drive, either to allow date 
and time stamping, or to remove this information if the facility is already in 
force. The user is asked to respond to self-explanatory messages. 

Example 

A>INITDIR B: 

reformats the directory of the disc in Drive B, 



CP/M operating system 77 



This utility is not covered any further in this manual. Moreover, it is incompatible with the 
PCW82S6 word processing system and so we recommend that you do not use this feature on 
any disc that you also use to store word processing files. 



PIP 

Transfers data from a logical input device (the Source) to a logical output device (the 
Destination). For example, it can be used to copy one or more files from one disc to another; 
to output on the printer a character file from a disc; or to create a file on disc from input at the 

keyboard. 

It can also combine inputs from two or more sources into one output. 

PIP transfers any file attributes of the source file to the destination file and respects 
passwords as and where applied. As the full password features of CP/M Plus are not 
supported on the PCW8256, the latter aspect of PIP is not covered in this manual. 

The operation of PIP may be terminated by typing | stop | . 

PIP dest-tilespec = source-! ilespec copies the named source file and stores the copy as the 
file with the given destination file specification. This version can be used to 
duplicate a file on the same disc, dvst-lilespec is also used here to 
represent one of AUX:, CON:, PRN: or LST:, while source -filespec may also 
be one of AUX:, CON:, NUL:, or EOF:. 

CON: represents the console (keyboard and screen); 

AUX: any auxiliary input/output device; 

LST: and PRN: the printer; 

NUL: a source that produces 40 hexadecimal zeros; 

EOF: a source of a single 'Control-Z' character. 

The files so copied must contain only printable characters. 

PIP dest-filespec= drive : copies the file on the disc in the specified drive with the same 
filename and filetype as the destination file onto the destination disc, where 
it is stored with that filename and filetype. This version is not applicable to 
duplicating a file on the same disc. 

PIP drive: = source-filespec copies the named source file onto the disc in the specified drive, 
where it is stored with the same filename and filetype. This version is not 
applicable to duplicating a file on the same disc. 

PIP drive:- filespec inciuding-wildcards copies onto the disc in the specified drive, all files 
whose file specifications match the given file specification. The files are 
stored on the destination disc with the original filenames and filetypes. The 
message Copying actual filename Hie type is displayed as each file is 
copied. This version cannot be used to duplicate files on the same disc. 



78 CP/M operating system ^ 



PIP dest-fiiespcc—sou re e sp e c - 1 , s o u re es p e c-2f ,sourcespec n) combines the listed 
files in order of listing and stores the result as a file with the given 
destination file specification. This file may be stored on the same disc as the 
source files. 

PIP enters PIP's Multiple Command Mode, in which it prompts for the next in a 

sequence of PIP type commands by putting up an asterisk on the screen. 
The next command should be entered as in any other PIP instruction but 
without the PI P. Terminate by typing fRETURN] after the asterisk. 

All the above variants may be enhanced by using the PIP utility options. 

One or more options may be listed at the end of the command line, between square brackets 
and separated by single spaces. There should be no space between the end of the main 

command and the bracketed options, 

The options available are listed below. 



PIP options 

Option 

C 



E 
F 

Gfi 

L 
N 




Pn 
Qslr/ng'Control-Z" 

R 

Ss/f/ng'Control-Z' 

u 

V 

u 



Result 

Confirmation is requested before each element of the copy operation 

is executed. 

The transfer is echoed on the screen. 

All form feeds embedded in the source file are removed. 

The file is identified as belonging to user number n. 

All upper case characters are coverted to lower case characters, 

Line numbers are added to the destination file. 

Ensures that the whole of the file is transferred, when non-printable 

characters within the file could be interpreted as an end-of file marker 

by PIP. 

The number of lines per page in the destination file is set to n. 

The copying process terminates after the given string. 

The source file may be found in the directory of system files, which is 

not normally searched. 

The copying process starts at the beginning of the given string. 

All lower case characters are converted to upper case characters. 

The destination file is compared with the source file to check that the 

copying process has been accurate. 

Storing the copy may overwrite a read-only file with the same file 

specification. 

The parity bit of each data byte in the destination file is set to zero. 



CP/M operating system 



79 



Examples 

A>PIP B:=PR*.?XHSDear Sir'Control-Z' Qf ait h fully 'Control-Zl 

identifies each file on the default disc whose file specification matches the given 
specification and then copies the portion of that file between 'Dear Sir' and 'faithfully' 
into a file with the identical filename and filetype on the disc in Drive B. 

A>PIP CHAP1.TEX=SECT1.TX,SECT2.TX,SECT3.TX 

combines the contents of the files SECT1.TX, SECT2.TX and SECT3.TX into a single file 
which is subsequently stored as the file CHAP1.TEX. All the files concerned are on the 
disc in the default drive (Drive A). 

A>PIP LST:=B: LETTER. TXCE P40: 

lists out on the printer the text contained in the file LETTER.TX on the disc in Drive B, 
starting a new page every 40 lines. The output is echoed on the screen. 

A>PIP LST:=C0N:CU N P40] 

lists out on the printer everything that is typed in at the keyboard, starting a new page 
every 40 lines. Additionally, all lower case characters are converted to upper case and 
the lines are numbered in sequence. 

A>PIP 

*CHAP1.TEX=SECT1.TX,SECT2.TX,SECT3.TX 

•LST:=CHAP1.TEXCP50] 

^return] , ... 

combines the contents of the files SECT1.TX, SECT2.TX and SECT3.TX into a single file 
which is stored as the file CHAP1.TEX: then lists this new file out on the printer, starting 
a new page every 50 lines. 

This utility is described in Chapter 2 ('Copying files') 



PUT 

Instructs the system to send console de. screen) output or printer output to a disc file, either 
until instructed otherwise or until the end of the program which is about to be run. 

One or more options may be listed in square brackets as part of the instruction. These should 
be separated by commas or single spaces. 

Unless instructed otherwise, control characters will not be incorporated in any form in the file. 
console output will also be displayed de. echoed) on the screen but printer output will not be 
echoed on the printer. 

PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO F I LE filespec tells the system to direct console output to a file with 
the given file specification. The output will be echoed on the screen. 



80 



CP/M operating system 



PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO FILE filespec tells the system to direct printer output to a file with 

the given file specification. The output will not be echoed on the printer. 
PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO FILE filespec [SYSTEM] tells the system to direct console output to 

the file with the given file specification, until told otherwise through a 

PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO CONSOLE instruction. The output will be echoed 

on the screen. 
PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO FILE filespec [SYSTEM] tells the system to direct printer output to 

the file with the given file specification, until told otherwise through a 

PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO PRINTER instruction. The output will not be 

echoed on the printer. 
PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO FILE filespec [NO ECHO] kills the automatic echoing of the 

console output on the screen. 
PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO FILE filespec [ECHO] causes the system to echo on the printer the 

output sent to the named file. 
PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO FILE filespec [FILTER] causes the stored version of the console 

output to contain printable representations of the control codes issued, 
PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO FILE filespec [FILTER] causes the stored version of the printer 

output to contain printable representations of the control codes issued. 
PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO CONSOLE telis the system to revert to sending console output solely 

to the screen. 
PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO PRINTER tells the system to revert to sending printer output solely 

to the printer. 



__ Examples 



A>PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO FILE CONSOUT.TEX [SYSTEM, FILTER] 

causes all subsequent console output to be additionally stored as a file called 
CONSOUT.TEX on the disc in the default drive (Drive A), complete with printable 
versions of all the control codes. This will continue until a PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO 
CONSOLE instruction is issued, 

A>PUT PRINTER OUTPUT TO FILE B: PRINOUT.TEX CFILTER / ECHOD 

A>MYPR0G 

causes the printer output from MYPROG to be stored in a file on the disc in Drive B 
called PRINOUT.TEX, complete with printable versions of all the control codes. The 
output is also sent to the printer. The system will revert to only sending printer output to 
the printer when MYPROG terminates. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



CP/M operating system 81 



RENAME 

Changes the name of one or more files catalogued in the directory of a disc. It does not make 
new copies of the files. 

The drive specifier in the new file specification must be identical to that in the old file 
specification. Additionally, the new specification may not be that of any existing file. 

RENAME may be shortened to REN. 

RENAME new-filespec=old-filespoc changes the name of the file with the given old file 
specification to that corresponding to the new file specification. 

RENAME carries out the above operation, having first prompted the user for the new 

and old file specifications. 

RENAME new -files pec including-wildca rds = old - tilespec-mciudit i a wildcards changes the 
name of each file matching the given old file specification to one 
corresponding to the new file specification, replacing the wildcard 
characters with the appropriate characters from the original file 
specification. The wildcards in the old and new file specifications must 
therefore correspond exactly. 

If no file is found that matches the given old file specification, the message No Fi Le is 

displayed on the screen. 

If there is already a file on the disc with the given new file specification, the message 
Not renamed: filename, filetypc f i Le already exists, delete (Y/N)? appears on the 

screen. 

Examples 

A>REN NEWLETTR.TX=OLDLETTR.TX 

renames the file OLDLETTR.TX NEWLETTR.TX. 

A>REN B:PR*.?Y=B:SP*.?X 

renames, for example, the file SPAIN.TX PRAIN.TY, the file SPIN.MX PRIN.MY, and the 
file SPA.AX PRA.AY but leaves the file SPAIN.TEX unchanged. 

This utility is described in section 2.15 ('Renaming files'). 



82 CP/M operating system 



SETDEF 

Defines and/or displays the disc search order, the drive used for temporary files and/or the 
filetype search order. The search order only affects the loading of programs and/or the 

execution of Submit (-SUB) files. 

SETDEF displays the current disc search order, the drive used for temporary files 

and the current filetype search order. 
SETDEF CTEMPORARY=c/r/ve:H sets the drive used for temporary files. The default setting is 

the system default drive. 
SETDEF dnvc : / , drive : I sets the order in which drives are searched. The default is just to 

search the system's default drive or the specified drive. Use * to specify the 

default drive in the search order. 
SETDEF r_ORDER=(COM,SUB)] instructs CP/M to look up commands first as a COM file and 

then as a SUB file. 
SETDEF [ORDER= (SUB, COM) 1 instructs CP/M to look up commands first as a SUB file and then 

as a COM file. 

Further forms of SETDEF exist, but these are outside the scope of this manual. 

Examples 

A>SETDEF B:,* 

instructs the system to search for each program file initially on the disc in Drive B, but if 
that fails to search for it on the disc in the default drive. 

This utility is described in section 2.17 ('Shortening the command line'). 

SHOW 

Displays information about the accessed discs, including the access mode, the amount of free 
disc space, the disc label, the number of files on the disc corresponding to each user number 
and the number of free entries in the disc's directory. 

SHOW displays the access mode and the remaining space on the disc (in kilobytes) 

for each logged-in drive in turn. 
SHOW drive : displays the access mode and the remaining space (in kilobytes) on the disc 

in the specified drive. 
SHOW dnve: [USERS] details all the user numbers applying to the disc, the number of files 

relating to each number and the number of free entries in the disc's 

directory. 
SHOW dnvc: CDIR] displays the number of free entries in the disc's directory. 
SHOW drive: C DRIVE] displays the characteristics of the specified drive. 



84 CP/M operating system 



Examples 

A>SHOW 

A: RO, Space: 4k 

B: RW, Space: 104k 

1A>SH0W (USERS] 

Active User : 1 

Active Fi Les: 2 3 4 

A: # of files: 10 2 11 1 

A: Number of free directory entries: 28 

This utility is described in section 2. 1 ('Assessing the available space' 



SUBMIT 

Causes the batch of commands within a SUB file to be executed one by one, just as if they 

were typed in in succession at the keyboard. 

The SUB file is made up of CP/M Plus commands, nested SUBMIT commands (if so desired) 
and input data for CP/M commands and/or CP/M programs. Command lines may be no more 
than 128 characters long. Lines of input data are each started by a < 

If a program run from within the SUB file terminates before using all its associated input data, 
the message Warning: Program input ignored is displayed before the next command 
within the file is executed. If too few lines of input data are given, SUBMIT expects these to be 
entered at the keyboard. 

The SUB file can incorporate variables representing up to nine SUBMIT command inputs, 
represented by $1..$9. If a $ is to be included in the file for any other purpose, it must be 

inserted as $$ 

No filetypes are required in SUBMIT instructions. 

SUBMIT fiiespec causes the set of commands contained within the specified SUB file to be 
executed line by line. 

SUBMIT filespec input 1 [inputN] causes the set of commands contained within the specified 
SUB file to be executed line by line with $1 replaced by inpull, and so on. 

SUBMIT prompts for the specification of the SUB file to be executed and for any 

inputs that are required. 



CP/M operating system 85 



Example 

A>SUBMIT SUBFILE INPUTA INPUTB 

causes the commands within SUBFILE.SUB (which refers to $1 and $2) to be executed 
line by line, replacing $1 by INPUTA and $2 by INPUTB throughout. 

This utility is described in section 2.14 ('Personalising your system'). 

TYPE 

Displays the contents of an ASCII file on the monitor, either a screenful at a time (press the 
space bar to see the next screenful) or continuously. Press [stop] to return to CP/M. 

TYPE iilaspec displays the contents of the file with the given file specification a screenful 

at a time. 
TYPE filcspec CNO PAGE] displays the contents of the file with the given file specification 

continuously. 
If no file is found with the given file specification, the message No Fi te is displayed. 

This command is described in section 2.12 ('Listing a file'). 

USER 

Sets the user number, with the result that all files subsequently created are assigned this 
user number and access is restricted to files with this number and to system files with user 

number 0. 

The user number may take any value between and 15. The default value is zero. However, 
the numbers 8.. 15 should not be applied to files stored on discs which are also written to by 

LocoScript software as this labelling could be misinterpreted and the files deleted. 

The current user number setting is reflected in the current system prompt. 

USER number changes the current user number to number. If no number is specified, a 
screen message appears that asks for the required number. The system 
responds with a modified system prompt. 

Example 

A>USER 3 

3A> 

changes the current user number from its default value of to 3. Newly created files will 
be stored under this user number and the user now only has access to files with this 
user number and system files with user number 0. Note the changed system prompt. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



8$ CP/M operating system C^ 



5.2 Setting up the hardware 

DATE 

Sets and displays the date and the time of day. 

DATE displays the current setting of the computer's clock. Unless set by the user at 

some time during the current computing session, the date will display the 
creation date of the CP/M and the time of day. the number of hour, minutes 
and seconds since the start of the computing session. 

DATE MM I DD I YY hh : mm : ss sets the computer's clock. MM is the month represented by 
1 . . 1 2 ; DO is the day represented by 01 . . 3 1 ; W is the last two digits of the 
year, represented by 00. .99; hh is the hour, represented by 00. .23; mm is 
the number of minutes, represented by 00 . . 59 ; and ss is the number of 
seconds, represented by 00. .59. The system responds with Stri ke any 
key to set time and starts the clock at the given time when you press a 
key. 

The clock settings are not supported when the PCW8256 is running the LocoScript software 
and so the use of the DATE utility is not recommended. 



— DEVICE 



Assigns the logical CP/M Plus devices to the physical devices (peripherals) attached to the 
PCW8256 and sets the associated communications parameters. It may also be used to display 
the current assignments of the logical devices, together with related information. 

CP/M Plus supports the following five logical devices; 

CONIN: console input (ie the keyboard) 

CONOUT : console output (ie the monitor) 

AUXIN: input side of an auxilliary device (eg a communications interface) 

AUXOUT : output side of an auxilliary device (eg a communications interface) 

LST: the printer 

The physical devices that can appear in DEVICE commands depend on the details of the 

hardware configuration. 

DEVICE NAMES lists the physical devices acceptable to the PCW8256, together with a 
summary of their basic characteristics, making a total of three elements in 
the list per device. 

DEVICE VALUES lists the current logical device assignments. 

DEVICE physical-device displays the characteristics of the named physical device. 

CP/M operating system 87 



DEVICE logical device displays the current assignment of the named logical device. 
DEVICE logical -device= physical-device I option! , option /] assigns the named logical 

device to the named physical device. 
DEVICE iogtca!-dcv<ce=physicai-device1,physicai-device2i, physical deviccNl sets the 

named logical device simultaneously to two or more physical devices. 
DEVICE logical -device= HULL disconnects the named logical device from all physical 

devices. 
DEVICE lists both the physical devices acceptable to the system (with their basic 

characteristics) as for DEVICE NAMES and the current assignments of the 
logical devices. It then prompts the user for new device assignments, which 
take the form logical-device= physical-device 



DEVICE options 

The options associated with the DEVICE utility are used to qualify individual physical devices. 
They generally apply only when a serial and/or parallel communications interface such as the 
Amstrad RS232C/Centronics Interface is fitted. 

They should be listed between square brackets and separated by commas, after the physical 
device to which they apply. There should a single space between the name of the device and 
the bracketed options. 

With such an interface fitted, any listing of the physical devices fitted through a DEVICE 
command will include entries for SIO and CEN. In addition, AUXIN: and AUXOUT: will be 
automatically assigned to SIO when the machine is booted. 

XON activates the signalling procedure whereby the peripheral device notifies the 

computer whether it is ready to receive more data. 
NOXON results in the computer sending data to the peripheral device whether it is ready 

to receive it or not. 
n sets the rate at which data is sent to the peripheral device (the Baud Rate). The 

allowed values for n are: 

50, 75, 110, 134.5, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3600, 4800, 7200, 9600 and 19200. 

Only some of these values may be appropriate to any particular device. 

Examples 

A>DEVICE 

Physical Devices: 

I=Input, 0=0utput, S=Seriat, X=Xon-Xoff 

CRT NONE 10 LPT NONE 



88 CP/M operating system 



Current Assignments: 
CONIN: = CRT 
CONOUT: = CRT 
AUXIN: = Null Device 
AUXOUT: = Null Device 
LST: = LPT 

Enter new assignment or hit RETURN: 

A>DEVICE CONOUT:= SIO 

assigns the serial interface port as the logical console output. 

A>DEVICE AUXIN:=NULL 

disconnects the logical device AUXIN from all PCW8256 peripheral devices. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

LANGUAGE 

Selects one of the eight internationally recognised character sets, with the result that certain 
keystrokes may cause different characters to appear on the screen and on the printer. 

The characters that can change are listed in Appendix I. 

The default setting is Language 0, the US set. 

LANGUAGE n sets the character set to that identified by the number n. 

Language identifiers 

USA 

1 France 

2 Germany 

3 UK 

4 Denmark 

5 Sweden 

6 Italy 

7 Spain 

This utility is described in Appendix I ('CP/M Plus character sets'). 



CP/M operating system 89 



PALETTE 

Used to change the screen display from light characters on a black background to its reverse 
video counterpart and back again. 

PALETTE 1 sets reverse video (black characters on a light background). 
PALETTE 1 sets normal video (light characters on a black background). 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



PAPER 

Sets the parameters such as page length and number of lines per inch that are needed to use 
the printer effectively. These can be set piecemeal as the latest value of any of the parameters 
is the one that applies. 

The PAPER utility can be used with almost any Epson compatible printer, not just the printer 
supplied with the PCW8256. 

PAPER option [, option] sets one or more of the paper parameters. The options are separated 
by commas or single spaces and may be given in any order. Some of the 
options affect the settings of other parameters, unless these are set 

explicitly in the same command line. 

The options are used to generate printer control codes which are sent to the printer. As the 
commands are obeyed, they are reported on the screen. 

The options are: 

FORM LENGTH n sets the form length (page length), n is the length given as the equivalent 
number of lines and must be in the range 6.. 99. If the Line Pitch is not set 
explicitly in the same PAPER command, then it is set to six lines per inch 
both for subsequent use and for the purposes of the current command. If 
the Gap Length is not set explicitly in the same command, it is set to zero. 

GAP LENGTH n sets the gap (number of lines of the page skipped over) at the bottom of 
the page, n must be in the range 0..99. If the Line Pitch is not set explicitly 
in the same PAPER command and n is not zero, then the line pitch is set to 
six lines per inch both for subsequent use and for the purposes of the 
current command. 

LINE PITCH n sets the line pitch (number of lines printed per inch), n may be either 6 or 
8. 

SINGLE SHEET selects use of single sheet stationery. If Paper Out Defeat is not set 
explicitly in the same PAPER command, it is set to ON. 

CONTINUOUS STATIONERY selects use of continuous stationery. If Paper Out Defeat is not set 
explicitly in the same PAPER command, it is set to OFF. 

90 CP/M operating system 



PAPER OUT DEFEAT s sets whether the Paper End Detector is ignored, s can be either ON or 

OFF. 
A4 sets the parameters for A4 paper. These are: 

Form Length 70 lines 

Line Pitch 6 lines per inch 

Gap Length 3 lines 

Single Sheet stationery 

Paper Out Defeat ON 
A 5 sets the parameters for A5 paper. These are: 

Form Length 50 lines 

Line Pitch 6 lines per inch 

Gap Length 3 lines 

Single Sheet stationery 

Paper Out Defeat ON 
n sets the parameters for continuous stationery with a form length of n 

inches. These are: 

Form Length n inches 

Line Pitch 6 lines per inch 

Gap Length 

Continuous stationery 

Paper Out Defeat OFF 
n must be in the range 1 . . 17. 
DEFAULTS saves the current printer settings for use when the printer is reset. 

FORM LENGTH may be shortened to F; GAP LENGTH to G; LINE PITCH to L; SINGLE SHEET to S; 

CONTINUOUS STATIONERY to C; PAPER OUT DEFEAT to P; and DEFAULTS to D. 

Examples 

A>PAPER FORM LENGTH 70 

first sets the Line Pitch to 6 lines per inch and then sets the Form Length to 70 lines in 
this pitch. The Gap Length is set to zero. 

A>PAPER F 70, L 8 

first sets the Line Pitch to 8 lines per inch and then sets the Form Length to 70 lines in 

this pitch. The Gap Length is set to zero. 

A>PAPER A4 

first sets the Line Pitch to 6 lines per inch and then sets the Form Length to 70 lines in 
this pitch and the Gap Length to 3 lines. The printer is set to expect Single Sheet 
stationery and the Paper End detector is ignored. 

This utility is introduced in section 2. 13 ('Operating the printer'). 



CP/M operating system 91 



SETKEYS 

Configures the keyboard in accordance with data contained within a pre-defined Key 
Definition File. The keys are set to return a character, a control code or some string of 
characters and control codes (an Expansion String). 

The key definition file comprises a number of lines, each of which have one of the following 

forms: 

key no [shift suae I "char" [comment] 
key-no [shift state: J "escape sequence" [comment J 
key -no [shift state] "expansion-token" [comment] 
E expansion ■ token ' ' expansions tnncf ' [comment] 

The first two forms and the third and fourth together define the response following the 
specified key being pressed in the specified shift state(s). 

The key numbers are obtainable from the diagram in Appendix I. 

The shift states are: N or nothing for No shift; S for [shift]; A for \_*lt~\\ E for [extra]; and SA for 
[shift] +[ alT|. More than one shift state can be given in the definition, the entries separated 
by single spaces. In that case, the definition applies to all the named shift states. 

Most simple characters can be inserted in the key definition file by pressing the current key 
with that effect, but * and" have to be entered as f | and f ", respectively. * is obtained on 
a standard PCW8256 by [extra] f U or [extra] 4 ; 

A character that cannot be typed at present is entered by quoting its internal code in terms of 
either its decimal or its hexadecimal value. " * ' value'" then replaces "char" in the standard 
key definition sequence. The decimal and hexadecimal values of every character are 

tabulated in Appendix I). 

The control code 'Control-char' is represented in the key definition file by the escape 

sequence * char. 

Where the control is known by a name, the special escape sequence t ' name' may be used. 

The expansion token can be any hexadecimal number between #80 and #9E. The expansion 
string can be made up of both characters and escape sequences with the escape sequences 

represented by ] char or T 'name' 

The optional comment is intended to be used to remind the user of the action of the key 
definition on that line. Any text may be inserted here. 

SETKEYS ttlespec configures the keyboard in accordance with the data within the file with the 

given file specification. 



92 



CP/M operating system ^- 



Lines within the file that contain errors will generate error messages but will otherwise be 
ignored. 

Example 

To see an example of a Key Definition File, list either KEYS.WP (on Side 2) or KEYS DRL (on 

Side 4). 

This utility is described in Appendix I ('CP/M Plus character sets'). 

SETLST 

Sends the string of characters and control codes needed to initialise the printer. These 
characters are taken from data within a pre-defined Printer Definition File. 

The string of characters and control codes required to initialise will be given in the manual for 
that printer. These should be entered in the printer definition file according to the following 

syntax: 

Most simple characters are inserted in the printer definition file by pressing the current key 
with that effect, but * and " have to be entered as T * and ' " , respectively. ? is obtained on 
a standard PCW8256 by [extra J +U or [extra | i ; 

A character that cannot be typed at present is entered by typing * ' value ' , where value is 
that character's internal code, given in terms of either its decimal or its hexadecimal value. 
This syntax can, in fact, be used for any character. The decimal and hexadecimal values of 
every character are tabulated in Appendix I. 

A control code can be represented in one of three ways. If it can be entered at the keyboard 
by typing f alt J ■>■ char, then it can be represented by the escape sequence f char. Where 
the control code is known by a name, such as ESC or BEL, the special escape sequence 
* ' name ' may be used. The third way is to quote its internal code. This has the same syntax 
as quoting the internal code of a character, ie. ' value ' , where value is either the decimal or 
hexadecimal value of the internal code. 

SETLST fiiesfhn: sends a string of characters to the printer to initialise it. The string of 
characters is taken from the file with the given file specification. 

Example 

A| 'BEL'55 1 G + '233' 

is the character string corresponding to A; BEL code; 5; 5; Control-G; u 

This utility is described in Appendix II ('Advanced use of the printer'). 



CP/M operating system 93 



SETSIO 

Sets the parameters of the serial interface, provided for example by the Amstrad 
RS232C/Centronics Interface. These can be set piecemeal as the latest value of any of the 
parameters is the one that applies. 

SETSIO option [ option] sets one or more of the interface parameters, then displays all the 
current settings. The options are separated by single spaces and are taken 
in any order from: 

TX n sets the transmitter baud rate 

RX n sets the receiver baud rate 

n sets both baud rates to the same value 

BITS n sets the number of data bits (5, 6, 7 or 8) 

STOP n sets the number of stop bits (1, 1.5 or 2) 

PARITY type sets the parity type (EVEN, ODD or NONE) 

XON state sets the XON protocol to ON or OFF 

HANDSHAKE state sets the handshake to ON or OFF 
INTERRUPT state sets the interrupt driven input to ON or OFF 

TX may be shortened to T; RX to R; STOP to S; BITS to B; PARITY to P; XON to X; and 
HANDSHAKE to H 

The allowed baud rates are 50, 75, 110, 134.5, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3600, 4800, 7200, 
9600 and 19200 

In the absence of any specific setting of the number of stop bits, this value will be set to 2 if the 
baud rate is 50, 75 or 1 10 but to 1 for any other value of the baud rate. 

Any illegal option will generate an error message but otherwise just be ignored. 
Examples 

A>SETSI0 

9600 Bi ts 8 Parity none Stop 1 Xonoff Handshakeon Interrupt off 

A>SETSI0 P EVEN 

9600 Bi ts 8 Pari ty even Stop 1 Xon off Handshake on Interrupt off 

A>SETSI0 P EVEN, X ON, BITS 7 

9600 Bi ts 7 Pari ty even Stop 1 Xon on Handshake on Interrupt off 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



94 CP/M operating system 



SET24X80 

Sets the screen size to 24 lines by 80 characters regardless of the actual screen size. This 
screen size is required by some application programs. 

Alternatively, it restores the screen to its normal size of 31 lines by 90 characters. 

SET24X80 sets 24 v 80 mode. 

SET24X80 ON sets 24 - 80 mode. 

SET24X80 OFF restores the screen's normal characteristics. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



CP/M operating system gg 



5-3 Advanced programming tools 

DUMP 

Displays on screen the contents of a file in both hexadecimal and ASCII format. 

DUMP f:iesi)V(. displays in this form the contents of the file with the given file specification. 

Example 



CP/H 3 



9924: 
9434: 
9444: 
9654: 
9464: 
4474: 



4494: 



94C9: 
94D4: 
44E6: 



4144: 
9114: 
4124: 
9134: 
9144; 
9154: 
9164: 
4174: 



9194: 
91A4: 



91C9: 
Press 



MHP - Version 3.9 

18 GB 4C 41 4X 47 55 41 4? 4S 29 23 31 
9A 44 65 76 65 6C 6F 74 65 64 29 62 78 
63 6F 6D 6F 74 69 76 65 29 53 6F 66 74 
65 29 4C 74 84 2E 95 4ft 43 6F 74 79 72 
74 24 28 43 29 29 31 39 38 35 29 41 6D 
61 64 24 43 6F 6E 73 75 SD 65 72 29 45 
74 72 6F 6E 69 63 73 29 59 4C 43 9D 9A 
11 31 92 12 CD 5F 93 CD El 62 DC 82 91 
11 C9 79 FE 93 Cfi 93 *2 CD 59 92 28 9F 
AF 41 3E 32 CD AF 91 7D C6 24 1 13 11 
BE 41 42 61 64 29 6E 75 6D 62 65 72 9D 
D5 CS F5 SF 9E 96 CD 95 99 Fl CI Dl El 
CD 3C 92 CD 59 93 29 ID 11 E8 91 CD 3C 
79 CD 4A 92 CD 54 93 CD 59 93 CD FD 92 

94 n CD 3C 92 Fl CI C3 49 67 6E 6F 72 
29 72 65 73 74 29 6F 66 29 6C 69 6E 65 
9D 4ft 24 DS 11 4C 92 CD 3C *2 Dl C9 54 
24 74 72 6F 6? 72 61 6D 24 77 69 6C 6C 
74 24 72 7S 6E 24 69 6E 24 74 68 69 73 
76 69 72 6F 6E 6D 65 6E 74 4D 9A 24 E5 
9E 49 CD 95 94 Fl CI Dl El C9 ES D5 CS 
42 CD 45 H Fl CI Dl El C9 CS CD Dl 92 

95 CD 6F 42 18 47 CB 64 28 43 CD 9fi 92 
CS CD Dl 12 CB 58 28 IF 21 44 44 18 96 
29 19 29 79 D6 34 85 6F 8C 9S 67 CD FD 

93 CB S8 24 E8 F6 91 CI Dl C9 CS CD Dl 
28 2D CD FD 92 CD 54 93 CB 54 CC IF 93 

94 94 18 94 29 29 29 29 79 E6 9F CB 58 
99 BS 6F CD FD 92 CD 54 93 CB S9 24 E7 
RETURN to continue I 



34 35 4D .kLANGUAGE »19S, 

29 4C 6F .Developed by U 

77 61 72 coaotive SofUar 

69 67 68 e Ltd...Copwiqh 

73 74 72 t (C) 1985 frstr 

6C 65 63 ad Consumer Elec 

ED 73 94 tronics PIC...S. 

ED7B94 .l..._........<. 

3E IB CD ..m......V.(.>.. 

A2 91 C3 ..p...). ...... 

9A 24 ES ..Bad nu*ber.,$. 

C9CSF5 .... 

92 18 44 .<..V. ...-.<... 

28 Fl 11 U.J..T. .¥....(.. 

G9 6E 67 ...(....Ignoring 

3ft 24 24 rest of line: $ 

68 69 73 ..J <..-Jhis 

24 6E 6F progrm will no 

24 65 6E t run in this en 

DS CS FS viroment,.!.... 

FS SF 4E _■ 

CB 58 28 X( 

CI C9 D5 ..O....M 

SD 54 29 M.I....H) 

92 CD 54 ),)y.9.o..*....T 

92 CB 64 ..X ........... 

28 24 21 <-....I..P...< ! 

24 42C6 ....))))».. .X .. 

F6 91 CI ..0....T..P .... 



This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



96 



CP/M operating system 



ED 

Edits the disc file with the given file specification. It is the CP/M Plus Text Editor, and it 
responds to its own set of commands (tabulated below). 

It may also be used to create a new disc file. 

After opening the source and destination files, ED displays the prompt 
: * 

indicating that it is ready to receive an editing command. This prompt is repeated whenever 
the current command is completed. 

ED filespoc opens the file with the given file specification. The edited file takes over the 

source file's entry in the directory. The old version is retained with the 

filet ype BAK. If no source file is found, the message NEW FILE is displayed, 

followed by : * . 
ED sourcv-filcspcc dcst-iiicspcc opens the file with the given source file specification. The 

edited file is stored as a file with the given destination file specification. The 

old version is retained with its original file specification. 
ED filename. filetype B: opens the file on the disc in the default drive (Drive A) that has the 

given filename and filetype. The edited file is stored on the disc in Drive B 

with the same filename and filetype. The old version is retained with its 

original file specification. 

Type E to end the edit. 

Examples 

A>ED MYPR0G.1 

causes the file MYPROG. 1 on the disc in Drive A to be opened for editing. The new 
version is stored as MYPROG. 1, while the old version is stored as MYPROG.BAK. If the 
file MYPROG. 1 doesn't already exist, a file with this name is created on Drive A. 

A>ED MYPROG. 1 B: 

causes the file MYPROG. 1 on the disc in Drive A to be opened for editing. The new 
version is stored as MYPROG. 1 on the disc in Drive B. 

This utility is described in sections 2.4 and 2.7 ('Creating files', and 'Editing text files'). 



CP/M operating system 97 



CD commands 



Command 

nA 

0A 

#A 

B, -B 
nC 

n D 

E 
Fsfnng'Control-Z' 

H 



i sf/vngr'Control-Z' 

nK 

nl_ 

0L 
nttcommands 

n 

n: 


n? 

Q 

R ///esp eo'Control-Z' 

n S oW-sMng'Control 

nl 

nW 

nX.fi lespec 



Action 

appends n lines from the source file to the ED workspace 

appends lines from the source file until the workspace is half full. 

appends lines from the source file until the workspace is full or the end 

of file is reached. 

moves the workspace pointer to the beginning (B) or end (-B) of the 

workspace. 

moves the workspace pointer n characters forward through the 

workspace (backwards if n is negative). 

deletes the n characters after the workspace pointer (before if n is 

negative). 

saves the new file and returns to CP/M. 

finds the specified character string in the workspace beyond the 

current position of the pointer. 

saves the current version of the file, then reopens the edit using this file 

as the source. 

enters insert mode. Type [exit j to leave this mode. 

inserts the given string at the position of the workspace pointer. 

deletes the n lines after the workspace pointer (before if n is negative). 

moves the workspace pointer n lines forward through the workspace 

(backwards if n is negative). 

moves the workspace pointer to the beginning of the current line. 

instructs ED to execute the given commands n times. 

moves the workspace pointer n lines forward (backwards if n is 

negative) and displays that line. 

moves the workspace pointer to line n and displays that line. 

abandons the editing so far, returning to the original version for 

re-editing. 

moves the workspace pointer n lines forward through the workspace 

(backwards if n is negative) and displays all those lines. 

abandons the edit and returns to CP/M. 

reads the named file into the ED workspace, appending it to whatever is 

already in there. 
Z' new-string replaces n instances of old string with new string, the 

search being carried out forwards from the current position of the 

workspace pointer. 

displays the n lines after the workspace pointer (before it if n is 

negative), leaving the pointer in its current position. 

writes the first n lines in the workspace to the destination file. 

writes n lines from the workspace into the named file, appending them 

to any other lines already in that file through a previous nxhivy.-rr 

instruction. 



98 



CP/M operating system 



ED error messages 

All the error messages generated within the text editor have the same form: 

BREAK "symbol" AT letter 

The symbol identifies the type of failure (tabulated below) while the letter is that of the current 
editing command. 

Symbol 

# Search failure: specified string not found 

? latter Unrecognised command letter: can also imply command not correctly specified 

LIB file specified in an R command not found 

> Buffer full or specified string too long 

E Command aborted 

F File error (followed by either DISK FULL or DIRECTORY FULL) 

GENCOM 

Attaches one or more Resident System Extension (RSX) to a command file, thereby enabling 
the program within the command file to use the facilities of the named RSX's. 

Resident system extensions are additional operating system modules, temporarily held in the 
computer's memory, that extend or modify the way CP/M Plus operates. 

A maximum of 15 RSX's may be attached at one time. 

The GENCOM utility is also used to return the command to its original state. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

HEXCOM 

Generates a command file from a hexadecimal format file. 
This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



LIB 

Either creates a library of object modules or appends, replaces, selects or deletes modules 
from an existing library. It may also be used to obtain information about the contents of an 
existing library. 



CP/M operating system 99 



The object modules must be in Microsoft REL format, as produced for example by the RMAC 
utility . 

Library files are given the filetype REL. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

LINK 

Combines relocatable object modules into a command file. 

The object modules are held either in individual files (the form in which they are produced, 
for example, by RMAC) or in libraries. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

MAC 

MAC is CP/M Plus's Macro Assembler. 

Takes an assembler program (filetype ASM) and produces a HEX (hexadecimal format) file, a 
PRN file (suitable for output on the screen or the printer) and a SYM file. The latter contains a 
sorted list of the symbols defined in the program. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

PATCH 

Puts the specified patch into the named system or command file. It may also be used to 
display the specified patch. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

RMAC 

RMAC is CP/M Plus's Relocatable Macro Assembler. 

Converts an assembler program file (filetype ASM) into a relocatable (REL) file, that can then 
be linked to create a command (COM) file. Also produced are a PRN file (suitable for printing 
or displaying on the screen) and a SYM file. The latter contains a sorted list of the variables 
defined in the program. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



jqO CP/M operating system 



SAVE 

Intercepts the return to the system following the execution of the next program and then 
copies the contents of the memory between specified hexadecimal addresses into a named 
file. 

The utility prompts the user for the program to be run, the name of the file, the start address 
and the end address. 

SAVE activates the utility. 

Example 

A>SAVE 

A>MYPR0G 

...output from MYPROG... 

File (or RETURN to exit)?DUMPFILE 

From? 100 

To? 400 

causes the contents of the memory between hexadecimal addresses &100 and &400 
following the running of the program MYPROG to be copied into a file on the disc in the 
default drive (Drive A) called DUMPFILE. 



This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

SID 

SID is CP/M Plus's Symbolic Instruction Debugger. 

Enables the execution of programs to be monitored - by displaying the contents of the 
memory, displaying the contents of the CPU registers and directing breakpoint operations 
during debugging. 

The associated utilities, TRACE.UTL and HIST.UTL, provide additional debugging tools. 
TRACE provides a trace back of the instructions that led to a particular breakpoint in the 
program under test: HIST produces a histogram showing the frequency with which code from 
selected program segments was accessed. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

XREF 

Produces a file containing a cross-reference summary of the variable usage in an assembler 
program from the PRN and SYM files produced by prior operation of the MAC or RMAC 
utility on this program. 

This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 

CP/M operating system 101 



5.4 Help 

HELP 

Provides technical information on the CP/M commands and utilities in an abbreviated form. 
Prompts for a Top 1C on which information is required. The topics covered are listed by typing 

help 

Some of the topics have subtopics such as EXAMPLES and OPTIONS associated with then. 
These can be accessed either as a subsidiary action to displaying the main information on the 
topic by just giving the name of the subtopic or directly from the initial HELP> prompt by 
giving both topic and subtopic. Only the second form is available if you wish to examine a 
second subtopic of the same topic. 

Screen messages give details of the syntax that should be used. 

The COMMANDS topic gives details of the conventions used in the rest of the text. 



DEVICE 

ERASE 

HELP 

LINK 

PIP 

SAVE 

SETLST 

TYPE 



Topics covered 








COMMANDS 


CNTRLCHARS 


COPYSYS 


DATE 


DIR 


DISCKIT 


DUMP 


ED 


FILESPEC 


GENCOM 


GET 


GSX 


HEXCOM 


INITDIR 


LANGUAGE 


LIB 


MAC 


PALETTE 


PAPER 


PATCH 


PRINTER 


PUT 


RENAME 


RMAC 


SET 


SET24X80 


SETDEF 


SETKEYS 


SETSIO 


SHOW 


SID 


SUBMIT 


USER 


XREF 







This utility is not covered any further in this manual. 



102 



CP/M operating system 



_ Appendix I 

CP/M Plus character sets 



The PCW8256 keyboard has been set up so that when the PCW8256 is running CP/M, 147 
single key or multiple keystrokes produce printable characters and another 49 produce 
CP/M's control codes. 

Forty-seven of these characters require just a single 'Character' key to be pressed. The rest 
are formed by pressing | shift |+K(?y, f alt \ + kc,y, [extra]-*- Key or [shift] +[ alt ] + kcy. 

The key combinations as supplied are listed in section 1.2. 

The set of characters available can be changed to take advantage of the whole range of 256 
different characters that can be used on the PCW8256, 224 of which are already defined and 
the other 32 you can define yourself. 

Each character is known to the PCW8256 by a code, usually represented as a decimal 
number between and 255. The specific assignment of numbers to characters makes the 
PCW8256's codes an extended version of the industry standard ASCII character set. 

The way the keyboard assignments can be changed is described in section 1.3, and the full list 
of characters that can be used is given in section 1.4, together with the corresponding internal 
codes both in decimal and in the hexadecimal notation. 

There are, however, some special key combinations which cannot be altered because they 
affect the way the PCW8256 operates. One of these is ["alt "] f [Inter | which acts as a Caps 
Lock key, setting/clearing the translation of all lower case characters to upper case. Another 
is | alt 71 1 [relay I which acts as a Num Lock key, setting/clearing the use of the cursor and 
other function keys as a numeric keypad. The third special combination is, of course, 
[shift] - 1 extra I * [exit "J which resets the machine. 

It should be pointed out that while all 256 characters can be typed in at the keyboard, 
displayed on the screen and saved on disc, not all of them can be printed. 

Moreover, some application programs will misinterpret any character with an internal 
hexadecimal value greater than # 7F. These characters shouldn't be used with such programs. 

These problems will particularly affect those wishing to use accented characters in producing 
foreign language texts. 



CP/M operating system 103 



1.1 The language variants 

The selection of characters made available on computers sold in different countries is 
subject to national variations. A handful of the codes established as the standard in these 
countries differ from those used conventionally in the US. 

These variations are supported on the PCW8256 and a special utility has been incorporated 
into the CP/M system to allow the user to swop between one 'Language' and another. 

The utility that affects these changes is LANGUAGE, which is on Side 2 of the system discs, - 

and the instruction to adopt a particular language variant is LANGUAGE n, where n is the _^ 

number between and 7 that corresponds to the required language. 

Language is the US code set and this is the one in force immediately after you boot the ^ 

PCW8256 from the CP/M system disc. The complete list is: 

Language 0: American 

1: French «■■( 

2: German 

3: English *"^ 

4: Danish t> ^ — 

5: Swedish 

6: Italian — -mm 

7: Spanish 

Changing from one language to another will affect the characters generated by particular _ 

keystrokes. For example, whereas under Language pressing [ex tra 1 1 2 causes an umlaut 
(") to be displayed, under Language 1 the displayed character will be a tilde (~) and under mm ^ 

Language 7 it will be a curly bracket ( £ ). 

The full list of characters available via the PCW8256 keyboard under all the language 

variations is given in the next section, together with details of the key combinations required — ' 

to obtain them on a standard PCW8256 where these have been set. For the moment, however, - m 
you should note that: 

Adds Loses 

Language 1 a e u e <"■(}! - i— 

2 aouAOU [ ] t > \ l 

3 (nothing) (nothing) t"^* 

4 (nothing) (nothing)- _ 

5 EeaouAOU i« \ ![]!(} 

6 eaeio -C>]:'~ ^-^ 

7 n N \ I 

Unlike the case in the PCW8256's word processor mode, under CP/M the user can change the 

codes which are generated by the keyboard. This is achieved through use of the SETKEYS ^-^ 

utility, described in section 1.3. ^^ 

104 CP/M operating system 



— 1.2 Characters available under CP/M 



Sy 


mbol Description 


Decimal 


Hex 


Key combination 


Other languages 






value 


value 


(Language 0) 




Alphanumerics 










a- 


z Lower case chars 


97 122 


«61 *7A 


Unshifted kv 


(Same) 


A 


Z Upper case chars 


65 90 


"41 "5A 


(shift 1 - ' 


(Sane) 


i 


5 Numerals 


59 57 


"31 .-'39 


Unshifted ■..■■■:'■•■ 


(Same) 


S3 


L.case diphthong 


246 


*F6 


[ ALT | .9 


4: Unshifted : 


/E 


U.case diphthong 


214 


«D6 


| SHIFT | ■ ( ALT | -9 


4 :| SHIFT ] j 


Textual symbols 












Hyphen 


45 


"2D 


Unshifted - 


(Same! 




Comma 


44 


"2C 


Unshifted, or | shift | ■ 


(Same) 




Full stop 


46 


*2E 


Unshifted . or [ shift ] • . 


(Same! 




Semicolon 


69 


•■< 3B 


Unshifted ; 


(Same) 




Colon 


58 


"3A 


|shift| ■ 


(Same) 




Exclamation mark 


33 


"21 


j shift] • 1 


(Same) 


■> 


Question mark 


63 


"3F 


[shift] - 


(Same) 




Space 


32 


"20 


Space bar 


(Same) 


& 


Ampersand 


38 


#26 


[shift] ■ 7 


(Same) 




Apostrophe 


39 


"27 


| shift] ' 6 


(Same) 




Double quote 


34 


"22 


| shift] < 2 


(Same) 




Underline 


95 


«5F 


[sHirrj • 


(Same) 




Asterisk 


42 


*2A 


[ SHIFT | - 8 


(Same) 


li 


Hash 


35 


'23 


Unshifted •■■ 


3: [shift] -3 7. (extra | -3 




Slash 


47 


ri'lY 


Unshifted 


(Same) 


( 


Open parentheses 


40 


n 28 


[shift] ■ 9 


(Same) 


) 


Close parentheses 


41 


"29 


[sHifr] - 


(Same) 


[ 


Open square bracket 


91 


" 5B 


Unshifted [ 


1,6: (extra] ■ 5 2.5: Not set 

4: [shift] • 1 ali 1 -9 7: | EXTRA | 


] 


Close square bracket 


93 


#SD 


Unshifted ] 


1: Unshifted 'f 2.6: Not set 

4.5: [sHirT[ ■ [ alt | - 8 7: [extha 




Open curly brace 


123 


"7B 


[shift) - [ 


1,2,5.6: Not set 4:| alt ] -9 

7: | EXTRA ) ■ 2 




Close curly brace 


125 


*7D 


| SHIFT | • J 


1.2,6: Not set 4.5: | alt | '8 


tn 


At 


64 


»40 


[SHIFT | > '■':; 


1.5: Not set 2: Unshifted 


c; 


Copyright 


164 


»A4 


[extra ] • C 


(Same) 


R.< 


Registered 


190 


"BE 


[extra ] ■ R 


(Same) 


TM 


Trade mark 


191 


"BF 


[extra 1 ■ T 


(Same) 


^ 


Section 


166 


*A6 


Unshifted $ 


1: Unshifted J 2:] shift] ■ ; .. : 


<[ 


Paragraph sign 


165 


#A5 


[extra ] • P 


(Same) 


t 


Dagger 


167 


#A7 


[extra ] • D 


(Same) 




Open circle 


187 


"BB 


1 * LT I ' 


(Same) 


• 


Bullet 


188 


«BC 


[SHIFT] • [ ALT ] - 


(Same) 


Currency symbols 










£ 


Pound 


163 


"A3 


[shift | i 3 


3: Unshifted * 


S 


Dollar 


36 


"24 


[shift) i 4 


(Same) 


c 


Cent 


177 


»B1 


[extra 1 < 4 


(Same ') 


Y 


Yen 


189 


"BD 


[extra ) ' Y 


(Same) 


PI 


Peseta 


173 


*AD 


(extra J • 3 


7: Unshifted * 


f 


Florin (Dutch) 


176 


»B0 


[extra 1 - F 


(Same) 



CP/M operating system 



105 



-J 



Mathematical symbols 

Plus 
Minus 
Equals 
Zero with slash 
',■;. Half 
-. .-, One quarter 
■■•■ 4 Three quarters 
>.-K One eighth 
*•>< Three eighths 
'■ ., Five eighths 
<■■> Seven eighths 
Decimal point 
Slash 
Less than 
Greater than 
Less than or eq. 
Greater than or eq. 
? Not equals 

Approx. equals 
Equivalent to 
% Percent 
( Open parentheses 
) Close parentheses 
f Open square bracket 



] Close square bracket 

; Open curly brace 

; Close curly brace 

: Vertical bar 

\ Backslash 



a Hash 
Degrees 
Exponentiation 

Continental characters 

a Lower case A acute 

e Lower case E acute 

1 Lower case I acute 

Lower case acute 
ii Lower case U acute 
A Upper case A acute 
E Upper case E acute 

1 Upper case I acute 
6 Upper case O acute 
U Upper case U acute 

a Lower case A circumflex 
e Lower case E circumflex 
1 Lower case I circumflex 

Lower case circumflex 
u Lower case U circumflex 
A Upper case A circumflex 
E Upper case E circumflex 

1 Upper case I circumflex 
6 Upper case O circumflex 



43 


"2B 


[shift | * 


45 


*2D 


Unshifted 


61 


a 3D 


Unshifted 


48 


"30 


Unshifted 


169 


*A9 


Unshifted x h or [ ait 


168 


#A8 


[ ALT | -2 


170 


*AA 


| ALT ] • 6 


182 


»B6 


( ALT ) ■! 


183 


"B7 


( ALT | -3 


184 


0B8 


| ALT | 5 


185 


»B9 


[ ALT | -7 


46 


#2E 


Unshifted . or 1 shift 


47 


#2F 


Unshifted 


60 


#3C 


[shift | • § 


62 


*3E 


1 SHIFT 1 • # 


221 


*DD 


Not set 


220 


"DC 


Not set 


222 


#DE 


[extra) ' 


223 


«DF 


( alt" 1 • 


255 


*FF 


[SHIFT] '[ ALT ] • 


37 


"25 


[shift 1 ■ 5 


40 


"28 


[ SHIFT 1 '9 


41 


*29 


[shift] < 


91 


«5B 


Unshifted [ 


93 


-•'5D 


Unshifted 1 


123 


»-(B 


[shift] • I 


125 


*7D 


[shift] ■ 1 


124 


«7C 


|fxtra| • ■ 


92 


*5C 


1 EXTRA 1 • ' .. 


35 


4 23 


Unshifted # 


162 


"A2 


(extra | • 5 



224 
225 

226 
227 

223 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
197 
198 
199 
200 



,V5E 



oE2 
«E1 

*E0 
*E3 
«E4 

'■ CO 
.'.-CI 
"C2 
«C3 
*C4 
«E5 
*E6 
#E7 
*E8 
*E3 
<< C5 
*C6 
#C7 
»C8 



[EXTRA I 'UorlEXTBA] 



Not set 

Not set 

Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 
Not set 



(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 



(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

(Same) 

1.6: 1 extra I -5 2,5: Not set _ 

4: [shift [ '1 alt] -9 7: [extra] -. 1 

1: Unshifted § 2,6: Not set _ 

4.5: [shift 1 *| alt ] '8 7:1extr;| ' 

1.2.5.6: Not set 4: [alt J '9 

7: [extra I ' 2 

1.2.6: Not set 4.5: [alt] 

1,2.5,6.7: Not set 4: [ alt ] 

1: [ alt ] ■ , 2.5.7: Not set 

4: [shift I '[ ALT ] t-0 

3: [shift] ■ 3 7: 1 extra] • 3 

1.6: Unshifted [ 

5: Not set 



1 



1: 1 shift I • I 5:(extra| 
6: Unshifted ] 



5: 1 shift] 



CP/M operating system 



Upper case U circumflex 
Lower case A grave 
Lower case E grave 
Lower case I grave 
Lower case O grave 
Lower case U grave 
Upper case A grave 
Upper case E grave 
Upper case I grave 
Upper case O grave 
Upper case U grave 
Lower case A umlaut 
Lower case E umlaut 
Lower case I umlaut 
Lower case umlaut 
Lower case U umlaut 
Lower case Y umlaut 
Upper case A umlaut 
Upper case E umlaut 
Upper case I umlaut 
Upper case O umlaut 
Upper case U umlaut 



Upper case Y umlaut 
a Lower case A tilde 
li Lower case N tilde 

o Lower case O tilde 

A Upper case A tilde 

N Upper case N tilde 

O Upper case O tilde 

a Lower case A ring 

A Upper case A ring 

as Lower case diphthong 

?E Upper case diphthong 

c Lower case C cedilla 

C Upper case C cedilla 

e> Lower case O slash 

Upper case O slash 

ft German double S 

H Superscript . > 
Superscript 

Continental textual symbols 

Acute accent 
Circumflex accent 
Grave accent 
Umlaut 
Tilde 

Open quote (Fr.) 
» Close quote (Fr. ) 
i Inverted question mark 

Inverted exclam. mark 

Direction signs 

Up arrow 
> Double shafted right arrow 
< Double shafted left arrow 
<-■■> Double shafted left right arrow 254 



201 


*C9 


Not set 


234 


*EA 


Not set 


235 


"EB 


Not set 


236 


*EC 


Not set 


237 


#ED 


Not set 


238 


#EE 


Not set 


202 


#CA 


Not set 


203 


*CB 


Not set 


204 


ffCC 


Not set 


205 


#CD 


Not set 


206 


*CE 


Not set 


240 


*F0 


Not set 


241 


+ F1 


Not set 


242 


■*F2 


Not set 


243 


*T3 


Not set 


244 


*F4 


Not set 


239 


*EF 


Not set 


202 


*CA 


Not set 


209 


*D1 


Not set 


210 


*D2 


Not set 


211 


*D3 


Not set 


212 


#D4 


Not set 


207 


#CF 


Not set 


350 


*FA 


Not set 


249 


#F9 


Not set 


251 


*FB 


Not set 


218 


"DA 


Not set 


217 


*D9 


Not set 


219 


«DB 


Not set 


247 


*F7 


| ALT | - 8 


215 


*D7 


[shift | -[alt 1 ' 8 


246 


*F6 


| ALT ] • 9 


214 


"D6 


[ SHIFt"| ■ | ALT J '9 


245 


*T5 


1 *LT J -,' 


213 


«D5 


[ SHIFT j ' | ALT j ■ 


248 


»F8 


| ALT | • 


216 


"D8 


[SHIFT j - | ALT ] -0 


186 


#BA 


[ extra) ' S or | extra] 


160 


*A0 


| EXTRA | • A 


161 


*A1 


[extra j • O 


179 


" B3 


[extra ] • 6 


180 


*B4 


[extra] • 7 


96 


"60 


| EXTRA | • 8 


178 


+'B2 


[extra) • 2 


126 


*7E 


| EXTRA ] ' ■ 


171 


«AB 


| EXTRA ] • $ 


172 


*AC 


[extra] • u 


174 


"AE 


| extra) • 


175 


*AF 


[extra] • 1 


94 


«5E 


| EXTRA) - Uor|EXTRA] 


252 


"FC 


Not set 


253 


«FD 


Not set 


2S4 


*FE 


[extra] - 9 



1: [shift) ' Vs 6: [shift] »[ 

1,6: [shift ]■ ] 

6: | extra] ■ 

6: [extra ) - . 

1: | extra | t. 6: (extra] < 8 



2.5: | shim 1 'f 



2.5: [extra | * . 

2: [shift] • ] 5: | extra | 



2.5: Unshifted [ 



2.5: | extra ] ' V?. 
2: Unshifted ] 
5:[ixTRA| - U or 



7: [extra] 



7: | extra j i 4 

4.5: [shift] ■ j 

4,5: Unshifted J 

4:Unshifted [ 

4 {shift] [ 

1: [extra | - '•■'■> 

(Same) 

4: | extra] • 

4: [extra] ■ '■■.: 

2: [extra | • 

(Same) 

(Same) 



(Same) 
(Same) 
5,6: Not set 
1: | extra | • 
1: [extra] +2 
5.6: Not set 
(Same) 
(Same) 
7: Unshifted J 
7: Unshifted ( 



7: [shift] • f 
2: | extra | i Sor 



5: Not set 



(Same) 



CP/M operating system 



107 



1.3 Redefining the keyboard 

The CP/M utility that enables the user to redefine the code generated by a particular 
key or combination of keys is called SETKEYS. It is located on Side 2 of the system 

discs. 

This is only available when you run CP/M. The keystrokes applicable when the PCW8256 is in 
its word processing mode cannot be changed. 

With the help of SETKEYS, you can: 

Make a particular key or key combination cause a particular character to appear on the 
screen. 

Make a particular key or key combination give rise to a particular action by the computer, ie 
take the place of a particular control code or escape sequence. 

Make a particular key or key combination equivalent to typing in a particular word, series of 
words or CP/M command. The required string of characters and/or control codes is known as 

an Expansion String. 

For example, you might like to have an e on your keyboard, accessed through the key 
combination [Ixtra] t E, or to use the [copy] key to generate * W, the CP/M line editing 
command that duplicates the previous command line. Another good choice might be to send 
the instruction DIR *. COM [FULL] [returnJ, thus giving you full details of all the program files 
on the disc at a stroke. 

The permitted key combinations are [shift] + koy; [ alt~\ + key; | extra]- key or 
| shift 1+1 ATTJ + Aey. [shift], [.alt~| and [extra] are known as the Shift Keys. 

The command line that redefines the response of certain keystrokes is SETKEYS tile, where 
file represents a Key Definition File, which you will have to set up first. 



1.3. 1 Setting up the key definition file 

A key definition file is made up of a sequence of lines, each of which either associates a 
particular key combination with the chosen end result or sets up an expansion string. 

You can find out what the file should look like by listing the KEYS.WP file on Side 2. 

The keys themselves are represented by their Key Number, which is fixed for all time: these 
numbers are shown on the diagram below. The Shift Keys which make up the rest of a key 
combination are represented by a single letter - S for [shift]; A for ["aTT]; and E for [extra |. 



108 CP/M operating system 



The combination of both [shift] and L alt J is represented by SA The letters S, A, E and SA are 

used to define the key's Shift State, along with N for Normal or Nothing (ie.'unshifted). 






±. 70 ^L^Ili/ M 6 1 L II? 3 ' f 52 ^ C^T " 45 ^r * 37 T ^3? ;" "29 7 '; 2^ y "j 9 r' 1 18 ■^^iTvJliff 
I - . 2 i _. "I^IIHl^ A A A ■ 3 \ ^ ^? -S ^ ' " 2 } ^^^5f 

74 ii ' 23 ' ■ 4 7 7fi _ 09 ; . 08 ( ' 02 ' ' OlTj 79" |"'78 r . 



l^- -jU 4b--,v - - - . 47 _ . J 6 .... 09 ^.. 08 , .° 2 . . 01 ;.i.>.|7b; 



A line of the key definition file that sets up a particular key combination so that it ultimately 
produces the character currently produced by another key combination takes the form: 

key nun iber s hit 7 -state ' ' ci ia r ' ' [con iment I 

key -number is the relevant number taken from the above diagram. 

shift state is one or more of N, S, A, E and SA. More than one shift state included here will 

make the key return the same character in all these shift states. The shift states should be 

separated by single spaces. 

char is the desired character. It is inserted into this line simply by pressing the key that 

currently produces that character (except for * and " which for technical reasons have to be 

inserted as ! " and t "). 

The optional comment is any text that you care to include on the same line to remind you what 
the line does. 

Thus, for example, the line in the key definition file that makes the result of pressing IsHiirl f 5 
'#' would be: 

49 S "#" Hash becomes Shift 5 

You can also set the key combination to a character which cannot be typed on your keyboard 
at the monent. You do this by giving its internal code (see the table in section 1.4) in the form 
" * ' value* " in the above instruction instead of "chut", value is given as either a decimal or a 

hexadecimal number. 

For instance, to set [extra] i E to return e would require the line: 
58 E ; '225 '" e is Extra E or 58 E "'#E1 ,M e is Extra E 
(Both [extraJ + U and (extra] t ; are currently set up to produce f ) 



CP/M operating system ! 09 



You can also redefine the key combinations that are used to generate the CP/M control codes 
which are currently entered as [alt ]-+ letter . 

The entry in the file that does this again starts with the key -number and shift -state but this time 
the third element has the form * letter 

For example, suppose you decided that you would like to have the control code Control-C 
available through pressing Halt |- [enter): the entry in the file to set this would be: 

85 A "TC" Alt + Enter gives Control-C 

If you want to make a key do nothing, then you set it to the special value 159 or #9F. 

The final option is to set a particular combination of keys to return an expansion string, such 
as a CP/M command that you use often. 

What you actually set the key combination to do is to produce a code called an Expansion 
Token. The computer then looks in a certain area of its memory for the expansion string that 
has been associated with that token. Expansion tokens take the hexadecimal values #80..#9E 
(128.. 158 in decimal) 

A number of key combinations have already been set to particular token numbers and the 
associated expansion string set to either a useful or a dummy set of characters and control 
codes. In particular, the function keys fl..f8 have been set to return the expansion tokens 
#81.. #88. The current settings are given in the table in section 1.3.3. 

Setting a key to return an expansion string is a two part operation. 

The two lines you will need in the key definition file are: 

• a line setting the expansion token accessed by the key combination; and 

. a line setting the expansion token to the required string. 

These can appear in the key definition file in any order. 

If, however, you just want to reset the expansion string associated with a key that has already 
been set to return an expansion token, all you will need is the line setting the expansion token 
to the required string. 

The line setting which expansion token is returned takes the same form as in the case of 
setting a key to a particular character via its internal code, ie. Key -number .■>/■■*: -'■■-'■ 
" t ' value 1 "■ The line giving the expansion string corresponding to that expansion token 

is: 

E value "expansion siring" 



I io CP/M operating system 



The expansion string can contain any combination of characters and control codes (produced 
as above by typing t letter to represent Control-.'e ,'fer). Both the number of characters in an 
expansion string and the total number of characters used in expansion strings may not go 
above certain values, but you are unlikely to meet either of these limits. 

For example, suppose you would like to run MALLARD BASIC by just pressing | altJ ■+ [_j, | . 

Normally what you would type after the system prompt would be B A S I C (rFuSn] , so 
what you want as the expansion string would be B A S I C | M (Control-M being the control 
sequence equivalent to pressing the [return] key). You would therefore have two lines 
in the key definition file as follows: 

E #80 "BASIC t M M 

02 A " | ' #80' " 

You can put all these instructions into a file with the aid of either the supplied BASIC text 
editor RPED or the CP/M text editor ED, as described in Chapter 2 ('Creating a new file'). With 
this information in a file, all you need to type is: 

set keys tile 

Alternatively, you may wish to use one of the two special key definition files supplied on the 
PCW8256 system discs to redefine your keyboard. These are KEYS.WP on Side 2, which is 
designed to suit some industry standard word processors, and KEYS.DRL on Side 4, which is 
designed to work well with Dr. Logo. 

1.3,2 Making the redefined keyboard your 
standard 

If you want to make the key definitions within your file standard as far as your machine is 
concerned, you can do this with the aid of the PROF I LE . SUB file. All that is required is a line in 
that file that tells the system to run the SETKEYS utility, taking as its source your key definition 
file. 

You will find more about the PROFILE.SUB file in Chapter 2 ('Personalising your system'). 



CP/M operating system in 



1.3-3 The supplied set of expansion tokens and 
expansion strings 

These settings are designed to aid your use of CP/M commands and Mallard BASIC, 



-J 



Expansion token 

#80 
#81 

#82 
#83 
#84 
#85 
#86 
#87 
#88 
#89 
#8A 

#8B 

#8C 

#8D 

#8E 

#8F 

#90 

#91 

#92 

#93 

#94 

#95 

#96 

#97 

#98 

#99 

#9A 



Expansion string 

Control-C 
Control-Z 
Control-Z 
Control-Q 
Control-0 
Control-S 
Control-S 
Control-P 
Control-P 
Control-G 

Del 

Control-H 

Control-U 

Control-W 

Control-] 

Control-F Control-B Control-B 

Control-F Control-B 

Control-- 

Control-V 

Control-A 

Control-F 

Control-R 

Control- " 

Control-K 

Control- \ 

Control-E 

Control-X 



Key combination 
[stop ] 

l fcl] ([shift] +L"_1) 

un 

\_u ] ([shift] +[_ft 1) 

UE3 

| ft | ([shift] 4 ["ft 71) 

Q71 (IshIfi] t Uji 1) 

[del*] 
I^del ] 

["can] 

TcyrD 

[paste] 
[find 1 

[^71 

LINE 



-I 
-J 
-J 

-J 



-I 
-J 
-J 



£23 
LiTl 
LT1 

I 1 or Ichar] 
[relayJ 

Ql 

| alt I -^ [del*] 

TaltTI + 117 1 

[~alt~1 -I- L^del] 



-J 
-J 



d 

-J 
-J 



112 



CP/M operating system 



Ul 



1.4 The complete character set 



Decimal Hex 


Symbol Description 


Alternative 


value 


value 






meaning 





400 


X 


Infinity 


Control-(>/ 


1 

2 


#01 


o 


Arrow out of page 


Control-A 


#02 


r 


Upper case gamma 


Control-B 


3 


#03 


A 


Upper case delta 


Control-C 


4 


#04 


© 


Arrow into page 


Control-D 


5 


#05 


X 


Multiply 


Control -E 


6 


#06 


r 


Divide 


Control-F 


7 


#07 




Therefore 


Control-G 


8 


#08 


II 


Upper case pi 


Control-H 


9 


#09 


I 


Down pointing arrow 


Control-I 


10 


#0A 


\ 


Upper case sigma 


Control-J 


11 


#0B 


«" 


Left pointing arrow 


Control-K 


12 


#0C 




Right pointing arrow 


Control-L 


13 


#0D 


± 


Plus or minus 


Control-M 


14 


#0E 


«— 


Arrow pointing left/right 


Control-N 


15 


#0F 


n 


Upper case omega 


Control-0 


16 


#10 


(i 


Lower case alpha 


Control-P 


17 


#11 


13 


Lower case beta 


Control-0 


18 


#12 


"y 


Lower case gamma 


Control-R 


19 


#13 


<S 


Lower case delta 


Control-S 


20 


#14 


e 


Lower case epsilon 


Control-T 


21 


#15 


H 


Lower case theta 


Control-U 


22 


#16 


A 


Lower case lambda 


Control-V 


23 


#17 


M- 


Lower case mu 


Control-W 


24 


#18 


1T 


Lower case pi 


Control-X 


25 


#19 


P 


Lower case rho 


Control-Y 


26 


#1A 


(r 


Lower case sigma 


Control-Z 


27 


#1B 


T 


Lower case tau 


Control-[ 


28 


#1C 


f 


Lower case phi 


Control- \ 


29 


#1D 


X 


Lower case chi 


Control-] 


30 


#1E 


•J' 


Lower case psi 


Control- 1 


31 


#1F 


cu 


Lower case omega 


Control-- 


32 


#20 




Space 




33 


#21 


1 


Exclamation mark 




34 


#22 


" 


Double quote 




35 


#23 


# 


Hash 




36 


#24 


$ 


Dollar 




37 


#25 


% 


Per cent 





113 



Decimal 


Hex 


Symbol 


Description 


Alternative 
meaning 


value 


value 








38 


#26 


& 


Ampersand 




39 


#27 


■ 


Apostrophe 




40 


#28 


( 


Open parentheses 




41 


#29 


) 


Close parenthesis 




42 


#2A 


* 


Asterisk 




43 


#2B 


- 


Plus 




44 


#2C 


, 


Comma 




45 


#2D 




Minus 




46 


#2E 




Full stop 




47 


#2F 


/ 


Slash 




48 


#30 





Zero 




49 


#31 


1 


One 




50 


#32 


2 


Two 




51 


#33 


3 


Three 




52 


#34 


4 


Four 




53 


#35 


5 


Five 




54 


#36 


6 


Six 




55 


#37 


7 


Seven 




56 


#38 


8 


Eight 




57 


#39 


9 


Nine 




58 


#3A 




Colon 




59 


#3B 


j 


Semicolon 




60 


#3C 


< 


Less than sign 




61 


#3D 


= 


Equals sign 




62 


#3E 


> 


Greater than sign 




63 


#3F 


? 


Questionmark 




64 


#40 


(it 


At 




65 


#41 


A 


Upper case A 




66 


#42 


B 


Upper case B 




67 


#43 


C 


Upper case C 




68 


#44 


D 


Upper case D 




69 


#45 


E 


Upper case E 




70 


#46 


F 


Upper case F 




71 


#47 


G 


Upper case G 




72 


#48 


H 


Upper case H 




73 


#49 


I 


Upper case I 




74 


#4A 


J 


Upper case J 




75 


#4B 


K 


Upper case K 




76 


#4C 


L 


Upper case L 




77 


#4D 


M 


Upper case M 




78 


#4E 


N 


Upper case N 


fD/TWf AnavatlTin SVKTffm 



114 



Decimal 


Hex 


Symbol 


Description 


Alternative 


value 


value 






meaning 


79 


#4F 





Upper case 




80 


#50 


P 


Upper case P 




81 


#51 





Upper case 




82 


#52 


R 


Upper case R 




83 


#53 


S 


Upper case S 




84 


#54 


T 


Upper case T 




85 


#55 


U 


Upper case U 




86 


#56 


V 


Upper case V 




87 


#57 


W 


Upper case W 




88 


#58 


X 


Upper case X 




89 


#59 


Y 


Upper case Y 




90 


#5A 


Z 


Upper case Z 




91 


#5B 


[ 


Open square bracket 




92 


</5C 


\ 


Backslash 




93 


#5D 


] 


Close square bracket 




94 


#5E 




Up arrow 




95 


#5F 


- 


Underline 




96 


#60 


* 


grave accent 




97 


#61 


a 


Lower case A 




98 


#62 


b 


Lower case B 




99 


#63 


c 


Lower case C 




100 


#64 


d 


Lower case D 




101 


#65 


e 


Lower case E 




102 


#66 


f 


Lower case F 




103 


#67 


g 


Lower case G 




104 


#68 


h 


Lower case H 




105 


#69 


i 


Lower case I 




106 


#6A 


] 


Lower case J 




107 


#6B 


k 


Lower case K 




108 


#6C 


1 


Lower case L 




109 


#6D 


m 


Lower case M 




110 


#6E 


n 


Lower case N 




111 


#6F 


c 


Lower case O 




112 


#70 


P 


Lower case P 




113 


#71 


q 


Lower case 




114 


#72 


r 


Lower case R 




115 


#73 


s 


Lower case S 




116 


#74 


t 


Lower case T 




117 


#75 


u 


Lower case U 




118 


#76 


V 


Lower case V 




119 


#77 


w 


Lower case W 





CP/M operating system 115 



Decimal 


Hex 


S< 


value 


value 




120 


ra 


X 


121 


#79 


y 


122 


*7A 


2 


123 


,*7B 


\ 


124 


#7C 


: 


125 


#7D 


i 


126 


#7E 


- 


127 


#7F 






Symbol Description 



128-159 #80-*9F 



Lower case X 

Lower case Y 

Lower case Z 

Open curly bracket 

Vertical bar 

Close curly bracket 

Tilde 

Zero without a slash 

Graphics (see below) 



Alternative 
meaning 



DEL 

Expansion tokens 



128-135 


#80- um 


1 


136-143 


#88-#8F 


\\ 


144-151 


#90- #97 


■ 


152-159 


#98-#9F 


• 


160 


#A0 


a 


161 


#A1 


° 


162 


#A2 




163 


4 A3 


£ 


164 


#A4 


(<? 


165 


*A5 


H 


166 


#A6 


§ 


167 


#A7 


t 


168 


#A8 


Va 


169 


#A9 


y, 


170 


#AA 


% 


171 


#AB 


« 


172 


#AC 


» 


173 


4 AD 


Pt 


174 


#AE 


i 


175 


#AF 


\ 


176 


*B0 


f 


177 


#B1 


£ 


178 


#B2 




179 


#B3 


' 


180 


#B4 


A 


181 


#B5 


%c 


182 


?B6 


Va 



- *■ i I r ► 

Superscript ■> 

Superscript c 

Degree 

Pound sign 

Copyright 

Paragraph sign 

Section 

Dagger 

One quarter 

Half 

Three quarters 

Open quotes (Fr.) 

Close quotes (Fr.) 

Peseta 

Inverted question mark 

Inverted exclamation mark 

Florin 

Cent 

Umlaut 

Acute accent 

Circumflex 

Per thousandth 

One eighth 



116 



CP/M operating system 



Decimal Hex Symbol Description Alternative 

value value 



meaning 



183 *B7 3/ 8 Three eights 

184 #B 8 % Five eighths 

185 #B9 % Seven eighths 

186 #BA a German double S 

187 #BB (■ Open circle 

188 #BC • Bullet 

189 #BD ¥ Yen 

190 #BE @ Registered mark 

191 #BF ™ Trademark 

192 #co A Upper case A acute 

193 #C1 E Upper case E acute 

194 #C2 I Upper case I acute 

195 #C3 6 Upper case O acute 

196 #C4 U 

197 #C5 A 

198 #C6 E 

199 #C7 I 

200 #C8 6 Uppercase Ocircumflex 

201 #C9 u Upper case U circumflex 

202 #CA A Upper case A grave 
2 ^ # ^B E Upper case E grave 

Upper case I grave 
Upper case O grave 

206 #CE " Upper case U grave 

207 #CF Y Upper case Y umlaut 



Upper case U acute 
Upper case A circumflex 
Upper case E circumflex 
Upper case I circumflex 



204 #CC I 

205 #CD 6 



208 #D0 A 

209 #D1 E 

210 #D2 I 

211 #D3 



Upper case A umlaut 
Upper case E umlaut 
Upper case I umlaut 
Upper case O umlaut 



212 #D4 U Upper case U umlaut 

213 #D5 C Upper case C cedilla 

214 #D6 & Upper case diphthong 

215 #D7 A Upper case A ring 

216 #D8 Upper case O slash 

217 #D9 N Upper case N tilde 

218 #DA A Upper case A tilde 

219 #DB O Upper case O tilde 

220 #DC * Greater than or equal 



221 #DD 



Less than or equal 



222 #DE 4- Not equal 



223 #DF 



Approximately equal 



CP/M operating system 



117 



Decimal 


Hex 


Symbol 


Description 


Alternative 


value 


value 






meaning 


224 


#E0 


a 


Lower case A acute 




225 


#E1 


e 


Lower case E acute 




226 


#E2 


i 


Lower case I acute 




227 


#E3 


o 


Lower case O acute 




228 


#E4 


u 


Lower case U actue 




229 


#E5 


a 


Lower case A circumflex 




230 


#E6 


e 


Lower case E circumflex 




231 


#E7 


i 


Lower case I circumflex 




232 


#E8 


6 


Lower case circumflex 




233 


#E9 


u 


Lower case U circumflex 




234 


#EA 


a 


Lower case A grave 




235 


#EB 


e 


Lower case E grave 




236 


#EC 


i 


Lower case I grave 




237 


#ED 


o 


Lower case O grave 




238 


#EE 


u 


Lower case U grave 




239 


#EF 


y 


Lower case Y umlaut 




240 


#F0 


a 


Lower case A umlaut 




241 


#F1 


e 


Lower case E umlaut 




242 


#F2 


i 


Lower case I umlaut 




243 


#F3 


6 


Lower case umlaut 




244 


#F4 


u 


Lower case U umlaut 




245 


#F5 


Q 


Lower case C cedilla 




246 


#F6 


56 


Lower case diphthong 




247 


#F7 


a 


Lower case A ring 




248 


#F8 





Lower case slash 




249 


#F9 


ft 


Lower case N tilde 




250 


#FA 


a 


Lower case A tilde 




251 


#FB 


o 


Lower case O tilde 




252 


#FC 


— ■■> 


Double shafted arrow 
pointing right 




253 


#FD 


^- 


Double shafted arrow 
pointing left 




254 


#FE 


<'. ~.> 


Double shafted arrow 
left/Tight 




255 


#FF 


= 


Equivalent 





118 



CP/M operating system 



_ Appendix II 

_ Advanced use of the printer 



__ Elsewhere in this manual, we have described how to set the printer up to handle different 

types of paper (see section 2.13) and introduced some of the actions possible when the 
te- PCW8256 is in Printer Control State. 

^"~ Here, we describe the Printer Control State in more detail and then how to access special 

_ printer features such as different typestyles and graphics. 

__ II. 1 The Printer Control State 

"~~" The actions that become possible when the PCW8256 is in its Printer Control State are broadly 

— those commonly provided by buttons on other dot matrix printers, ie switching between 

On-line (ready to print) and Off-line (halted), executing additional line feeds and form feeds, 
- — and changing between Draft quality and High quality printing. 

The PCW8256 is put into its Printer Control State either when you press the [Ttr | key or when 

__ you turn the Paper Load Knob on the printer a quarter of a turn towards you to start the 

automatic paper feed process. The computer also puts itself into Printer Control State if you 

— ■ try to print something while it is waiting for paper. 

"~ If the printer is in the middle of printing out some text when you press the [ ptr | key, it will 

_ halt as soon as it has finished either printing the current line or moving the paper to the next 

print position. 

The operations that can be carried out in this state are now indicated on the bottom line of 
your screen. This line is divided into either seven or eight separate 'buttons' by vertical bars. 
These buttons are 'pressed' by moving the cursor to the button and then pressing the |~n or [~1 
key. 

Each button either tells you about the current state of the printer or outlines an operation. The 
precise combination depends on what state the printer is in. 



CP/M operating system 119 



The first button displays the current state of the printer. The possible messages are: 
Active The printer is finishing its current operation. 

Online The printer is ready to print when you leave Printer Control. 

Press [""" to put the printer Offline. 



Offline 

Ba i I bar out 
Waiting for paper 



Out of paper 

Error 

No printer 



The printer is halted. Press j - to put the printer Online 

After loading paper, before bail bar is replaced. 

The printer has just printed a page and is waiting for the next 
sheet to be loaded. Loading this sheet will change the printer 
state to Online. 

If this message is given while you are using continuous 
stationery, this indicates that you haven't set the printer to handle 
continuous stationery. You should now use the PAPER utility to 
put this right: however, pressing j_j will temporarily clear the 
problem and allow you to continue printing. 

There is no paper in the printer. 

Hardware error detected. RESET will clear this state. 

The printer is not connected. Check both the power and the 

ribbon connections, and then move to the RESET button and 
press the [■ j key. If the No printer message is not cleared, 
either the printer or the PCW8256 is faulty. 

The next button only appears if the printer is either On-line or Off-line. The message will 

be either at Line: n or Top of Form. This gives the current position of the paper as a 
number of lines of text (.';) printed with a line spacing of l/6in. If the message is Top of Form, 
this means Line 1 on continuous stationery but Line 7 on single sheet stationery. 

You can change the physical position of the Top of Form to the current print position by 
pressing j • when the cursor is over this part of the line. The printer will redefine Line 1 
(continuous stationery) or Line 7 (single sheet stationery) as this new position. 

LF and FF The next two buttons will be LF (for Line Feed) and FF (for Form Feed), 
provided these operations are valid. Otherwise these will be blank. Move the cursor to the 
relevant button and press \~~\ to get the required action. 

Print quality The next button indicates whether the printer output is currently High 
Quality or Draft Quality. In High Quality, the characters are better formed, making it highly 
suitable for business letters and other formal documentation. The advantage of Draft Quality is 
that it is quick. 

Press either the • or the I I key to swop between these two print qualities. 



120 



CP/M operating system 



Paper end detection The next button indicates whether the signal from the paper end 
detector can halt printing. If the message is PO Defeat: On, the signal from this detector is 

ignored; if it is PO Defeat: Off, the printer will stop when it gets to within Van of the 

bottom of the current sheet of paper. 

Typically, you would set PO Defeat: On when using single sheet stationery and 
PO Defeat: Off when using continuous stationery. 

Press either the | ■ ; or the ' key to swop between these two states. 

Printing hexadecimal codes The next button is set to Hex -Dump: On if you want 
everything that is sent to the printer, printed as its internal hexadecimal code. This option is 
most useful when you are debugging a program. The more usual state is Hex-Dump: Of f . 

Press either the [ • ] or the | _ key to swop between these two states. 

The final button contains the word RESET. Pressing the p I key when the cursor is over 
this part of the line causes all the printer parameters to be set back to their current default 
values. Any text waiting to be printed is lost. 

The initial default values are: 

Line Pitch 6 lines per inch 

Form Length 70 lines 

Gap Length 3 lines 

Single Sheet stationery- 
Paper Out Defeat ON 

These can be changed through use of the Defaults option of the PAPER utility (see Chapter 5). 



Resetting the printer should clear any printer operation errors. 
Leave Printer Control State by pressing ( exit"] 

II.2 Further control of the printer 

The only time when you will need to know how to control the printer to any greater degree 
will be either when you are installing some software you have just bought or when you need to 
use the special printer features to enhance the output your program produces. 



CP/M operating system 121 



The printer supplied with the PCW8256 works very much like any other dot matrix printer. 
The special features are made available by sending particular sequences of characters called 
Printer Control Codes to the printer. These codes are very similar to those used by the 
Seikosha SP-800 and Epson FX-80 printers. 

The codes that control the features of the PCW8256 printer are listed below, grouped 
according to the type of effect they have. The groupings are: 

Page layout 

Print position changes 

Printer initialisation 
Typestyles 
Special characters 
Graphic effects 



II .2 . 1 Printer control codes 

Most of the codes are referred to as Escape codes. These start with the special character ESC . 
This has an internal code represented by # IB in the hexadecimal notation or 27 in decimal. 

The next element in the sequence is a single printable character, which then may be followed 
by one or more Parameters. These parameters are given here by their internal decimal 
codes, represented either by the number itself or by /). If you have a choice whether one or 
many of these decimal values are specified, this is shown by [nj 

The notes accompanying each code give further details of the code, where these are 

appropriate. In particular, these notes include the range of values n may take. 

For example, the printer control code given here as ESC tells you that the sequence of 

character codes that the printer requires is the internal code for ESC followed by the internal 
code for 

Similarly, the printer control code given as ESC I n means that the printer requires the 
internal code for ESC, followed by the internal code for L, followed by the internal code .':. 
whatever you choose n to be. 

Other codes use further special characters such as CR and FF. The corresponding internal 
decimal code is given in parentheses alongside such a code. 

The way you treat these codes depends on the type of program you are working with. 



1 22 CP/M operating system 



If you want to control the printer from a Mallard BASIC program, then the codes qiven here 
would be used in a LPRINT statement. ESC is replaced by CHR$(2/) , each printable character 
is represented by a string made up of the character itself surrounded by double inverted 
commas and the decimal values are given as CHR$( ■) . 

For example, the code that sets the line spacing to eight lines per inch is t.SC 0. So the LPRINT 
statement to be used here is: 

LPRINT CHR$(27);"0"; 

On the other hand, the code that sets the left hand margin is f SC I ■ and the notes tell you 
that, in normal text. '> can take any value between and 78. Say you would like the margin to 
be 10 characters in, then the full code you want is ESC I 10 and the corresponding LPRINT 
statement would be: 

LPRINT CHR$(27)>"L";CHR$(10) 

If you want to use the codes here to set up the printer definition file? used by the SETLST utility, 
then ESC is replaced by * ' ESC ' . the single characters remain as themselves and the decimal 
values are given as T '.'■'' . 

So the string needed to set the line spacing to eight lines per inch (ESC 0) is: 

•'ESC'0 

while that needed to put the left hand margin 10 characters in (ESC I 10) is: 

: *ESC'L ' '10' 

II.2.2 Printing text 

The printer is normally used to print text and it can do this in a number of typestyles. 

The printer generates its various different typestyles by changing the number of characters it 
prints per inch (the Pitch), slanting them and ; or printing them more than once to produce such 
effects as Bold (Emphasised) or Double-strike text. 

Four pitches are available on the PCW8256's printer. These are known as Pica, Elite. 
Condensed and Proportionally Spaced. Pica is 10 characters per inch (cpi), Elite is 12cpi and 
Condensed is approximately 17cpi. The Proportionally Spaced setting prints each character 
in a suitable space for the width of that character, so an i would take less space than a W. On 
average, Proportionally Spaced text has around 12cpi. 

Each of these pitches can be Enlarged. The effect of this is to double the width of the 
characters and so halve the number of characters per inch. 



CP/M operating system 123 



Slanting (or Italic) characters can be generated in all these pitches as can the Double-strike 
effect, but for technical reasons the Bold effect cannot be used with Condensed text. It should 
also be noted that superscripts and subscripts will not have the Double-strike quality of 

surrounding characters. 

Another option is High Quality text, in which the characters appear better formed. However. 
this quality of text is not available either for 17cpi characters or for superscripts and 

subscripts. In addition, there is no Double-strike option with High Quality text. 

These exclusions are summarised as follows: 

. High Quality is not possible in Condensed text or on superscripts and subscripts 

. Double-strike is not available in High Quality text or on superscripts and subscripts 

. Bold is not available in Condensed text 

However, Bold will be substituted for Double-strike and vice versa if possible. 



II.2.3 Printing graphics 

The PCW82S6's printer can also be used to display graphics. 

Any picture that is printed is made up of rows of dots and gaps. Each dot or gap is known as a 
Pixel. So the first step is to translate the image you want to create into a pattern of dots and 
spaces. 



The next step is to translate the pattern of dots and spaces into numbers. These numbers will 
form your data when it comes to printing the image. To do this, the pixels are first grouped 

into eights as shown here. 



124 



CP/M operating system 



Each group of eight pixels is known as a Bit Image, 

Starting at the top left hand corner, each bit image is taken in turn and converted into an 8bit 
number by putting a 1 for each dot and a for each space. The pixel at the top of the group 
sets the value of the most significant bit. 

For example, the image we show here would start: 

11100011 
11110001 
01111011 

These 8bit numbers are usually expressed as their hexadecimal equivalents. This is certainly 
the case if the LPRINT statement of a Mallard BASIC program will be used to send the image 
to the printer. These numbers are known as the Bit Image Data. 

There are two graphics modes on the PCW8256 printer - Normal density and Dual density. 
In normal density, the printed image has a maximum of 480 bit images across the page 
corresponding to 60 dots per inch. 480 is therefore the biggest number of pixels your image 
can have across one line. In dual density, these figures change to 960 and 120 respectively. 

The codes needed by the printer to generate the image for you are given in section II. 8 

Graphics data cannot be printed beyond the right margin, so remember to check that the 
settings of the margins are correct for the image you want to print. Any excess image data will 
be lost. 

In either mode the vertical dot spacing is l/72in. To get the whole picture without white lines 
across the middle of it or overlapping between the lines, you will have to remember to set the 
line spacing to 8/72in. 



CP/M operating system 125 



II.3 Page layout 

Line spacing 

Lines l/8in apart (8 lines per inch) 

Lines 7/12in apart (approx 10 lines per inch) 

Lines l/8in apart (6 lines per inch) 

Lines n/216in apart 

Lines ,o/72in apart 

Default setting: Lines l/6in apart (6 lines per inch). 



ESC 
ESC 1 
ESC 2 

ESC 3 n 

ESC A n 



i 0..25S 
J-0..85 



Margins 

Set left margin 
Set right margin 



ESC 1 n 
ESC n 



n gives the position of the margin in terms of the equivalent number of characters in the 

current typestyle. 

Constraints on margin settings 



Pica text ( lOcpi) 


Left margin 


? = 0..78 




Right margin 


j = 2..81 


Condensed text (17cpi) 


Left margin 


(-0..133 




Right margin 


5-4..139 


Elite text (12cpi) 


Left margin 


? = 0..93 




Right margin 


i -3..96 


Enlarged text (Scpi) 


Left margin 


) - 0..39 




Right margin 


?■ 1..40 


Enlarged condensed (8.5cpi) 


Left margin 


J-0..66 




Right margin 


I-2..69 


Enlarged elite (6cpi) 


Left margin 


> 0..46 




Right margin 


1-2..48 


Proportionally Spaced text 


Behaves as Elite text 





The left margin must be more than l/5in to the left of the right margin. Any illegal settings are 

ignored. 



126 



CP/M operating system 






Default settings: Left margin 0; Right margin 80 (Pica) 

137 (Condensed) 

96 (Elite) 

40 (Enlarged) 

68 (Enlarged condensed) 

48 (Enlarged elite) 

Nothing can be printed beyond the right margin. Attempts to do this, merely cause a carriage 
return to the left margin followed by a single line feed. 

Changing the left margin automatically resets the tab stops to every eighth column. 



Tabs 

Set horizontal tabs ESC D (nl 

n is the required column number for the tab stop, taking the column immediately to the right 
of the left margin as zero. No more than 32 tab stops may be set and the column numbers must 
be given in ascending order. 

Each time you use ESC D, you should set all the tab stops you require. The previous settings 
are automatically erased. 

Changing the left margin automatically resets the tab stops to every eighth column - the 
default setting. 

Execute a horizontal tab HT (9) 

The default setting of the tabs is at every eighth column in all typestyles. 

Tabbing when the next tab position is beyond the right margin causes an automatic carriage 
return-line feed, taking the printhead to the left margin of the following line. 

When the print position is already at or beyond the highest tab position set, the tab code has 

no effect. 



CP/M operating system 127 



II.4 Print position changes 

Backspace 

Execute a backspace 

This moves the print position back one character space in the current pitch. In Proportionally 
Spaced text, the print position moves l/12in (l/6in when Enlarged). 

This control can be used to take the print position into the left margin. 

Carriage return 

Execute a carriage return 

The print position is returned to the left margin. The paper is not advanced unless automatic 
line feed has been selected (see below). 

Form feed 

FF (12) 

Execute a form feed 

The paper is advanced so that the next line to be printed will be at the top of the next page. In 
single sheet mode, this line is one inch down from the top of the sheet. The print position is 
returned to the left margin. 

Line feed 

Execute a line feed 

The paper is advanced by one line. The print position is returned to the left margin. The 
amount of movement is determined by the present setting of the line spacing. 

Select automatic line feed 

Cancel automatic line feed ESC C 

With automatic line feed selected, a carnage return is interpreted as a carnage return plus a 
line feed. 



128 



CP/M operating system 



— Override paper end detection 

Set override £SC g 

^^ Re-select paper end detection ESC 9 



Paper feed 

Advance the paper a specified distance ESC ] n n - 0..255 

The distance moved will be n/216in. 

Page length 

Set in terms of lines of the current spacing ESC C n a- 1 127 



Set in terms of inches ESC C 



'7-1. .22 



The page length is stored as an absolute length. It does not change when the line spacing 
changes, although this changes the number of lines on the page. 

This code also resets the printer to its Top of Form position and cancels any previously set 

Gap (see below). 



Single sheet mode 

Select single sheet mode ESC $ 

Select continuous mode ESC c 

In single sheet mode, the printer will wait at the end of each page for a new sheet of paper to 
be inserted. 

Each page starts one inch below the top edge of the sheet. 

Skip over lines at bottom of page 

Set number of lines to be skipped over ESC N n n-l 127 

Cancel previous skip over instruction ESC O 

The bottom ;j lines of the page are left blank. The number of lines left is usually known as the 
Gap. 

The number of lines skipped over is also returned to zero by setting the page length (ESC C). 



CP/M operating system ! 2 g 



II .5 Printer initialisation 

Clear print buffer 

Clear buffer CAN (24) 

Erases all the data stored in the print buffer since the last CR, LF, FF or BS. 

Reset the printer 

Reset the printer ESC (<' 

The printer returned to its default state, ie. either: 

Pica text (lOcpi); not enlarged, not condensed, not elite not italic, not emphasised, not 

double-strike, not superscript, not subscript, not underlined, not proportionally spaced, 

not High Quality, zero without a slash, no special characters 

Left margin column 0; right margin column 80; tabs every eight columns 

Line spacing Vein; page length 70 lines, gap 3 lines, no automatic line feed 

Single sheet mode, paper end not detected 

UK ASCII character set; only standard characters printable 

or: the state last stored by an ESC d command (see below). 

Reset the printer defaults 

Make the current settings of the relevant ESC d 

parameters the default settings. 

The parameters affected are: 

The Pitch (enlarged or not) 

The Emphasis state (including underlining) 

Upright or italic characters 

High or Draft quality printing 

Left and right margin settings 

Line spacing 

Automatic line feed on-'off 

Page length 

Gap at the bottom of the page 

Single sheet or continuous paper 

Paper end detection on/off 

Zero with or without a slash 

The nationality of the ASCII character set 

The default tab settings cannot be changed. 

The default state may never define the extended character set or hex dumping. 

130 CP/M operating system 



II.6 Typestyles 

Condensed text 

Change to the Condensed typestyle SI (15) 

or ESC SI 

Return to Pica (lOcpi) text DC2 (18) 

The standard Condensed face is approximately 17cpi; when enlarged, this becomes 

approximately 8.5cpi. 



Elite text 

Change to the Elite typestyle ESC M 

Return to Pica (lOcpi) text ESC P 

The standard Elite face has 12cpi; when enlarged this becomes 6cpi. 

Proportionally spaced text 

Set proportional spacing ESC p 1 

Return to Pica (lOcpi) text ESC p 

The standard proportionally spaced text has roughly 12cpi; when enlarged, this becomes 

approximately 6cpi. 



Enlarged text 

Change to the enlarged version of the current typestyle SO (14) 

or ESC SO 

or ESC W 1 

Cancel a previous instruction to enlarge DC4 (20) 

or ESC W 

With the Enlarged typestyle selected, the width of every character is doubled. Pica text is 
therefore printed at 5cpi, Elite text at 6cpi, Condensed text at approximately 8.5cpi and 
Proportionally spaced text at about 6cpi. 

If the Enlarge option is selected using either SO or ESC SO, the characters will automatically 
return to their normal pitch after the next line feed (LF) or form feed (FF). This is not the case if 

ESC W 1 was used. 



CP/M operating system 131 



DC4 will not cancel ESC W 1. 

Italic text 

pep 4 

Change to the italic character set LD ^ 4 

Change back to the normal character set ESC 5 

Italic characters may also be generated by setting bit 7 on the character. 






High Quality text 

Change to High Quality text 
Change back to Draft quality 



ESCm 1 
or ESC x 1 

ESCmO 
or ESC x 



High Quality is not available for Condensed text 

for Superscripts and subscripts 
with Double- strike 



Double-strike 

Select double-strike 

Cancel previous double-strike instruction 



ESC G 
ESC H 



In Double-strike, the data is printed twice, the second time with the paper advanced by 
l/144in. This improves the visual quality of the characters. 



The 

text. 



Double-strike effect is not available on superscripts and subscripts, or with High Quality 



Emphasised (bold) text 

FSC E 
Select emphasised printing £ 

Cancel previous emphasise instruction ESC F 

The emphasised effect comes from printing a shadow of the character l/120in to the right 
(l/144in when using Elite or Proportionally spaced text). 



132 



CP/M operating system 



Selecting a mixed print mode 

Select mode ESC ! n n-0.,63 

Each value of n corresponds to a particular combination of Enlarged mode, Double-strike 
mode, Emphasised mode, Condensed text, Elite text and Pica text. 

The decimal numbers correspond to 5bit numbers, the most significant bit of which sets 
Enlarged; the next Double- strike; the next Emphasised (Bold); the next Condensed; and the 
last Elite. 

The usual restrictions apply. So if you request Bold and Condensed, you will get Double-strike 
and Condensed. 

The effect displayed is also affected by the selection of Draft or High quality printing and by 
the printing of superscripts and subscripts. Superscripts and subscripts are always printed in 
draft quality and are printed bold rather than double-strike. 

Setting a mixed print mode overrides any previous settings of Pica, Elite, Condensed, 
Enlarged, Emphasised and Double- strike. 

Superscripts and subscripts 

Set superscript ESC S 

Set subscript ESC S 1 

Cancel either superscript or subscript ESC T 

Superscripts are set in the upper half of the line; subscripts in the lower half. 

Both superscripts and subscripts are printed using two passes of the print head. 

Superscripts and subscripts are not affected by the selection of either Double-strike or High 
Quality printing. 

Underline 

Set underline function ESC \ 

Cancel underlining ESC 



CP/M operating system 1 33 



II .7 Special characters 



Character set variants 

Change to a specified national character set 
The character set identifiers are as follows: 



ESC R n 



n = 0..8 



n = 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



US 
French 

German 

UK 

Danish 

Swedish 

Italian 

Spanish 

Japanese 



The initial default character set is UK. 



HEX 
23 H 
24H 
40H 
5BH 
5CH 
5DH 
5EH 
60H 
7BH 
7 CH 
7DH 
7EH 



DEC 
35 
36 

64 

91 
92 
93 

94 
96 

123 
124 
125 
126 



USA 



FRANCE GERMANY UK 



DENMARK SWEDEN ITALY SPAIN JAPAN 



Extending the range of characters that can be 
printed 

Adding the characters with decimal values between 0..31 ESC I 1 
and 128.. 159 that do not correspond to valid control codes 
Cancelling a previous ESC I 1 instruction ESC I 



134 



CP/M operating system 



The characters available following a ESC I 1 instruction are shown in the table below, 



HEX 


DEC 




HEX 


DEC 




HEX 


DEC 




HEX 


DEC 




00H 





- a 


10H 


16 


I § 


80H 


128 


4 a 


90H 


144 


§ § 


01H 


1 


e £ 


11H 


17 


fa b 


81H 


129 


£■ & 


91H 


145 


B 


02H 


2 


■.J 


12H 


18 


DC2 


82H 


130 


Li D 


92 H 


146 


DC-2 


03 H 


3 


d 


13H 


19 


». BE 


83H 


131 


■■' d 


93H 


147 


*■ ee 


04H 


4 


. i 


14H 


20 


DC4 


84H 


132 


i f 


94H 


148 


DC4 


05 H 


5 


* 


15H 


21 


? 


85H 


133 


., . 


95H 


149 


('■■ 


06H 


6 


-: i 


16H 


22 




86H 


134 


±' £ 


96H 


150 




07H 


7 


BEL 


17H 


23 


« A 


87H 


135 


BEL 


97H 


151 


A A 


08H 


8 


BS 


18H 


24 


CAN 


88H 


136 


BS 


98H 


152 


CAN 


09H 


9 


HT 


19H 


25 


i j W 


89H 


137 


HT 


99H 


153 


a a 


OAH 


10 


LF 


1AH 


26 


a a 


8AH 


138 


LF 


9AH 


154 


* & 


OBH 


11 


VT 


1BH 


27 


ESC 


8BH 


139 


VT 


9BH 


155 


ESC 


OCH 


12 


FF 


1CH 


28 


u U 


8CH 


140 


FF 


9CH 


156 


.,' u 


ODH 


13 


CR 


1DH 


29 


p. fe 


SDH 


141 


CR 


9DH 


157 


£ £ 


OEH 


14 


SO 


1EH 


30 


* 6 


8EH 


142 


SO 


9EH 


158 


£ <? 


OFH 


15 


SI 


1FH 


31 


* ¥ 


8FH 


143 


SI 


9FH 


159 


* ¥ 



Selecting zero with or without a slash 

Set zero with a slash ESC X 

Set zero without a slash ESC o 



CP/M operating system 1 35 



II. 8 Graphic effects 

Dual density bit images 

Set dual density ESC L n 7 n? J followed 

> by data 
or ESC * In/ n.2 ) 

The number of bit images to be printed in the line (ie the number of data characters in your 
command) is specified by n 7 and n2. n 1 is the required number MOD 256 and n2 is the result 
of the integer division of the required number by 256. 

For example, suppose the required number of bit images is 300. n / would be 300 MOD 256 
which is 44; n.2 would be 300X256 which is 1. 

The alternative way of looking at n 1 and n2 is as the the least significant byte and the most 
significant byte of the 16 bit number that specifies how many data characters you have. 

The generation of the bit image data is explained on section II.3 

The maximum number of images on any line is 960 in dual density. If text and bit image data 
are to be mixed on the same line, then each Pica character corresponds to 12 bit image 
positions, each Elite character corresponds to 10, each Condensed character to 7, each 
Enlarged Pica to 24, each Enlarged Elite to 20 and each Enlarged Condensed character to 14 
bit image positions. 

Once the bit image line has been completed, the printer automatically returns to its current 

text mode. 

Graphics data cannot be printed beyond the right margin. Any excess is lost. 



Normal density bit images 

Set normal density ESC K n 7 n2 | followed 

/ by data 
or ESC*0n1 n2J 

The number of bit images to be printed in the line (ie. the number of data characters in you: 
command) is specified by n 1 and n'2. n 7 is the required number MOD 256 and n? is the result 
of the integer division of the required number by 256. 

For example, suppose the required number of bit images is 300. n 7 would be 300 MOD 2~r 
which is 44; n2 would be 300X256 which is 1. 



136 CP/M operating system 



The alternative way of looking at n 1 and n2 is as the the least significant byte and the most 
significant byte of the 16 bit number that specifies how many data characters you have. 

The generation of bit image data is explained in section II.3 

The maximum number of images on any line is 480 in normal density. If text and bit image data 
are to be mixed on the same line, then each Pica character corresponds to 6 bit image 
positions, each Elite character corresponds to 5, each Condensed character to 3, each 
Enlarged to 12, each Enlarged Elite to 10 and each Enlarged Condensed character to 7 bit 
image positions. 

Once the bit image line has been completed, the printer automatically returns to its current 

text mode. 

Graphics data cannot be printed beyond the right margin. Any excess will be lost. 



CP/M operating system 137 



Appendix III 

Terminal characteristics 



The CP/M Plus implementation on the PCW8256 includes a Terminal Emulator which provides 
facilities very similar to those of a Zenith Z19/Z29 monitor. This makes the PCW8256 screen 
one of the many to broadly emulate a VT52 terminal. 

The terminal emulator is provided as part of the CRT physical device. This is normally 
attached to the CONOUT: logical device. (See the description of the DEVICE command in 
chapter 5, for further details of CP/M devices.) 

Use of the screen is limited to a viewport which may be all or part of the screen. The size and 
shape of the viewport is changed either through the ESC X sequence described below, or by 
selecting 24 x 80 mode or by enabling/disabling the status line. 

Row and column numbers should be given relative to the top left-hand corner of the viewport, 
with the exception of the row and column numbers needed to set a new viewport. These 
should be given relative to the top left-hand corner of the screen. 

Operations that erase text, only affect characters within the current viewport. However, 

scrolling the viewport can affect text outside the present viewport. 

The full details of the way text is handled on the screen are as follows: 

Characters with internal codes in the range 32.. 255 (#20..#FF in the hexadecimal notation) are 
displayed on the screen at the current cursor position. 

Generally the cursor is then moved right by one column. However, if the cursor is at the 
column furthest to the right and wrapping is enabled, it will move to the column furthest to the 
left on the next line, the screen scrolling up if necessary. If wrapping is not enabled, the final 
character on the line will be overwritten. 

Characters with internal codes in the range 0..31 (#00..# IF) are interpreted as control codes 

as follows: 



7 #07 

8 #08 



BEL (Bell) 

BS (Backspace) 



Sounds a bleep. 

Moves the cursor one column to the left. If the cursor 
is at the column furthest to the left and wrapping is 
enabled, it is moved to the column furthest to the 
right on the row above - unless it is already on the 
top row. 



CP/M operating system 



139 



10 #0A LF (Line feed) Moves the cursor down one line, scrolling the 

screen up if necessary. 
13 #0D CR (Carriage return) Moves the cursor to the column furthest to the left on 

the present row. 
27 # IB ESC (Escape) Introduces an Escape sequence or a literal 

character. 

All other control codes are ignored. 

The following Escape sequences are interpreted as follows: 

Disables the status line. The CRT may then use the bottom line of the 
screen. Disc system messages will appear with the CRT output. 
Enables the status line. Disc system messages will appear on the 
bottom line of the screen. 
Changes the character set to one of the national variants (see 

Appendix I) 

hanges the screen mode. This is provided for compatibility with 

other Amstrad computers and is not recommended for normal use. 

Moves the cursor up. If the cursor is already on the top row, it has no 

effect. 

Moves the cursor down. If the cursor is already on the bottom row, it 

has no effect. 

Moves the cursor right one column. If the cursor is already at the 

column furthest to the right, it has no effect. 

Moves the cursor left one column. If the cursor is already at the 

column furthest to the left, it has no effect. 

Clears the viewport. The position of the cursor is unaffected. 

Moves the cursor to its Home position, ie row 0, column - the top 

left-hand corner. 

(Reverse index) Moves the cursor up one row. The page is scrolled 

down if necessary. 

Erases to the end of the page, including the character at the cursor 

position. The cursor position is unaffeectd. 

Erases to the end of the line, including the character at the cursor 

position. The cursor position is unaffected. 

Inserts a line. The row with the cursor on it and all rows below are 

scrolled down one line. The cursor row is cleared. The position- of 

the cursor is unaffected. 
ESC M Deletes the line with the cursor on it. All rows below are scrolled up 

one line. The bottom row is cleared. The cursor position is 

unaffected 
ESC N Deletes the character under the cursor. All the characters to the right 

of the cursor are shuffled one column to the left. The character at the 

end of the row is cleared. The cursor position is unaffected. 



ESC 


ESC 1 


ESC 2 n 


ESC 3 m 


ESC A 


ESCB 


ESCC 


ESCD 


ESCE 


ESCH 


ESC I 


ESC J 


ESCK 


ESC L 



j40 CP/M operating system 



ESC X U Ic h w Sets the text viewport, u is the row number of the top of the view port 

plus 32 (#20); Ic is the column number of the left hand edge of the 
viewport plus 32 ( #20); h is the number of rows in the viewport (ie its 
height) minus 1 plus 32 (#20); w is the number of column in the 
viewport (ie its width) minus 1 plus 32 (#20). The cursor is moved if 
necessary to a position within the viewport. 

ESC Y r a Moves the cursor to a given position, r is the row number plus 32 

(#20); c is the column number plus 32 (#20). If the position is beyond 
the edge of the viewport, the cursor is moved to the edge of the 
viewport. 

ESC b c Sets the foreground colour. For compatibility with other Amstrad 

computers, set c to either 63 (#3F) or (#00). 63 corresponds to 
bright; to dark. 

ESC c c Sets the background colour. For compatibility with other Amstrad 

computers, set a to either 63 (#3F) or ) (#00). 63 corresponds to 
bright; to dark. 

ESC d Clears the viewport up to and including character at the cursor 

position. The cursor position is unaffected. 

ESC e Enables the cursor blob. 

ESC f Disables the cursor blob, 

ESC j Saves the cursor position. 

ESC k Restores the cursor position as saved by ESC j. 

ESC 1 Erases all the characters on the line. The cursor position is 

unaffected. 

ESC o Erases the line up to and including the character at the cursor 

position. The cursor position is unaffected. 

ESC p Enters reverse video mode. Printable characters are displayed with 

the foreground and background colours reversed. 

ESC q Leaves reverse video mode, 

ESC r Enters underline mode, 

ESC u Leaves underline mode. 

ESC v Selects wrapping at the end of the line. 

ESC w Cancels wrapping at the end of the line. 

ESC x Enters 24 x 80 mode. 

ESC y Leaves 24 x 80 mode. 

Any other character after an ESC is displayed and the cursor advanced as above. Thus to 
display characters corresponding to control codes, send ESC followed by the control code, 
For example, ESC #0D will display ■ 



CP/M operating system 141 



- Appendix IV 

_ Error messages 

^ IV. 1 Disc handling errors 



In all these cases, typing R causes the system to Retry; typing I causes the system to carry on 
to its next action; typing C causes the command to be abandoned. 

As a general rule, Retry until you are convinced that there is a serious problem in reading 

from or writing to the disc. Then copy all the files you can onto another disc before 
reformatting the disc. As you will remember, reformatting a disc clears it of all the data stored 
on it. 

drive not ready - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

Usually means the drive you have just accessed has no disc in it. Put a disc in the 

drive and type R 

write protected - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

Means that you have tried to write to a write- protected disc. Write enable the disc 
and type R, or cancel the operation by typing C 

track /seek fail - Retry, Ignore or Cancel^ 

May be caused by a drive fault, try 'Retrying' a few times. 

track X, sector s data error - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

Data is corrupted; may be caused by a damaged disc. Try 'Retrying' a few times. 

track /, sector s no data - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

May be caused by an unformatted disc. If this error persists, reformat the disc. 

track f, sector s missing address mark - Retry Ignore or Cancel? 
If this error persists, reformat the disc. 

bad format - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

Disc may be unformatted or of a totally alien format. 

unknown error - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

Try 'Retrying' a few times. 



CP/M operating system 2 43 



IV -2 Device errors 

If you try to use a device (le peripheral) that is either not attached or not working, the message 
device not ready - Retry, Ignore or Cancel? 

will appear on the screen, device will be replaced by the name of the device: CEN for a 
Centronics printer; SIO for a serial port; LPT for a printer, etc. 

The effect of typing R will be to try the operation again. 

The effect of typing I will be to move on to the next part of the operation. 

The effect of typing C will be both to cancel the present operation and to set up a 'Sink' so that 
all future output that is directed to that device will be thrown away. 

IV-3 CP/1VI Plus error messages 

Tabulated below are the error messages listed by Digital Research in its CP/M Plus User's 
Guide, together with an explanation of why the error occurred. The utility being used when 
the error occurred is given where appropriate. 

In general, you should check that the command you gave was correct, check that the disc is 
properly inserted in the drive and try again. 

The tables are reproduced by kind permission of Digital Research Inc. 
\ Message Mean in a , 



Assign a password to this file. 

SKI. A password mode has been selected tor this file but no 
password has been assigned. 

Auxiliary device redirection not implemented. 

(,1-T ami IHT. AUXIN and Al'\(H ! T cannot be redirected m 
a Hie. 

Bad character* re-enter 

(..HNCl'M. The eh a racier entered was not a number. 



144 CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 

Bad close. 



SAVE. An error occurred during the attempt to close the file, 
probably because the file is write-protected. 



ad Logical Device Assignment! 



DEVICE. Only the following logical devices are valid: CONIN:, 
CONOUT:, AUXIN:, AUXOUT:, LST:. 



BAD PARAMETER 



PIP. You entered an illegal parameter in a PIP command. Retype 
the entrv correctly. 



ad password. 

RENAME. The password supplied by the user is incorrect. 



■ a n K one not allowed. 



GENCPM. Bank 1 cannot be defined as available during sys- 
tem generation. 



and rate cannot be set for this device. 

DEVICE. Only physical devices that have the SOFT-BAUD 
attribute can have their baud rates changed. To check the attri- 
butes of the physical device, type DEVICE physical-dev. 



CP/M operating system 1 45 



Message Meaning 



Cannot have both create and access time stamps, 

SET. CP/M 3 supports either create or access time stamps, but 
not both. 



Cannot label a driue with a file referenced, 

SET. SET does not allow mixing of files and drives. 



CANNOT OPEN SOURCE FILE 

HF.XCOM. The HEX file is not on the specified drivefs). 



Cannot redirect from BIOS, 



GET, PUT. This message is displayed as a warning only if the 
svstem has an invalid BIOS 



Cannot set both RO and RW. 

SET. A file cannot be set to both Read- Only and Read -Write. 

Cannot set both SYS and OIR. 

SET. A file cannot be set to both SYS and 1)1 R. 



CAN 'T DELETE TEMP FILE 



PIP. A temporary $$$ file already exists which is Read-Only. 
Use the SET command to change the attribute to Read-Write. 
then erase it. 



146 



CP/M operating system 



Message 



Meaning 



B r e a K " x " at c 



u 

L- 
U 

u 
u 
u 

L 
L 



ED. "x" is one of the symbols described below and c is the 
command letter being executed when the error occurred. 

# Search failure. ED cannot find the string specified in an 

F, N, or S command. 

? Unrecognized command letter c. ED does not recognize 

the indicated command letter, or an E, H, O, or Q com- 
mand is not alone on its command line. 

The file specified in an R command cannot be found. 

> Buffer full. ED cannot put any more characters in the 

memory buffer, or the string specified in an F, N, or S 
command is too long. 

E Command aborted. A keystroke at the console aborted 

command execution. 

F Disk or directory full. This error is followed by either 

the disk or directory full message. Refer to the recovery 
procedures listed under these messages. 



CANNOT CLOSE: 

Cannot close file* 

CANNOT CLOSE FILE. 

CANNOT CLOSE DESTINATION FILE - filespec 

GENCOM, HEXCOM, LIB-80™, LINK-80, MAC, PIP, RMAC, 
SUBMIT. An output file cannot be closed. This can occur if the 
disk is removed before the program terminates. 



Cannot delete file. 



GENCOM. CP/M cannot delete a file. Check to see if the COM 

file is Read-Only or password-protected. 



CP/M operating system 



147 



Message 



Meaning 



CHECKSUM ERROR. 
Che cK sum error 



HFXCOM PIP. A hex record checksum error was encoun- 
"red The\ex record that produced the error must be cor- 
rected, probably by recreating the hex hle^ 



Close error. 



XRF.F. Th.s message i. preceded by the filename.XRF The disk 
ntgh, have been removed before the program terminated. 



Close operation failed. 



COPYSYS. There was a problem m closing the file at the end 
of the file copy operation. 



Closing file HELP. DAT 
Closing file HELP.HLP 



HELP. HELP encountered error while processing the HELP.DAT 
or the HELP.HLP file. 



COM file found and NULL option. 



GENCOM. The NULL option implies that no COM file is to 
be loaded, just the RSXs. ___ 



.COM file required 



DIR FR\SF RFNAME, TYPE. Options in the built-in com- 
m !mdte require support from a transient COM hie that 
CP/M 3 cannot find on disk. ^^^^^ 



COMMON ERROR: 



LlNK-80. An undefined common block has been selected 



148 



CP/M operating system 



Message 



Meaning 



CORRECT ERROR t TYPE RETURN OR CTRL- 



PIP. A hex record checksum was encountered during the trans- 
fer of a hex file. The hex file with the checksum error should 
be corrected, probably by recreating the hex file. 



CPMLDR error: failed to open CPM3.SY5 

CPMLDR. The system file CPM3.SYS is missing. 



CPMLDR error: failed to read CPM3.5YS 

CPMLDR. An error occurred while reading CPM3.SYS. 



CP/MError on d : D i s K I/O 

BDOS Function = xx File = filespec 



CP/M displays the preceding message if the disk is defective or 
improperly formatted (wrong density). 



CP/M Error on d: Invalid Drive 

BDOS Function = xx File = filespec 



CP/M 3 displays the preceding message when there is no disk 
in the drive, the drive latch is open, or the power is off. It also 
displays the message when the specified drive is not in the 

svstem. 



CP/MError on d : R e a d / On 1 v Disk 
BDOS Function = xx File = filespec 



CP/M 3 does not allow you to erase, rename, update, or set 
attributes of a file residing in a Read-Only drive. Use the SET 
command to set the drive attribute to Read- Write. 



CP/M operating system 



149 



Message 



Meaning 



CP/M Error on d: Read/ Only File 
BDOS Function = xx File = f ilespec 



CP/M 3 does not allow you to erase, rename, update, or set 
attributes of a file that is Read-Only. Use the SET command to 

set the file attribute to Read-Write, 



Date and Time Stamping Inactive. 



DIR. The DATE option was specified, but the disk directory 
has not been initialized with date/time stamping. 



DESTINATION ISR/O. DELETE (Y/N)? 



PIP. The destination file specified in a PIP command already 
exists and it is Read-Only. If you type Y, the destination file is 
deleted before the file copy is done. If you type N, PIP displays 
the message **NOT DELETED** and aborts the copy 

operation. 



Device Reas s i sfnwent Not Supported. 
Enter new assignment or hit RETURN. 



DEVICE. A device assignment is invalid. 



Directory already re-formatted. 

INITDIR. The directory already has date/time stamping. 



150 



CP/M operating system 



Message 



Meaning 



Directory full 
DIRECTORY FULL 



ED. There is not enough directory space for the file being writ- 
ten to the destination disk. You can use the OXfilespec com- 
mand to erase any unnecessary files on the disk without leaving 
the editor. 

SUBMIT. There is not enough directory space on the tempo- 
rary rile drive to write the temporary file used for processing 
SUBMIT files. Use the SETDEE command to determine which 
drive is the temporary file drive. Use the ERASE command to 
erase unnecessary files or set the temporary file drive to a dif- 
ferent drive and retry. 

LIB-80, LINK-80. There is no directory space for the output or 
intermediate files. Use the ERASE command to remove unnec- 
essary files. 
GENCPM. There is no directory space for CPM3.SYS. 

HEXCOM. There is no directory space for the output COM 
file. 



Directory needs to be reformatted for date/time stamps. 

SET. A date/time option was specified, but the directory has 
not been initialized for date/time stamping. Use the INITDIR 
command to initialize the directory for date/time stamping. 



DISK FULL 



ED. There is not enough disk space for the output file. This 
error can occur on the E, H, W, or X commands. If it occurs 
with X command, you can repeat the command prefixing the 
filename with a different drive. 



CP/M operating system 



151 



Message 



Meaning 



DISK READ 

DISK READ ERROR: 

Disk read error: filespec 

DISK READ ERROR - f ilesVec 



GENCPM, HEXCOM, LIB-80, LINK-80, PIP. The disk file 
specified cannot be read. 



DISK WRITE. 
DisK Write Error 
DISK WRITE ERROR: 

DISK WRITE ERR OR - filespec 



HEXCOM, LIB-80, LINK-80, PIP, SUBMIT. A disk write 
operation cannot be successfully performed probably because 
the disk is full. Use the ERASE command to remove unneces- 
sary files. 



Do you want another file 



Y/N 



PUT. Enter Y to redirect output to an additional file. Other- 
wise, enter N. 



Drive defined twice in search path 



SETDEF. A drive can be specified only once in the search path 

order. 



D r i u e Read Only 



ERASE, RENAME. The specified file is on a Read-Only drive 
and cannot be erased or renamed. 



Driue specified has not been defined. 



GENCPM. The drive specified has not been defined yet. Buffer's 
have not been allocated for the drive. 



152 



CP/M operating system 



Message 



Meaning 



Duplicate RS X in header. Replacing old b v new, 

T h i 5 file was not used. 

GENCOM, The specified RSX is already attached to the COM 
file. The old one is discarded. 



Duplicate input RSX. 



GENCOM. Two or more RSXs of the same name are specified. 
GENCOM uses only one of the RSXs. 



Equals ( = ) delimiter missin* at lineNN. 

GENCPM. The equal sign is missing in the specified line. 



END OF FILE » A Z > 



PIP encountered an unexpected end-of-file during a HEX file 

transfer. 



End of line expected. 



DEVICE, GET, PUT, SETDEF. The command typed does not 
have any further parameters. An end-of-line was expected. Any 

further characters on the line were ignored. 



Error at end of line: 



DEVICE, GET, PUT, SETDEF. The error detected occurred at 
the end of the input line. 



Error on line n n n n n : 



SUBMIT. The SUBMIT program displays its messages in the 

preceding format, where nnnnn represents the line number of 
the SUBMIT file. Refer to the message following the line num- 
ber for explanation of the error. 



CP/M operating system 



153 



Message 
FILE ERROR 



Meaning 



ED. Disk or directory is full, and ED cannot write anything 
more on the disk. This is a fatal error, so make sure there is 
enough space on the disk to hold a second copy of the file 

before invoking ED. 



File already exists? Delete it 7 (Y/N) 
file already exists t delete (Y/N)? 



PUT. Enter Y to delete the file. Otherwise the program 

terminates. 

RENAME. The above message is preceded by filespcc. You 

have asked CP/M 3 to create or rename a file using a file 

specification that is already assigned to another file. Either delete 

the existing file or use another file specification. 



File cannot fit into GENCPM buffer: f ilename.SPR 

GENCPM. There is not enough memory to generate a system. 



File exists » erase it 



ED. The destination filename already exists when you are plac- 
ing the destination file on a different disk than the source. It 
should be erased or another disk selected to receive the output 
file. 



FILE IS READ/ONLY 
File is Read Only 



ED. The file specified in the command to invoke ED has the 
Read-Only attribute. ED can read the file so that you can 
examine it, but ED cannot change a Read-Only file. 

PUT. The file specified to receive the output is a Read- On ly 
file. 



154 



CP/M operating system *— m 



Message Meaning 

FILE NAME ERROR: 



LIB-80. The form of a source filename is invalid. 



File not found t 

FILE NOT FOUND - f ilespec 



DUMP, ED, GENCOM, GET, PIP, SET. An input file that you 
have specified does not exist. Check that you have entered the 
correct drive specification or that you have the correct disk in 
the drive. 



First submitted file must be a COM file. 



GENCOM. A COM file is expected as the first file in the com- 
mand tail. The only time GENCOM does not expect to see a 
COM file in the first position of the command tail is when the 
NULL option is specified. 



FIRST COMMON NOT LARGEST: 



LINK-80. A subsequent COMMON declaration is larger than 
the first COMMON declaration for the indicated block. Check 
that the files being linked are in the proper order, or that the 

modules in a library are in the proper order. 



HELP. DAT not on current drive. 

HELP. HELP cannot find HELP.DAT file to process. 



Illegal command tail. 

DIR. The command line has an invalid format or option. 



CP/M operating system 1 55 



Message 



Meaning 



Illegal Format Value 



D1R. Only SIZE and FULL options can be used for display 
formats. 



Illegal Global/Local Drive Spec Mixin* 



D1R. Both a filespec with a drive specifier and the DRIVE option 

aooears in the command. 



Illegal filename. 

SAVF. There is an error in the filespec on the command line. 



Illegal Option or Modifier- ♦ 

DIR. An invalid option or abbreviation was used. 



Illegal date/time specification. 

DATE. Date/time format is invalid. 



Incorrect file specification. 

RENAME. The format of the filespec is invalid. 



INDEX ERROR: 



LINK-80. The index of an IRL contains invalid information. 



Insufficient M e m o r v 
INSUFFICIENT MEMORY: 



GET, LINK-80, PUT, SUBMIT. There ts not enough memory 
to allocate buffers, or there are too many levels of SUBMIT 
nesting. „^_____ 



156 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 

Invalid ASCII character 



SUBMIT. The SUBMIT file contains an invalid character (OFFH). 



Invalid character at line NN. 

GENCPM. The character must be a number. 



Invalid command, 



GET and PUT. The string or substring typed in the command 

line was not recognized as a valid command in the context 

used. 



Invalid delimiter. 



DEVICE, GET, PUT, SETDEF. The delimiter, [ ] , = or space, 
— was not valid at the location used. For example, a [ was 
used where an = should have been used. 



INVALID DESTINATION: 

PIP. An invalid drive or device was specified. 



INVALID DIGIT - f ilespec 



PIP. An invalid hex digit has been encountered while reading 
hex file. The hex file with the invalid hex digit should b 
rected, probably by recreating the hex file. 



a 
e cor- 



Invalid drive. 



SETDEF. The specified drive was not a valid drive. Drives rec- 
ognized by SETDEF are * (default drive) and A to P. 
GENCPM, TYPE. Valid drives are A to P. 



CP/M operating system 



157 



Message 



Meaning 



Invalid drive ignored at lineNN* 

GENCPM. Valid drives are A to P. 



Invalid drive name (Use A > B * Ci or D) 



COPYSYS, GENCPM. Only drives A, B, C and D are valid 
destination drives for system generation. 



Invalid File* 

INVALID FILENAME 

Invalid file name * 

Invalid Fil enawe . 

Invalid file specification 



ED, ERASE, GENCOM, GET, PIP, PUT, SET, SUBMIT, TYPE. 
The filename typed does not conform to the normal CP/M 3 
file naming conventions. 



INVALID FORMAT 



PIP. The format of your PIP command is illegal. See the 

description of the PIP command. 



INVALID HEX DIGIT, 



HEXCOM. An invalid hex digit has been encountered while 
reading a hex file. The hex file with the invalid hex digit should 
be corrected by recreating the hex file. 



Invalid numbe r . 



DEVICE. A number was expected but not found, or the num- 
ber was out of range; numbers must be from to 255. 



158 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 

Invalid option. 



DEVICE and GET. An option was expected and the string 
found was not a device option or was not valid in the context 
used. 

SETDEE. The option typed in the command line is not a valid 
option. Valid options are DISPLAY, NO DISPLAY, NO PAGE, 
ORDER, PAGE, TEMPORARY. 



Invalid option or modifier. 

D1R, GET, PUT. The option typed is not a valid option. 



INVALID PARAMETER: 



MAC:, RMAC. An invalid assembly parameter was found in 
the input line. The assembly parameters are printed at the con- 
sole up to the point of the error. 



Invalid parameter variable at line NN . 

GENCPM. The parameter variable does not exist. Check spelling. 



INVALID PASSWORD 

Invalid password or passwords not allowed. 

ED, PIP. The specified password is incorrect, or a password 
was specified, but the file is not password- protected. 



Invalid physical device. 



DEVICE. A physical device name was expected. The name found 
in the command string does not correspond to any physical 
device name in the system. 



CP/M operating system 159 



Message Meaning 



INVALID REL FILE: 



LINK-80. The file indicated contains an invalid bit pattern. 
Make sure that a REL or IR1. file has been specified. 



Invalid R S X type. 

GENCOM. Filetype must be RSX. 



Invalid SCB offset 



GENCOM. The specified SCB is out of range. The SCB offset 
range is 00H-64H. 



INVALID SEPARATOR 



PIP. You have placed an invalid character for a separator 
between two input filenames. 



INVALID SOURCE 



PIP. An invalid drive or device was specified. AUX and CON 

are the onlv valid devices. 



Invalid type for ORDER option. 



SETDEF. The type specified in the command line was not COM 
or SUB. 



I nval id SYM file format 

XREF. The filename.SYM file input to XREF is invalid. 



INVALID USER NUMBER 



PIP. You have specified a user number greater than 15. User 
numbers are in the range to 15. 



160 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 



Invalid wildcard, 



RENAME. The filespec contained an invalid wildcard 
specification. 



Invalid wild card in the FCB name or type field. 

GENCOM. GENCOM does not allow wildcards in filespecs. 



LOAD ADDRESS LESS THAN 100, 

HEXCOM. The program origin is less than 100H. 



MAIN MODULE ERROR: 

LINK-80. A second mam module was encountered. 



Make error 

XREF. There is not more directory space on the specified drive. 



Memory conflict - cannot trim seSment* 



GENCPM. The defined memory segment overlaps another 
segment. 



Memory conflict - segment trimmed. 



GENCPM. The defined memory segment overlaps with other 
segments. 



MEMORY OVERFLOW: 



LINK-80. There is not enough memory to complete the link 

operation. 



CP/M operating system 1 6 j 



Message 



Meaning 



Minimum number of buffers is 1. 

GENCPM. The first drive must have at least one buffer defined. 



Missin* Delimiter or Unrecognized Option. 

ERASE. The ERASE command line format is invalid. 



Missinjf parameter variable at line NN ♦ 

GENCPM. The line is missing a variable name. 



MissinS left parenthesis. 



GENCOM. The SCB option must be enclosed by a left 
parenthesis. 



MissinS risht parenthesis. 



GENCOM. The SCB option is not enclosed with a right 
parenthesis. 



Miss in* SCB value . 

GENCOM. The SCB option requires a value. 



More than four drives specified. 



SETDEF. More than four drives were specified for the drive 
search chain. 



MULTIPLE DEFINITION: 



LINK-80. The specified symbol is defined in more than one or 
the modules being linked. 



162 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 



USER. You specified a number greater than fifteen for a user 
area number. For example, if you type USER 18, the screen 
displays 18?. 



No directory label exists. 



SHOW, The LABEL option was requested but the disk has no 
label. 



No directory space 

NO DIRECTORY SPACE - filespec 



COPYSYS, GENCOM, MAC, PIP, RMAC, AND SAVE. There 
is not enough directory space for the output file. Use the ERASE 
command to remove unnecessary files on the disk and try- again. 



No disK space. 



SAVE. There is not enough space on the disk for the output 
file. Use the SHOW command to display the amount of disk 
space left and use the ERASE command to remove unnecessary 
files from the disk, or use another disk with more file space. 



No file 

NO FILE: 

NO FILE - filespec 



DIR, ERASE, LIB-80, LINK-80, PATCH, PIP, RENAME, TYPE. 
The specified file cannot be found in the specified drive(s). 



No HELP.HLP file on the default driue. 

HELP. The file HELP.HLP must be on the default drive. 



CP/M operating system 163 



Message Meaning 

Not enough available memory 

Not Enough Memory 

Not Enough Memory for Sort. 



DIR, INITDIR. There is not enough memory for data or sort 

buffers. 



Not enough room in director/ 



INITDIR. There is not enough remaining directory space to 
allow for the date and time extension. 



NOT FOUND 



PIP. PIP cannot find the specified file. 



Not renamed t filespec read only 



RENAME. The specified file cannot be renamed because it is 
Read-Onlv. 



OPEN FILE NONRECQUERABLE 

PIP. A disk has the wrong format or a bad sector. 



Option only for drives. 

SET. The specified option is not valid for files. 



Option requires a file reference. 

SET. The specified option requires a filespec. 



Out of data space 



COPYSYS. The destination drive ran out of space during the 
transfer of the CPM3.SYS file. __^_. 



166 



CP/M operating system 



M essage Mean mg 

Options not Grouped toiethe r. 



DIR. Options can only he specified within one set of hrackets. 



Output File Exists* Erase it. 

The output file specified must not already exist. 



OUTPUT FILE READ ERROR: 



MAC, RMAC. An output file cannot be written properly, 
probably because the disk is full. Use the ERASE command to 
delete unnecessary files from the disk. 



OVERLAPPING SEGMENTS: 



LINK-80. LINK-80 attempted to write a segment into memory 
already used by another segment. 



P a 3 e and nopase option selected. 
No pase in effect. 



SET. The preceding options are mutually exclusive. 



Parameter Error 



SUBMIT. Within the SUBMIT file of type SUB, valid parame- 
ters are $0 through $9. 



Password Error. 

DUMP, ERASE, GENCOM, TYPE. The password is incorrect. 



Physical Device Does Not Exist. 



DEVICE. The specified physical device is not defined in the 

system. 



CP/M operating system 167 



Message Meaning 



Possible incompatible disK format* 



COPYSYS. The system disk and the output disk have different 

formats. 



PROGRAM INPUT IGNORED, 



SUBMIT. This message is preceded by "WARNING". The 
SUBMIT file contains a line with <, and the program does not 
require additional input. 



PUT 



PUT. This prompt occurs when a program requests input while 
running a PUT FILE [NO ECHO] command. 



PUT ERROR: FILE ERASED, 

PUT. The PUT output file was erased and could not be closed. 



QUIT NOT FOUND 



PIP. The string argument to a Q parameter was not found in 
your 'input file. 



Random Read 



SUBMIT. An error occurred when reading the temporary file 

used bv the SUBMIT command. 



Read only. 



Read error 



GEN COM, SET. The drive or file specified is write-protccted. 



TYPE. An error occurred when reading the file specified in the 
TYPE command. Check the disk and try again. 



168 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 



Reading file: filespec 



GENCPM. An error occurred while attempting to read the file 
specified by filespec. 



Read in a file HELP,HLP 

Reading HELP.HLP index 



HELP. An error occurred while reading HELP.HLP. Copy the 
HELP.HLP file from the system disk. 



RECORD TOO LONG 



PIP. A HEX record exceeds 80 characters in a file being copied 
with the [H] option. 



Requires CP/M 3,0 or higher* 



DATE, DEVICE, D1R, ERASE, GENCOM, HELP, INITD1R, 
PIP, SET, SETDEF, SHOW, RENAME, TYPE. This version of 
the utility must only be run under CP/M 3.0 or higher. 



R/0 DISK 



PIP. The destination drive is set to Read-Only and PIP cannot 
write to it. 



R/0 FILE 



PIP. The destination file is set to Read-Only and PIP cannot 
write to it. 



Sort Stack Overflow 

DIR. There is not enough memory available for the sort stack. 



CP/M operating system 1 69 



Message 


Meaning 






Source 


file is incomplete. 








GENCPM. GENCPM cannot use your CP/M 3 system source 
file. 


SOURCE FILE READ ERROR: 








MAC, RMAC. The 


source file cannot be read properly by MAC. 


SOURCE 


FILENAME ERROR: 








MAC, RMAC. The 


form of the source filename is invalid. 


START NOT FOUND 








PIP. The string argument to an S 
the source file. 


parameter cannot be found in 


Symbol 


Table overflow 








XREF. No space is 


available for an attempted symbol allocation. 


Symbol 


Table reference over 


flow 






XREF. No space is 


available for an attempted symbol reference 




allocation. 






SYNTAX 


ERROR: 








LIB. The L1B-80 command is not 


properly formed. 


Too many entries in Index T a 


ble . 




Not enouSh memory 








HELP. There is not 
table whiie creating 


enough memory available to hold the topic 
HELP.HLP. 



170 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 

Topic: 



xxxxxx 
Not found. 



HELP. The topic requested does not exist in the HELP.HI.P 
file. HELP displays the topics available. 



Total file size exceeds 64K . 

GENCOM. The output file exceeds the maximum allowed. 



Try 'PAGE ' o r 'NO PAGE ' 

TYPE. The only valid option is PAGE or NO PAGE. 



Unable to allocate Data deblocking buffer space. 

GENCPM. There is not enough space left in generated system 
to allocate a data deblocking buffer. 



Unable to allocate Dir deblocking buffer space. 

GENCPM. There is not enough space left in generated system 
to allocate a directory deblocking buffer. 



Unable to allocate space for hash table. 



GENCPM. There is not enough contiguous memory to allocate 
space for the hash table in the generated system. 



Unable to close HELP. DAT. 
Unable to close HELP.HLP. 



HELP. An error occurred while closing file HELP.HLP or 
HELP.DAT. There might not be enough disk or directory space 
on the drive. 



CP/M operating system 171 



Message 



Meaning 



Unable to find file HELP.HLP, 



HELP. HELP requires HELP.HLP file to operate. Copy it to 
your default drive from your CP/M 3 system disk. 



Unable to Make HELP. DAT. 
Unable to Make HELP.HLP. 



HELP. There is not enough space on the disk for HELP.HLP 
or HELP.DAT, or the files are Read-Only. 



Unable to open: filename. SPR 



GENCPM. The file specified cannot be found on the default 

drive. 



UNBALANCED MACRO LIBRARY. 



MAC, RMAC. A MACRO definition was started within a macro 
library, but the end of the file was found in the library before 
the balancing ENDM was encountered. 



UNDEFINED START SYMBOL: 



LINK-80. The symbol specified with the G switch is not defined 
in any of the modules being linked. 



UNDEFINED SYMBOLS: 



LINK-80. The symbols following this message are referenced 
but not defined in any of the modules being linked. 



UNEXPECTED END OF HEX FILE - f ilespec 



PIP. An end-of-file was encountered before a termination hex 
record. The hex file without a termination record should be 
corrected, probably by recreating the hex file. 



172 



CP/M operating system 



Message Meaning 



Unrecognized drive. 



SHOW. The specified drive is not valid. Valid drives are A to 
P. 



UNRECOGNIZED ITEM: 



LINK-80. An unfamiliar bit pattern has been scanned and 
ignored by L1NK-80. 



Unrecognized input* 

SHOW. The SHOW command line has an invalid format. 



Unrecognized option. 



GENICOM and SHOW. An option typed in the command line 

is not valid for the command. 



USER ABORTED 

PIP. You stopped a PIP operation by pressing CTRI.-C. 



VERIFY ERROR: - f i lespec 



PIP. When copying with the V option, PIP found a difference 
when rereading the data just written and comparing it to the 
data in its memory buffer. 



CP/M operating system 1 73 



Message 
Write error 



Meaning 



XREF. This message is preceded by filename.XRF and indicates 
that no disk space is available, or no directory space exists on 
the specified drive. 



Write protected 



COPYSYS. The drive or disk to which the system is to be 
written is Read-Only. 



Writing file: filespec 



GENCPM, HELP. An error occurred while attempting to write 

the file specified by filespec. 



Wrong Password. 

SET. The specified password is incorrect or invalid. 



ero length segment not allowed. 

GENCPM. A memory segment cannot have zero length. 



OFFFFH is an invalid value in the DPH directory BCB 
address field. 

GENCPM. This value is allowed only in the DTABCB field. 



SID. SID has encountered an error. 



174 



CP/M operating system 



^— MAC/RMAC error messages 



Flag 



Meaning 



C 



D 



M 



N 



Balance error: macro does not terminate properly, or conditional 
assembly operation is ill formed. 

Comma error: expression was encountered but not delimited properly 
from the next item by a comma. 

Data error: element in a data statement (DB or DW) cannot be placed 
in the specified data area. 

Expression error: expression is ill formed and cannot be computed at 
assembly time. 

Invalid character error: a nongraphic character has been found in the 
line other than a carriage return, line-feed, tab, or end-of-tile; edit the 
file, delete the line with the I error, and retype the line. 

Label error: label cannot appear in this, context; it might be a dupli- 
cate label. 

Macro overflow error: internal macro expansion table overflow; might 
be due to too many nested invocations or infinite recursion. 

Not implemented error: features that appear m RMAC, such as relo- 
cation, are recognized, but flagged in MAC]. 



CP/M operating system 



175 



Message 



O 



R 



U 



V 



Meaning 



Overflow error: expression is too complicated (i.e., has too many 
pending operators), string is too long, or too many successive substi- 
tutes of a formal parameter by its actual value in a macro expan- 
sion. This error also occurs if the number of LOCAL labels exceeds 
9999. 

Phase error: label does not have the same value on the two passes 
through the program, or the order of macro definition differs between 
the two successive passes; might be due to MACLIB that follows a 
mainline macro; if so, move the MACLIB to the top of the program. 

Register error: the value specified as a register is not compatible with 
the operation code. 

Syntax error: the fields of this statement are ill formed and cannot be 
processed properly; might be due to invalid characters or delimiters 
that arc out of place. 

Undefined symbol: a label operand in this statement has not been 
defined elsewhere in the program. 

Value error: operand encountered in an expression is improperly 
formed; might be due to delimiter ou t of place or nonnumenc operand. 



176 



CP/M operating system 



LIB-80 error messages 



Error 



CANNOT CLOSE: 

DIRECTORY FULL: 
DISK READ ERROR: 
DISK" WRITE ERROR 

FILE NAME ERROR: 

NO FILE: 
NO MODULE: 
SYNTAX ERROR: 



Cause 



LIB-80 cannot close the output file. The disk might 
be write-protected. 

There is no directory space for the output file. 

LIB-80 cannot read the file properly. 

LIB-80 cannot write to the file properly, probably 
due to a full disk. 

The form of a source filename is invalid. 

LIB-80 cannot find the indicated file. 

LIB-80 cannot find the indicated module. 

The LIB-80 command line is not properly formed. 



CP/M operating system 



177 



Overlay Manager run-time error messages 



Error 



Cause 



ERROR (8) OVERLAY » NO FILE d : f i 1 en ante .OVL 

The Overlay Manager cannot find the indicated file. 



ERROR (9) OVERLAY* DRIVE d : f i lename .OVL 

An invalid drive code was passed as a parameter to Povlay. 



ERROR (10) OVERLAY » SIZE d: fi lename. OVL 

The indicated overlay would overwrite the PL/I stack and/or free 
space if it were loaded. 



ERROR (11) OVERLAY, NESTING d : f i 1 en ame . OVL 

Loading the indicated overlay would exceed the maximum nesting 
depth. 



ERROR (12) OVERLAY » READ d : f i lenane .OVL 

Disk read error during overlay load, probably caused by premature 
EOF. 



178 



CP/M operating system 



Index 



A4 paper, 4, 44, 91 

A5 paper, 44, 91 

A: drive, 2, ptIII 

A> prompt, 3 

Active (printer), 120 

ALT key, 20, 92, 108 

American character set, 8: 

ASCII, 86, 103 

ASM file, 100 

Assembler, 100 
cross reference, 101 
ASSIGN.SYS, 60, 63 
Attributes 

file and drive, 83 
AUX:, 78 
Auxiliary I/O, 78 
AUXIN:, 87 
AUXOUT:, 87 

B: drive, 2, ptIII 
Backspace code, 128 
Bail bar, 41 
Bail bar out, 45 
BAS, 2 
BASIC, 1 

Batch of commands, 85 
Baud rate, 88, 94 
Bit image, 125, 136 
BITS, 94 
Bold print, 132 
Booting CP/M 
see Loading CP/M, 3 

Carriage return code, 128 
Case 

upper and lower, 7, 79 
Centronics interface, 88, 94 
CHAR key, 28 
Characters 

changing the keyboard, 92 
Character sets, 103 

CP/M default (US), 113 

list of, 105 



Characteristics of drive, 84 
Clock, 87 
Codes 

control, 20, 68 
internal, 20 
Column number, 139 
). 104, 134 COM, 2, 99 

COM file, 100 
Command file, 99 
Command lines, 2, 6 
changing, 16, 28 
editing, 28 
in .SUB files, 50 
sequences of, 15, 46, 85 
shortening, 50 
Commands, 6, 19 
built-in, 2 

transient utilities, 2 
Comment, 92 
Commercial software, 53 

graphics software, 60 
Communications interface, 88 
CON:, 40, 78 

Condensed print, 123, 131 
Confirm files to copy, 79 
CONIN:, 87 
CONOUT:, 87, 139 
Console 

see Screen and Keyboard, 56 
Continuous stationery, 44, 90 
Control characters 
see control codes 
Control codes, 20, 68, 92, 110 
list of, 113 
printer, 122 
screen, 139 
Control-C, 52 
Control-P, 40 
Conventions, 20, 68 
COPY key, 16, 28 
Copying 

discs, 4, 22, 73, ptIII 
files, 10, 11, 24, ptIII 



old command line, 28 
single disc drive, 16 
system files, 79 
CP/M, 6 

commands, 6, 19 

commercial software, 53 

graphics extension, 59 

initial command sequence, 15 

loading, 27 

restarting, 49 

running programs, 6 

starting, 3 

utilities, 6, 67 
CP/M 2.2, 53 
CP/M Plus, 1 
Creating files, 26 
Cross reference assembler, 101 
Cursor, 3 

Cursor movement keys, 28 
Cursor position, 140 

Danish character set, 89, 104, 134 

Data 

bits, 94 

where to store, 54 
Data only discs, 37 
DATE, 87 

Date stamping, 77, 83 
DDFXHR8.PRL, 60 
DDFXLR8.PRL, 60 
DDHP7470.PRL, 60 
DDSCREEN.PRL, 60 
Debugger, 101 
Default drive, 2, 19, 50 

changing, 9, 52 
DEL keys, 6, 16, 28 
Deleting files, 12, 34 
DEVICE, 87 

graphics, 59 

I/O, 78 

number, 63 
Device driver, 60 

technical information, 65 
DIR, 6, 36, 38, 70, ptlll 
DIR option, 21 



Directories, 6, 13, 70, ptlll 

attributes, 83, ptlll 

number of files, 14, ptlll 

number of free entries, 21, 84, ptlll 

system files, 71 
DIRSYS, 38 
Disc drive, 2 
DISCKIT, 22, 37, 73, ptlll 
Discs 

care of, 3 

changing, 52 

changing default, 9 

copying, 4, 22, 73, ptlll 

data only, 37 

default, 2, 19 

directory of, 6, ptlll 

for commercial software, 54 

formatting, 37, 73, ptlll 

free directory entries, 21, 84, ptlll 

free space, 14, 21, 84, ptlll 

housekeeping, 11 

information about, 84 

labelling, 83 

listing files on, 6, 38 

master, 4 

memory, 9 

other than default, 9 

search order, 50, 84 

start of day, 27, 54 

switching between, 52 

system, 1, 4 

verifying, 73, ptlll 

write protection, 22 
Double strike print, 132 
Dr. Logo, 1 

Draft quality printing, 42, 43, 120, 124, 132 
Drives 

attributes, 83, ptlll 

number of, 16, ptlll 
DUMP, 96 

ED, 26, 29, 96 

commands, 31, 97 
Editing 

command line, 28 

large text files, 30 



;4 



machine code files, 100 
text, 29 

Editor 

line based, 26, 29 

screen based, 26, 29 
Elite printing, 123, 131 
Emphasised print, 132 
EMS, 2 
End of file 

marker in file, 79 
English character sets, 89, 104, 134 
Enlarged printing. 123, 131 
EOF:, 78 
EOL key, 28 
Epson FX-80, 56 
ERASE (ERA), 12, 34, 75 
Erasing files, 12, 34 

confirm option, 12 
Errors 

CP/M Plus, 144 

disc handling, 143 

ED, 32, 98 

GSX, 64 

printer, 44 
Escape codes, 122 
Expansion string, 92, 108, 110 

initial values, 112 
Expansion token, 92 
EXTRA key, 92, 108 

FD-2 drive, ptIII 
FF, 43, 120 

Filenames. 2, 7, 70 

matching, 8 

template, 8 

wildcards, 8 
Files, 2 

attribute, 83 

changing contents of, 100 

combining, 78 

command, 8 

copying, 10, 24, 78. 79 

copying system, 79 

directories of, 13, 70 

displaying contents, 14, 40, 86 

displaying hex contents, 96 



displaying names, 70 

editing, 29 

erasing, 12, 35. 75 

for use with GSX, 60 

Hex format, 99 

information on, 38 

maximum number, 14 

names, 2, 7 

object, 99 

on disc, 6, 38, ptIII 

patch, 100 

printing contents, 40 

read only, 70 

REL format, 99 

renaming, 11, 48, 82 

replace text, 32 

room for, 14, 21 

saved from memory, 101 

search for text, 32 

sequence of commands, 15 

size of, 13, 36, 39, 70, ptIII 
specification of. 10 
system, 38, 70, 71 
typing, 14, 40 
Filetypes, 2, 7 
Finish using CP/M, 49 
Form feed, 43, 120, 128 
Form length, 90 

Formatting discs, 37, 73, 74, ptIII 
Free directory entries, 14, 21, ptIII 
Free disc space, 14, 21, ptIII 
French character set, 89, 104, 134 
Function keys, 110 
defining, 92 

Gap length, 90, 129 

GENCOM, 99 

GENGRAF, 60, 62 

German character set, 89. 104, 134 

GET, 76 

Graphics, 59 

commercial software, 61 

dual density, 125. 136 

normal density, 125, 136 

printing, 124 



GSX, 59, 60 

combining with a program, 62 
installing, 61 
logical device number, 63 

technical information, 65 

HANDSHAKE, 94 

HELP, 102 

HEX format file, 99, 100 

Hexadecimal 

#, 20 

notation, 20 
HEXCOM, 99 

High quality printing, 42, 43, 120, 124, 132 
Housekeeping, 11 

INITDIR, 77 
Insert mode, 26 

Installing commercial software, 53, 55, 121 
Installing GSX, 61 
Interface 

RS232C/Centronics, 94 
Internal codes, 20 
Inverse video, 90 
Italian character set, 89, 104, 134 
Italic characters, 124, 132 

Japanese character set, 134 

k, 14 
Key 

number. 108 

shift state, 108 
Key definition file, 108 
Keyboard, 78, 87. 89 

common codes, 57 

get input from file, 76 

national variations, 104 

redefining, 92, 108 

redefining function keys, 47 

use by commercial software. 56 
Kill files, 34 
Kilobyte, 14 



LANGUAGE, 89 

of printer, 134 

variations, 104 
LF, 43, 120 
LIB, 99 
Library, 99 
Line editor, 26, 29 
Line feed, 43, 120, 128 
LINE key, 28 
Line numbers, 79 
Line pitch, 90 
Line spacing codes, 126 
Lines 

horizontal on screen, 3 

on paper, 43 

per inch, 90 
LINK, 100 
Loading CP/M, 3, 27, 49 

initial command sequence, 15, 46 
Loading paper, 41 
Logical devices, 87 

numbers, 63 
LOGO, 1 

Lower case, 7, 79 
LST:, 40, 78, 87 

M: drive, 
see Memory disc 
MAC, 100 

Macros, 100 
see SUBMIT, 15 
Mallard BASIC, 1 

Margin codes, 126 
Matching filenames, 8 
Memory disc, 9 
Metalanguage, 20, 68 
Microcomputer, 1 
Modem, 88 
Monitor, 87 

No printer, 45, 120 

NOXON, 88 
NUL:, 78 



Object modules, 99 
Off-line, 42, 43, 120 



On-line, 42, 43, 120 
Options to commands, 12 
ORDER, 50 
Out of paper, 45, 120 
Output device, 59 

Page layout codes, 126 
Page length, 129 
Pages, 90 
PALETTE, 90 
PAPER, 44, 90 
A4. 91 
A5, 91 

adjusting in printer, 42 
end detection, 91, 128 
loading into printer. 41 
out of, 45, 120 
types of, 44 
waiting for, 45, 120 
Paper end detection, 121 
Paper Out Defeat, 91. 121 
Parameters to SUBMIT, 85 
PARITY, 94 
Parity bit, 79 
Passwords, 83 
PASTE key, 28 
PATCH, 100 
Peripherals, 78, 87 
Physical devices, 87 
Pica, 123, 131 
PIP, 10, 24, 78, ptin 
options, 79 
Pitch, 90 
Pixel, 124 
Plotter 
GSX, 60, 62 
Pointer, 31 

Post-mortem dump, 101 
Print files, 86 
Printer, 41, 78 
A4 paper, 44 
A5 paper, 44 
active, 120 
adjusting paper, 42 
advanced use, 119 
alternative umder GSX, 62 



backspace, 128 
bail bar out, 45 
bit image, 125 

buttons, 43, 119 

carriage return, 128 

clear, 130 

common codes, 57 

continuous stationery, 44 

control codes, 122, 126 

control state, 43, 119 

controlling from BASIC, 123 

default, 91 

device, 87 

draft quality printing, 42, 43, 121 

dual density, 125, 136 

FF, 43, 122 

form feed, 43, 121, 128 

graphics, 124, 125, 136 

GSX, 60 

high quality printing, 42, 43, 121 

initialisation, 93 

LF, 43, 121 

limitations, 124 

line feed, 43, 121, 128 

line pitch, 123 

lines per inch, 123 

loading paper, 41 

national variations, 134 

no printer, 120 

normal density, 125, 136 

off-line, 42, 120 

on-line, 42, 120 

out of paper, 45, 120 

page length, 129 

paper end detection, 121 

Paper Out Defeat, 121 

pitch, 123 

pixels, 124 

redirect data to file, 80 

reset, 130 

setting options, 121 

single sheet stationery, 44, 129 

skip gap, 129 

tabs, 127 

top of form, 43 

troubleshooting, 44 



types of paper. 44 

typestyles. 123 

use by commercial software. 56 

waiting for paper, 45, 120 

when CP/M starts, 4 

zero with slash. 135 
Printing 

mixed mode, 133 
PRN file, 100 
PRN;, 78 
Procedures 

see SUBMIT. 15 
PROFILE.SUB, 15. 27, 46, 55, 111 
Programs 

commercial, 53 

graphics, 59 

Hex format, 99 

installing, 53, 55 

listing names of, 8 

object, 99 

redirecting input, 76 

REL format, 99 

running. 6 

stored, 2 

turnkey operation, 55 
Proportional spacing, 123, 131 
PTR key, 43 
PUT. 80 

Read only files, 70 

REL format file, 99, 100 

RELAY key, 28 

RENAME(REN), 11, 82 

Renaming files, 11, 48 

Replace text in files, 32 

Reset, 49 

Resident system extension, 99 

RETURN key, 6 

RMAC, 100 

Row number, 139 

RPED, 26, 29 

RS232C, 88, 94 

RSX, 99 

Running programs, 6 

RX. 94 



SAVE, 101 
Screen, 78, 87, 90 

changing size, 95 

common codes, 58 

cursor position, 140 

redirect data to file, 80 

status line, 140 

use by commercial software. 56 
Screen control, 139 
Screen editor, 26, 29 
Search text files, 32 
Seikosha SP-800, 56 
Sequence of commands, 15 
Serial interface, 88, 94 
SET, 83 
SET24X80, 95 
SETDEF, 15, 50, 84 
SETKEYS, 47, 56. 92, 108 
SETLST, 93 
SETSIO, 94 
SHIFT key, 92, 108 
Shift states, 92, 108 
SHOW, 14, 21,84, ptIII 
SID, 101 

Single sheet stationery, 44, 90, 129 
SIO, 87 

Sizes of files, 13, 36, 70, ptIII 
Software 

see Programs, 6 
Space free on a disc, 84 
Spanish character set, 89. 104, 134 
Special characters 

* ?, 8 
Square brackets, 13 
Start of day disc. 27, 54 
Starting 

CP/M, 3, 15, 27 

the printer, 4 
Stationery, 90 
Status line, 140 
STOP, 94 
Stop bits, 94 
STOP key. 52 
SUBMIT, IS, 46, 50. 85 
Subscript printing. 133 
Superscript printing, 133 



-I 
J 
-J 
-I 
-I 
'-J 

u 

-J 
-J 
-J 
-J 
-J 



-J 
-J 









Swedish character set, 104. 134 Variables in .SUB files 85 

SYM flle - 10 ° Verifying file copy, 74. 79 

Symbolic debugger, 101 Verifying discs, 73 

System discs. 1, 4 Viewport, 139 

System files, 38, 70, 71 VT52 139 

copying, 79 

System prompt, 3 Waitmg for paperi ^ m 

Wildcards, 8, 11, 12, 38 

Tab codes, 127 Window. 139 
Technical information 

character sets, 103 XOFF 88 

GSX - 6S XON. 88, 94 

keyboard, 109 XREF, 101 
printer, 119 

printer control codes, 126 Zenith Z19/Z29, 56, 139 

screen, 139 
Template for filenames, 8 
Terminal, 139 

see Screen and Keyboard, 56 
Text editor, 26, 29 
Time of day, 87 
Time stamping. 77, 83 
Top of form, 42. 43 
TPA, 1 

Trace back, 101 
Transient utilities, 1 
Turnkey operation, 55 
TX, 94 

TYPE, 14, 40. 86 
Typestyles, 123 

UK character set, 89, 104, 134 
Underlined printing, 133 
Update text file, 29 
Upper case, 7, 79 
US character set. 89, 104, 134 
USER, 86 
User number, 79 
Users. 70, 84 
Utilities, 1, 6 
accessible disc, 10 
memory disc, 10 
on many drives, 15 
search drives, 50, 84 
transfer to memory disc, 15 
transient. 1 



Dr. Logo 



- CONTENTS 



-— An introduction to LOGO 



-— Starting to use Dr. Logo 3 

"""" 2. 1 Directing the turtle 3 

^_ 2.1.1 Multiple instructions 4 

2.2 Procedures 5 
*— 2.2.1 Procedures with inputs 5 

2.3 Variables in LOGO 7 
2.3. 1 Local and Global Variables 7 

_ 2.4 Editing 8 

2.5 Saving procedures g 

A summary of Dr. Logo primitives 1 1 

3,1 Turtle graphics 11 

— 3.2 Graphics screen 12 

3.3 Text screen 12 

3.4 Variables 13 
3.5 Arithmetic operations 14 

3.6 Logical operations 14 

— 3.7 Procedures 15 

3.8 Flow of control 15 

3.9 Word and list processing 16 

3.10 Disc handling 17 

3.11 Taking data from the keyboard 17 

3.12 Controlling the printer 17 

3.13 Handling picture files 18 

Appendix I: Primitives supported on 

the PCW8256 19 

Appendix II: Dr. Logo error messages 21 



The PCW8256 keyboard for Dr. Logo 



The main keyboard 

The lower character on any key and lower case letters are produced by single keystrokes. 
The upper character and upper case letters are produced by pressing the I shift | key 
simultaneously, 



si 



HT 



If H lllf J I Iff* 



CR 



SP 



1<£ 



CR 



The keyboard with ALT 

The lower character on any key is produced by pressing it and the 1 alt 1 key simulta neous ly. 
The upper characters are produced by pressing the I shift [ key as well. The extra I shift | is 
optional in producing the CP/M control codes ( 'character). 



Ve 



Va 



% 



HT 



fc 



=> 



Q 



CR 



mi 



M 



SP 



(«•' 



OB 



The keyboard with EXTRA 

The character shown on any key is produced by pressing it and the I extra | key 

simultaneously. 



Pt 



<=^ 



HT 



« 



» 



CR 



:3 / \ 



o 



SP 



\ 







CR 



Special key combinations 

I alt | + 1 enter | acts as a Caps Lock key, setting/clearing the conversion of all lower 
characters except Greek characters to their upper case counterpart. 

| alt 1 + fHELAY] acts as a Num Lock key, setting/clearing the use of a group of special keys as a 
numeric keypad. 



| shift | + 1 extra | + r~Exif~| resets the computer. 



"" Chapter 1 



- An introduction to LOGO 



LOGO is a powerful programming language but it is particularly easy to learn. 

It was developed in the 1970s by a team of computer scientists and educators, led by Seymour 
Papert of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Their idea was to produce a 
language that would be easy to experiment with and so make it easy to pick up the concepts 
of both mathematics and computer programming. 

A key feature of LOGO is the Turtle which obeys simple instructions. This is usually a 
character on a computer screen. Papert and his team called it a Turtle to help children using 
LOGO to visualise what they were giving instructions to. 

On the PCW8256, LOGO is a specially customised version of Digital Research's Dr. Logo. The 
turtle is shown on the screen as an arrowhead. 

In addition, the actions of some of the keys are set up to assist you in using Dr. Logo. This 
means that some keys dont have the same effect as they did while you were using 
LocoScript, Mallard BASIC or other CP/M software. So always refer to the keyboard layout 
opposite when running CP/M. 

The basic instructions Dr. Logo understands are called Primitives. These have predefined 
effects. For example, fd instructs the turtle to move forwards, bk instructs it to move 
backwards, rt instructs it to turn to the right and Lt instructs it to turn to the left. 

In all, there are some two hundred primitives, not just handling movements on the screen but 
arithmetic and information processing as well. Their names make up Dr. Logo's basic 
vocabulary. 

The best way to learn what sort of things you can do with the Dr. Logo primitives is to 
experiment with them. The next chapter encourages you to do just that. 



LOGO programming language 



Chapter 2 



Starting to use Dr. Logo 

Dr. Logo can be run only after starting up CP/M from your working system disc (Side 2). It 
is important that your working system disc has had its PROFILE.ENG file renamed to 
PROFILE. SUB as described on page 15 of the CP/M section of this manual. If you have not 
yet carried out this procedure, do so as follows: 

First of all, insert your working CP/M system disc (NOT the master system disc provided) 
and start up CP/M by holding down [shift] , ^extra] and [exit - ] . 

Now type: 

REN PROFI LE . SUB = PROFI LE . ENG [retu rn | 

(If you now start up CP/M again by holding down | shift | , ["extra] and [exttJ , you will 
see the commands in the PROFILE.SUB file being executed, followed by the ususal A> 
prompt. From now on, this will always happen when you start up CP/M from your working 

system disc.) 

You may now start up Dr. Logo as follows: 

Insert your working system disc (modified as above) into the drive, and start up CP/M by 
holding down [shTftJ , [extra] and [exit] . 

Now insert your Dr. Logo disc (Side 4 of the system discs) and type: 
LOGO [return] 

A 'Welcome message will appear on your screen for a short while. The screen then clears, 
leaving just a question mark in the top left hand comer. The question mark is a prompt. 
telling you that Dr. Logo is waiting for you to type something at your keyboard. 



LOGO programming language 



2.1 Directing the turtle 

In the introduction, we mentioned four of Dr. Logo's primitives: f d, bk, rt and It . Suppose we 
start by trying out the effect of fd. 

Before you start a new set of turtle movements on the screen, it is good practice to clear the 
screen. So the first thing to type is: 

cs [return) 

Now, let's see what happens when you type in: 

fd (returnj 

Instead of seeing the turtle move forward, as you might have expected, you have got the 

message: 

Not enough inputs to fd 

What this tells you is that Dr. Logo also needs to know how far forward. A better instruction 
would be f d 60 (followed by [return |, of course). If this is typed in, you will see the turtle 
move forward 60 units from its current position, leaving a line behind it. The number 60 is said 
to be the Input to the primitive fd. 

You can make the distance the turtle moves forward any number of units you like. However, 
for technical reasons, the smallest distance it can move across the screen is two units. 



LOGO programming language 



The number of inputs that go with a primitive depends on that primitive: some need many; 
others need none at all. In fact all the four primitives we have met so far require a number as 
their input. 

You will see that the ? prompt is now nearer the bottom of the screen. Dr. Logo has given you 
most of the screen to move your turtle around in (referred to as the Graphics Screen) and a 
smaller text area towards the bottom of the screen (the Text Screen). 

Next type in: 

rt 90 | return | 

You will see the turtle turns 90 degrees to the right. Follow this with: 

fd 60 [return] 

and a second line of the same length is drawn at right angles to the first. Notice that each 
movement the turtle starts from the position it was left in by the last instruction. 

2.1.1 Multiple instructions 

Dr. Logo lets you type in a number of instructions like f d 60 before hitting the Return key. 

This means you can give the turtle a sequence of movements to make when the Return key is 
pressed. You could for example, combine the two instructions we have given the turtle so far 
into one and type: 

fd 60 rt 90 [rIturn] 

From the instructions we have already given the turtle, it is easy to see that if the sequence of 
instructions f d 60 rt 90 were repeated four times, the result would be a square with sides 
60 units long. Dr. Logo has a shorthand for this: 

repeat 4 [fd 60 rt 90] 

Clear the screen again by typing cs [return], then try this. 

Dr. Logo calls anything between square brackets a List. Cf d 60 rt 90] is therefore referred 

to as an Instruction List. 

Lists are a feature of LOGO: there are even special primitives that manipulate the contents of 
lists. But how these operate is beyond the scope of this brief introduction. If you want to know 
more about list processing, we suggest you read Amsoft publication Soft 160: 'A Guide to 
LOGO' 



LOGO programming language 



— 2.2 Procedures 

We can make the instruction to draw this square even shorter by putting the instructions we 
*~ need in a unit called a Procedure. 

The instructions won't be executed at the time the procedure is set up, but they will be 
»- whenever the name of the procedure is given as part of an instruction. 

Procedures take the form: 

to procedure-rnina: 
^ series, oi malrijctions on one or more lines 

end 

_ We can give a procedure any name provided it isn't the name of a primitive and it doesn't start 

with a number. Dr. Logo will let you know if you do accidentally choose the same name as a 

■— primitive. 

Suppose we call this particular one Square. The lines to type in to set it up would be: 

to square [return | 

— repeat A [fd 60 rt 90] [return] 
end [return} 

_ Once this Procedure Definition has been typed in, it is stored in Dr. Logo's workspace and Dr. 

Logo will recognise square as part of its vocabulary. Then each time you give the instruction 

— square, it will draw a square of side 60 units on the screen. 

In other words, Dr. Logo now treats square as the name of one of its primitives. Another way 
_ of thinking about this relationship is to say that primitives are built-in procedures. 

— The position and orientation of the square that is drawn will depend on the position and 
^ orientation of the turtle when the instruction was given. So the sequence of instructions 

square rt 45 square will result in two squares sharing a common corner, the second 
inclined at 45 degrees to the first. Clear the screen again; then try it and see. 

Any time you want to stop a procedure in mid-execution, press [stop) 

2 .2 . 1 Procedures with inputs 

The procedure called Square we set up above always draws a square of side 60 units. A more 
useful procedure would be one that draws squares of different sizes to order. 



LOGO programming language 



Such a procedure would probably need the size of the square as an input, in exactly the same 
way that the primitive f d needed the input 60 to tell Dr. Logo to move the turtle forward 60 

units. 

The procedure will also have to include something in its definition that shows Dr. Logo what to 
do with the input you give it. This is called a Local Variable. 

The procedure now has the form: 

t o /: ) f o c cdure r mm v : v; > n utile i i aivr 

scnes ol instructions 

end 

So the procedure to draw a square of a specified size could be: 

to squareanysi ze :side 
repeat 4 [fd :side rt 90] 

end 

The Local Variable we have used here is side 

With this procedure entered into the system, we could type in: 

squareanysi ze 150 

and a square of size 150 units would appear on the screen. 

As we described above, the number 150 is the input to the procedure squareanysi ze. There 
are two further facts to be remembered about inputs to procedures. Firstly, they do not have 
to be simple numbers: they can equally well be arithmetic expressions; the value of some 
other variable; or the name of a procedure. 

For example, you might have set up a variable called sq Length. You would tell the procedure 
squareanysi ze to take the value of this variable as its input by typing in: 

squareanysize :sqlength 

Notice the colon preceding sq Length. 

Secondly, procedures are by no means limited to one input. You may put as rr.ar.y lcc a . 
variables into the first line of the procedure definition as you want, provided each cr.e :~ 
preceded by a single space and a colon. You just have to remember to include as rr.ar.y ::.:: ..*.■■ 
(again separated by single spaces) in the instruction to execute the procedure as the:-. »:■■ 
local variables in the first line of the procedure definition. 



LOGO programming language 



- 2.3 Variables in LOGO 



The colon preceding wj.'V/Nh runnr in the above example is crucial. Without it, Dr. Logo will 
try to interpret the name you give as a procedure something to do and return the result of. 
The presence of the colon tells Dr. Logo that what is needed here is the value of the variable. 

Each time Dr. Logo encounters :v l ni<it)!c:-nun>i; in the first line of the procedure it is 
executing, it knows that the required value will be the next input in the instruction to run the 
procedure. If you use : vundiw>-iinm{: anywhere else, Dr. Logo will expect to find the value 
already set in its workspace. 

There will also be occasions when you need to tell Dr. Logo the name of the object to be 
processed by either a primitive or a procedure. 

An example of this is the primitive make which takes two inputs. The first input is the name of a 
variable, while the second is the value this variable is to have. This value can be a number, an 
arithmetic expression or the value of another variable, indicated by ::,','■')<-'.' ■Jandhio. 

The way to quote a name to Dr. Logo is to precede that name with a quote mark. Thus the 
instruction to make the variable side have the value 60 units is: 

make "side 60 

Both colons and quote marks are special characters as far as Dr. Logo is concerned and 
therefore cannot be used as part of a variable or procedure name. 



2.3.1 Local and Global Variables 

When we put :side on the first line of our procedure definition, we said side was a Local 
Variable but we didn't explain what this meant. 

A Local Variable is one whose value is only made available to the procedure itself and to any 
procedures it calls. Once the procedure is completed, Dr. Logo cannot tell you anything about 
the value of that variable. 

Dr. Logo also understands the idea of Global Variables, the values of which, once set for 
example by a make instruction, are maintained until changed by the program. Such variables 
can certainly be used in procedures and can be inputs to procedures, but they are not 
specified in the first line of the procedure definition. 



LOGO programming language 



^ 



For example, if side were a global variable, our procedure to draw a square of a specified 

size could be: 

to squareanysize 

repeat 4 Cfd :side rt 90] 

end 

Notice that this procedure does not require an input. 

The sequence of instructions to draw a square of side 60 units would then be: 

make "side 60 

squareanysize 

The current value of a global variable is not lost once the procedure has finished. Some time 
after issuing the above instructions, you could find out the value of side by typing in :side 
after the ? prompt. The value 60 will appear on the screen (provided you haven't changed this 
value in the meantime). 



2.4 Editing 



Procedures can, of course, be edited to correct typing mistakes or to make more basic 
changes. 

If you want to edit a procedure that is already in Dr. Logo's workspace, start by typing 
ed "procedure nn'rw. This loads the procedure with this name into the screen editor's 
buffer, clearing everything else out. Any text or graphics you had on the screen will be lost. 

If the procedure you want to edit has just failed when you tried to execute it (and you haven't 
typed anything else yet), just type ed 

Use the cursor keys to position the cursor where you want to make a change. Any characters 
you then type in will be inserted into the procedure definition at the cursor position, while 
pressing the [del*] and [ +del j keys will delete the character under the cursor and the one tc 
the left of the cursor, respectively. 

The Return key should be pressed at the end of each new line of the procedure, exactly as ::' 
you were preparing the procedure from scratch. 



LOGO programming language 



Other keys you may find useful while editing are: 

{ line 1 ( [shift] t [eol ] ) takes the cursor to the beginning of the line 

[ eol J takes the cursor to the end of the line 

[page] takes the cursor to the bottom of the present page 

I_alt J ' Ipage I takes the cursor to the top of the present page 

[ doc ]( [shift | \ [page] ) takes the cursor to the bottom of the procedure or set of 

procedures you are editing 
[ alt | ' J ooc ] takes the cursor to the top of the procedure or set of procedures 

you are editing 
|_ alt ] ■> [ del* I erases to the end of the line, starting at the cursor 

[copy] or (paste ] repeats the last line you typed in at the current cursor position 

Pressing the f exit | key signals to the computer that you have finished editing the old 
procedure and want to store the new version. Pressing the [stop] key abandons the edit, 
leaving the procedure in its old form. 

After you have finished editing, Dr. Logo returns you to a full text screen. If you want a full 

graphics screen, type f s. If you want both text and graphics areas on the screen, type ss 



2.5 Saving procedures 

If you don't save your procedures on disc, they will be lost the moment you switch off. 

Dr. Logo uses the instruction save "tnc-namc to save procedures. This puts the entire 
contents of its workspace onto the disc. 

You have a wide choice in selecting the filename: the only restrictions are that it is not the 
name of any other file on the disc and that it is no more than eight characters long. However, it 
is good practice to choose something that reminds you of what the procedures do, 

Dr. Logo won't allow you to overwrite an old set of procedures with the save instruction: it will 
point out that you already have a file with that filename. The way to replace an old file with an 
updated one of the same name is to erase the old file before saving the new one. The lines to 
type in to do this is: 

erasef i Le " filename | return] 
save " /'/ 1( 'name | ret ur n | 

The instruction to restore the procedures to your workspace is: 

Load ".'//e/.w^e 



LOGO programming language 



"J 

V 

Postscript v ^ 

This introduction has only covered just a few of the things Dr. Logo can do. The next chapter ^^ 

tells you about many of the other primitives that Dr. Logo recognises. v 

Experiment with these both on their own and in some short procedures. With a bit of practice, x 

you should be able to get Dr. Logo to do some quite complex operations. ^— * 

When you have finished with Dr. Logo, type bye * 



-J 



10 LOGO programming language 



""" Chapter 3 

— A summary of Dr. Logo 

— primitives 



The idea of this chapter is to provide reference material to support your use of the Dr. 

Logo programming language. 

It is aimed at the relative newcomer to the LOGO language. Appendix I gives the full list of the 

primitives supported on the PCW8256. 

The following lists of commands are designed to help you find a suitable primitive for what 
you want to do and then use it either directly or in a procedure. Examples are given where 
possible. 

These lists are by no means exhaustive. If you are interested in getting Dr. Logo to carry out 
more complex instructions, you should refer to Soft 160: 'A Guide to LOGO'. 



— 3.1 Turtle graphics 



bk n moves the turtle n steps back in the opposite direction to that in which it is 

pointing. For example, bk 60 moves the turtle back 60 steps. 
f d n moves the turtle n steps forward in the direction it is pointing. For example, 

f d 60 moves the turtle forward 60 steps, 
home returns the turtle to its home position. 

ht hides the turtle, making it invisible. This both speeds and clarifies drawing. 

Lt n rotates the turtle n degrees anticlockwise (to the left). For example, It 60 

turns the turtle left through 60". 
pd puts the turtle's pen down so that it resumes drawing, 

pe makes the turtle's pen an eraser, erasing any lines it passes over. 

pu picks the turtle's pen up so that it stops drawing. 

rt n rotates the turtle n degrees clockwise (to the right). For example, rt 60 

turns the turtle right through 60". 
seth n turns the turtle round so that it is set to an absolute heading based on zero 

vertically up. (n is quoted in degrees.) For example, seth 90 turns the turtle 

so that it points to the right. 
setpos [/; .'."] moves the turtle to a set position specified by '; and m. For example, 

setpos [30 50] moves the turtle to the position with x-coordinate 30 and 

y-coordinate 50. 



LOGO programming language 1 1 



setx n moves the turtle horizontally until it has a set x-coordinate specified by n. 

For example, setx 30 moves the turtle across the screen until the 

x-coordinate of its position is 30. 
S ety n moves the turtle vertically until it has a set y-coordinate specified by n. For 

example, sety 50 moves the turtle up or down the screen until the 

y-coordinate of its position is 50. 
s t shows the turtle (if hidden before). 

t -f gets the computer to specify the current state of the turtle in terms of its 

position, heading and visibility the Turtle Facts. 
towards In nil turns the turtle round so that it points towards the position on the screen 

specified by n and .'.<>. For example, towards £30 50] turns the turtle round 

so that it points towards the spot with x-coordinate 30 and y-coordinate 50. 



3.2 Graphics screen 

c Lean cleans the graphics screen without affecting the turtle. 

cs cleans the graphics screen and puts the turtle back to its original position. 

dot Cfi nil puts a dot at the position specified by ■■) and /■'.■ For example, dot [30 50] 

puts a dot on the screen at the spot with x-coordinate 30 and y-coordinate 

50. 
fence fences the turtle in. limiting it to the visible part of the graphics screen. 

f s makes over the full screen to graphics. 

setscrunch n sets the graphics screen's aspect ratio to n. n can take any value between 

0.1 and 10. The preset value is 0.468. 
setsptit n sets the number of text lines in a split screen to />. For example, 

setspLi t 10 sets the number of text lines on the screen to 10. 
sf gets the computer to specify the current state of the screen - the Screen 

Facts. 

ss puts up the standard split screen part graphics, part text. 

window allows the turtle the biggest possible window in which to move. This 

primitive therefore allows the turtle to venture outside the visible screen 

area after a wrap or fence instruction. 

wraps the screen round so that the turtle reappears on the opposite side of 

the graphics screen when it attempts to cross a boundary. 



wrap 



3-3 Text screen 



ct clears all the text in the window that currently contains the cursor, leavir 

the cursor in its top left-hand corner. 
cursor displays the cursor's position within the text screen in terms of a cor- 

number and a line number. 



12 LOGO programming language 



pr La b ] prints a b... on the text screen, without brackets and following the last 

element of the list with a carriage return. For example, pr Ca b c] causes 

Dr. Logo to display a b c on the screen. 
setcursor Ln ml sets the position of the cursor in the text screen to column n and line m. 

For example, setcursor C35 14D moves the cursor to column 35 of line 14. 
set split /? sets the number of text lines in a split screen to n. For example. 

setspLi t 10 sets the number of text lines on the screen to 10. 
show La h J shows a /">... on the text screen, with brackets and putting a carriage return 

after the final bracket. For example, show Ca b cj causes Dr. Logo to 

display Ca b cH on the screen, 
ss puts up the standard split screen - part graphics, part text. 

ts selects a full text screen {no graphics area). 

type La b..J types a b... on the text screen, without brackets and with no carriage return 

after the last element in the list. For example, type Ca b c] causes Dr. 

Logo to output a b c 



3.4 Variables 



era l L erases all procedures and variables from the workspace. 

em Ca b. ] erases the named variables. For example, ern Cside sizeD erases the 

variables side and si ze 
( Local "a "0 ..) makes the named variables local to (ie only accessible from) the current 

procedure or the procedures it calls. For example, ( local "side "size) 

makes the variables side and si ze local to the current procedure, 
make "variable it makes the current value of vanabk) be a. For example, make "side 50 

makes the current value of side 50. 
nodes outputs the number of free locations in the workspace (nodes). 

po "a prints out the value of the specified variable. For example, if side has the 

value 50, po "side would have the output 50 
poa 1 1 prints out the definitions of all the procedures and variables in the 

workspace. 
pons prints out the names and values of all the global variables in the 

workspace. 
recycle reorganises the workspace, clearing out any garbage. 

thing "it outputs the value of the thing a. For example, if side had the value 50, 

thing "side would have the output 50 



LOGO programming language 1 3 



3.5 Arithmetic operations 

arc tan n outputs in degrees the angle whose tangent is n. For example, a re tan 1 

would have the output 45 
cos n outputs the cosine of the angle n degrees. For example, cos 60 would have 

the output . 5 
i nt n outputs the integer portion of the number n. For example, i nt 1 . 33 would 

have the output 1 
quotient n m outputs the result of the integer division of n by m. For example, 

quotient 14 4 would have the output 3 
random n outputs a random positive integer less than n (or zero), 

rema i nde r n m outputs the remainder when n is divided by m. For example, remai nder 7 3 

would have the output 1 
round n rounds off n to the nearest integer. For example, round 3.33 would have 

the output 3, but round 3.5 would have the output 4 
sin n outputs the sine of the angle n degrees. For example, sin 30 would have 

the output 0.5 
+ a b or a+b outputs the sum of a and b. For example, both + 2 2 and 2+2 would have 

the output 4 
- aboia-b outputs the result of subtracting b from a. For example, both - 10 5 and 

10-5 would have the output 5 
* a b or a*b outputs the result of multiplying a by b. For example, both * 4 6 and 4*6 

would have the output 24 
/ a fo or a/ b outputs the result of dividing a by b. For example, both / 26 5 and 26/5 

would have the output 5.2 



3.6 Logical operations 



and a b outputs TRUE if statements a and b are both true: otherwise FALSE. For 

example, and (3<4) (7>4) would have the output TRUE 
no t a outputs TRUE if statement a is not true and FALSE if it is true. For example, 

not (3=4) would have the output TRUE 
or a b . outputs TRUE if one or other of the statements is true and FALSE if none of 

these are true. For example, or (3=4) (2=2) would have the output TRUE, 

but or (3=4) (2=1) would have the output FALSE 
-abota-b outputs TRUE if a and b are equal: otherwise FALSE. For example, 

= "yes "yes would have the output TRUE but 1=2 would have the output 

FALSE 
> a b or a>b outputs TRUE if a is greater than b: otherwise FALSE. For example, > 19 2* 

would have the output FALSE but 20>19 would have the output TRUE 
< a b or a<b outputs TRUE if a is less than b: otherwise FALSE. For example, < 19 28 

would have the output TRUE but 20<19 would have the output FALSE 



14 



LOGO programming language 



— 3.7 Procedures 



j 



.contents displays all the names and symbols Dr. Logo currently recognises. 

ed "procedure-name prepares to edit the specified procedure. 

eda 1 1 prepares to edit all procedures in the workspace. 

end marks the end of a procedure definition (stands on its own on the last line). 

er "procedure-name erases the specified procedure. For example, er "square would 

erase the procedure called square 
eratt erases all procedures and variables from the workspace. 

po "procedure-name prints out the definition of the specified procedure. For example, 

po "square would display the definition of the procedure called square 
poall prints out the definitions of all the procedures and variables in the 

workspace. 
pops prints out the names and definitions of all the procedures in the workspace. 

pots prints out the titles and inputs of all the current procedures. 

text "procedure-name displays the text of the specified procedure definition 
to indicates the beginning of a procedure definition. 



_ 3.8 Flow off control 



• bye exits from the current session of Dr. Logo. 

„ catch "name a catches the errors and special conditions specified by a that occur during 

y execution of the instruction list and have been identified by a throw 

instruction with the same name. 
co continues after a program enforced pause, 

error outputs a list whose elements describe the most recent error, 

go "word goes to the position in the current procedure labelled word and executes 

the following line. 
if a instruction-listl executes instruction-listl if statement a is true: otherwise it goes on to 

the next instruction. For example, i f a>b Cpr Ca is bigger 11 will output 

a is bigger if a is bigger than b 
Label "word labels the line to be executed after a go "word instruction. 
op a makes a the output of the procedure and exits from the procedure at that 

point, 
pause makes the execution of the current procedure pause (restored by co). 

repeat n [instruction-listl repeats the instruction list n times. For example, repeat 4 Cfd 

30 rt 90] makes the turtle move 30 steps forward and then turn right a 

total of four times. 
run C instruction-listl executes the instruction list. 
stop stops the execution of the current procedure. 

throw "name works with a catch instruction of the same name to identify a special 

condition. It then throws the procedure back to the line following the catch 

command. 



LOGO programming language 15 



3.9 Word and list processing 

asci i " word or asc i i Lab.. J outputs the ASCII value of the first letter of word or the first 

character in the list. For example, asci i "go would have the output 103 
bf "word or bf Ca b. .3 outputs all but the first letter of word or the first element of the list. 

For example, bf "smi Les would have the output mi Les; bf C1 2 3] would 

have the output C2 33 
bl "word or bl la b...l outputs all but the last letter of word or the last element of the list. 

For example, bt "smi Les would have the output smi Le; bl C1 2 33 would 

have the output [12] 
char n outputs the character whose ASCII value is n. For example, char 83 would 

have the output s 
count "word or count Ca b.l counts the number of letters in word or the number of 

elements in the list. For example, count "smi les would have the output 6; 

count [12 3] would have the output 3 
f i rst "word or f i rst C a b. . .3 outputs the first letter of word or the first element of the list. 

For example, first "smi Les would have the output s; first C1 2 33 

would have the output 1 
f put "a "word outputs a new word made by putting a first, attached to the front of word. 

For example, f put "s "mi Les would have the output smi Les 
f put a lb C...3 outputs a new list made by putting a as the first element. For example, 

fput 1 C2 3 43 would have the output C1 2 3 43 
i tern n "word or i tern n La b...l outputs the nth item (letter) of word or the nth item of the list. 

For example, item 2 "smi tes would have the output m; item 2 CI 2 33 

would have the output 2 
last "word or last Cab...] outputs the last letter of word or the last element of the list. For 

example, last "smi les would have the output s; last C1 2 33 would 

have the output 3 
lc "word outputs the given word with any upper case characters converted to lower 

case. For example, lc "SunShine would have the output sunshine 
( I i st a b. . .) outputs the list Ca fa. . .3 . For example, ( Li st 1 2 3) would have the output 

C1 2 33 
Iput "wordl "word2 puts the first word last, thus making the new word word2word1. For 

example, Iput "cup "egg would have the output eggcup 
Iput "z Ca fa...] puts the first list last, thus making the new list Ca fa... z3. For example, 

Iput 4 C1 2 3] would have the output C1 2 3 43 
se "wordl "word2... outputs a list with the elements wordl, word2..., making a sentence out 

of them. For example, se "pork "beef "lamb would have the output 

Cpork beef lamb] 
se Ca? b1...l La2 b2...1 outputs Ca? bl... a2 b2...1. For example, se Cred orange 

ye I Low] Cgreen blue] would have the output [red orange yellow green 

blue] 



1$ LOGO programming language 



■JtMSiMH 1 1 r i i J_ 



■* 
** 



shuf f le La b.J outputs a list that contains the elements of the input list but shuffled. For 

example, shuffle C1 2 3 43 could have the output [2 4 3 1] 
uc "word outputs the given word entirely in upper case (capital) letters. For example, 

uc "Sunshine would have the output SUNSHINE 
word "wordl "word2 outputs the new word word1word2. For example, word "sun "shine 

would have the output sunshine 



-J $.10 Disc handling 



>fiO.! 



changef "new-filename "old-filename changes the name of a file on the current disc. For 

example, changef "box "square would change the name of the procedure 

currently known as square to box 
di r [filename] outputs a directory (list) of the Dr. Logo filenames on a drive. The primitive 

accepts the question mark form of wildcard. For example, di r would output 

all the files on the default drive; di r "a: would output all the files on Drive 

A; dir "p??????? would output the names of all files with filenames 

beginning with p on the default drive, 
erasef l Le "filename erases the file with the specified filename from the directory of the 

current disc. For example, erasef i le "myproc would erase the file myp roc 
load "filename loads (ie reads in) the named file. For example, load "myproc would read in 

the file called myproc 
save "filename saves the current contents of the workspace by writing it to disc and stores it 
* under the name filename. For example, save "myproc would store the 

^_ current contents of the workspace as a file called myproc 

— 3.11 Taking data from the keyboard 

rc reads the first character typed at the keyboard. 

"^ rl reads m a list made up of the line of characters typed in at the keyboard 

and terminated by the Return key. 

rq reads in a word or set of words (a quote) typed in at the keyboard and 

•«• terminated by the Return key. 

— 3.12 Controlling the printer 

copyon starts echoing screen text on the printer. 

— T copyof f stops echoing screen text on the printer. 



LOGO programming language j j 



3.13 Handling picture files 

dirpic L filename} outputs a directory (list) of the picture files on a drive. The primitive 
accepts the question mark form of wildcard. For example, dirpic "a: 
would output all the picture files on Drive A; di rpi c *'p??????? would 
output the names of all the picture files on the default drive whose filenames 
begin with p. 

loadpic filename re-creates a design by loading the named picture file into memory and 
displaying it on the graphics screen. For example, Loadpic "my pi c would 
display the design stored in the file mypi c . 

savepic filename saves the contents of the graphics screen as a picture file. For example, 
savepi c "mypi c would save the current graphics screen as the file mypi c. 



.•tare-. "»*■ ^ioAitffiNpiibif 



18 LOGO programming language 



Appendix I 



supported on the PCW8256 



^ 


and 


erasefile 


make 


repeat 


uc 


y 


arctan 


erasepic 


memberp 


rerandom 




^ 


ascii 


em 




rl 


watch 


V 




error 


namep 


round 


where 


y 


bf 


.examine 


nodes 


rq 


window 


h, 


bk 




noformat 


rt 


word 


j 


bl 


fd 


not 


run 


wordp 


^ 


bye 


fence 


notrace 




wrap 


v 




fill 


nowatch 


save 






catch 


first 


numberp 


savepic 




^^ 


change! 


fput 




se 




y 


char 


fs 


op 


setcursor 




». 


clean 




or 


setd 




> 


CO 


glist 


.out 


seth 




y 


.contents 


go 




setpc 






copyoff 


... gprop 


pause 


setpen 




y 


copyon 




Pd 


setpos 






cos 


home 


P© r«s. 


setscrurtch 




y 


count 


ht 


piece 


setsplit 




y 


cs 




plist 


setx 






ct 


int 


po 


sety 




> 


cursor 


item 


poall 


sf 








if 


pons 


show 




y 


defaultd 


.in 


pops 


shuffle 




* 


define 




pots 


sin 






.deposit 


keyp 


pprop 


ss 




• 


dir 




pps 


st . ■**" 






dirpic 


label 


pr 


stop 






dot 


last 


pu 






* 


dote 


1c 
list 


px 


text 
tf 






ed 


listp 


quotient 


thing 






edall 


load 




throw 






edf 


loadpic 


random 


to 




- 


emptyp 


local 


re 


towards 






end 


lput 


recycle 


trace 






er 


It 


remainder 


ts 




* 


erall 




remprop 


type 





LOGO programming language 



19 



_ Appendix II 

Dr. Logo error messages 



^_ General 



Message 

I don't know how to name 
Primitive not impiemented 
Can't action from the editor 
I can't action while loading 
Can't divide by zero 
Turtle out of bounds 
Out of space 

Too few items in lis! 



Suggested action 

Check spelling of name 

Try another way of getting desired result 

Wait until you get back into text mode 

Wait 

Check the sum you want to do 

Check your instruction 

Issue a re eye Le instruction to tidy up the 

workspace 

Check either your instruction or your list 



Procedures 

Message 

mime is a primitive 

Not enough inputs to procedure nat 

variable has no value 

variable is not true or false 

The word is too long 



Number too big 

variable is not a parameter 

I don't know what to do with name 

Can't find label name 

Can't find catch for name 

)without( 

if wants [ ]'s around instruction list 

procedure-name doesn't like name as input 
procedure name didn't output 



Suggested action 

Choose another name 

Check the format of your instruction 

Modify your program so that this is set 

Modify your program so that this is set 

You have been too ambitious in adding 

together strings of characters: modify your 

program 

Modify what you have asked Dr. Logo to do 

Check the definition of the procedure 

Check your program 

Check your program 

Check your program 

Check your program for unmatched 

parentheses 

Check your program for unmatched 

brackets 

Check the definition of the procedure 

Check the definition of the procedure 



LOGO programming language 



21 



Discs 

Message 

I'm having trouble with the disk 

Disk is full 

File already exists 

File not found 

Disk is write protected 

The file is write protected 

I can't find that drive 

I can't find the disk drive 

You need at least 2 drives to do this 

Source and Destination diskettes differ 



v 
v 



Suggested action 

Try again 

See if you can erase some files 

Either erase the existing file or choose a 

different name 

Check the directory 

Write enable or use another disc 

Allow read-write access to the file 

Check your instruction 

Check your instruction 

Choose a different operation 

Check your instruction 



22 



LOGO programming language 



Index 



Arithmetic, 1 
primitives, 14 

Bye, 10 

Changing procedures, 8 

Disc handling 
primitives, 17 

Editing, 8 

finish, 9 

keys, 9 
Errors, 21 
Exit, 10 
Experiment, 1 

Filenames, 9 
Finish editing, 9 
Flow of control 
primitives, 15 

Global variables, 7 
Graphics screen, 4, 9 
primitives, 12 

Inputs 

number of, 4 
to primitive, 3 
to procedures, 5 
Instructions 
list, 4 
multiple, 4 

Keyboard 
for editing, 9 
primitives, 17 

Leaving Dr. Logo, 10 
List, 4 

List processing 
primitives, 16 



Local variables, 6, 7 
Logical operations 
primitives, 14 

Primitives, 1 
arithmetic, 14 
disc handling, 17 
flow of control, 15 
full list, 19 
graphics screen, 12 
keyboard, 17 
list processing, 16 
logical operations, 14 
printer, 18 
summary, 11 
text screen, 12 
turtle graphics, 1 1 
variables, 13 
word processing, 16 
Printer 

primitives, 18 
Procedures, 5 
changing, 8 
editing, 8 
name, 5 

number of inputs, 6 
primitives, 15 
saving, 9 
Prompt, 4 

Screen, 1 

graphics, 4, 9 

primitives, 12 

text, 4, 9 
Split screen, 9 
Starting Dr. Logo, 1 
Stop, 10 
Subroutines 

see Procedures, 5 
System discs, 3 

Text screen, 4, 9 

primitives, 12 



Troubleshooting, 21 
Turtle, 1 

graphics primitives, 1 1 

moving, 3 

rotating, 4 

Variables 

duration of value, 8 
global, 7 

local, 6, 7 
primitives, 13 

value of, 7 

Welcome, 3 
Word processing 
primitives, 16 
Workspace, 5 



L_ Two-Drive Operation 

L- 
U 






U 



U 



U 
U 



U 
U 

u 

u 



Using the PCW8512 (or PCW8256 
with second FD-2 drive fitted) 



Introduction 

If you are operating a 2-drive system, the on-line disc storage capacity of the PCW is 
increased by 1 Megabyte (720K formatted). The top disc drive in the monitor is known as 
Drive A and the bottom drive is known as Drive B, 




Drive A 



Drive B 



L - 

L- 
L- 
L 
I 



Two - Drive Operation 



Discs and drives 

NOTE: Drive B writes data onto discs in what's known as 'double density' format. Note that from 
here on in the manual, we shall refer to discs which are to be written-to in Drive B as 'CF-2DD's. 
(Standard discs will be referred to as 'CF-2's.) 

The way that Drive B stores information on a disc is different from that of Drive A. On Drive 
B, not only is there double the number of tracks on each side of the disc, but in addition, 
Drive B is able to access both sides of the disc without turning it over. 

Note therefore, that a disc to be used in Drive B may only be inserted the following way 

round: 



TYPE OF DISC 


INSERTION INTO DRIVE B 


CF-2 (originally 
created in DRIVE A) 


The side that you wish to read must created in 
Drive A) be nearest the screen. 


CF-2DD (originally 
created in DRIVE B) 


Side 1 must ALWAYS be nearest the screen, 
created in Drive B) 



IMPORTANT - A CF-2DD disc created in Drive B can NOT be used in Drive A 

Although discs are not freely interchangeable between Drive A and Drive B, you may use 
Drive B to carry out operations which read (but NOT write) to a standard CF-2 disc 
originally created in Drive A. 



OPERATION 


DRIVE TO BE USED 


DISC TO BE USED 


DRIVE A 


DRIVE B 


Operations which 
ONLY read from a 
disc 


POSSIBLE 


POSSIBLE 


CF-2 disc originally 
created in Drive A 


NOT 
POSSIBLE 


POSSIBLE 


CF-2DD disc originally 
created in Drive B 


Operations which 
write (or read AND 
write) to disc 


POSSIBLE 


NOT 
POSSIBLE 


CF-2 disc originally 
created in Drive A 


NOT 
POSSIBLE 


POSSIBLE 


CF-2DD disc originally 
created in Drive B 



Two - Drive Operation 



If you try to read or write a disc in an unsuitable drive, you will receive an error message 
such as 'Disc unsuitable' or some other less-friendly CP/M error message such as 
'Disc I/0'or'Fi Le non-recoverable'. 



_ 2 -drive system 

^^ In addition to the obvious extra capacity afforded to text files during word processing, 

CP/M data-processing programs will also benefit from a 2-drive system, enabling the PCW 
^^ to handle much larger (up to an additional 720K) data files. The CP/M software packages 

m themselves should contain installation and operating instructions for a 2-drive system. 

Certain suites of programs are so extensive that they won't, in their entirety, fit onto one or 
even two 180K sides of a standard CF-2 disc. Such suites can happily be installed onto one 
— CF-2DD obviating the need to constantly insert and remove discs to access the required 

program. 

Similarly, you may care to note that the CP/M utility programs package supplied on three 
i—~ separate disc-sides with your standard PCW may all be installed onto one CF-2DD. From 

then on, you can start up CP/M with your CF-2 in Drive A as before, and then call up any 
"" CP/M utility off the CF-2DD in Drive B. 

~ Formatting discs for Drive B 

CF-2DD discs for Drive B are formatted using the DISCKIT program on Side 2 of the system 
"— ~ disc. After starting up CP/M, load DISCKIT. After removing the disc from the drive and 

^__ pressing any key, you will see: 



Exit iron the program 





f G 

i 5 








f 4 
f 3 








mi 




f 2 

r i 



Copy 



Fornat 



Uerify 



Two - Drive Operation 



Select the Format option by pressing | _a_ 



£xit to the win nenu 





M 

f 3 








EXIT 




f2 

f 1 



Format a CF2 disc in Aj 



Forwit a CF2DD disc in B: 



Now insert the CF-2DD disc into Drive B and press I ft I From then on, simply follow the 
instructions on the screen, and the entire disc will be formatted (tracks to 159). 

If you have not write-enabled the disc to be formatted (by closing the write-protect hole) 

you will receive the appropriate error message. 

Using Drive B with CP/M 

Like Drive A and Drive M you may set the default drive to B by simply typing: 

B: 

(The current default drive is indicated by the A > B> or M> prompt.) 

Alternatively, you may read or write to Drive B without altering the default setting. This is 
achieved by simply adding the prefix B : to the program or filename. 

For example, to load a program from Drive B (while the default setting is A) you may type 
B:HELP 



Drive B directory 

An CF-2DD disc in Drive B may contain up to 256 directory entries (as opposed 
entries per side on Drive A and Drive M). To examine Drive B directory, simply 
D I R B : (or just D I R if Drive B is the default drive). 



Two - Drive Operation 



Disc files 



Drive B provides an additional 720K of readily-accessible disc storage space. Files can be 
freely transferred between Drive A, Drive B and Drive M. 

Examples (using PIP): 



PIP A:=B: FILENAME 



PI P B: =M : *. * 



PIP B:NEWNAME = A:OLDNAME 



PIP B: FI LENAME = CON: 



....copies a file from B to A 
(giving it the same filename) 

...copies all files from M to B 

(? and * wildcards may be used) 

....copies a file from A to B 
(renaming it in the process) 

....takes input from the keyboard 
console and writes it to a file on B 



File sizes 



Drive A and Drive M partition the disc into blocks of IK (minimum) per directory entry. To 

examine the file sizes, type: 

DIR CSIZE] 

Notice how the D I R [ S I Z E ] command not only sorts and displays the directory but 
also gives you information on the amount of bytes, blocks, records (which are 128 byte 
portions of blocks), files, and directory entries used. 

On Drive B the disc is partitioned into blocks of 2K (minimum) per directory entry To 
illustrate this point, copy a small (IK) file from Side 2 of the system disc in Drive A onto 
Drive B and then compare the sizes of the two 'identical' files: 



DIR A:KEYS.WP [SIZE] 



..then: 



PIP B:=A:KEYS.WP 



Two - Drive Operation 



....then: 

DIR B:KEYS.WP [SIZE] 

Files longer than 16K 

Note that one directory entry is allocated to every 16K of a file (although only a single entry 

will appear in the displayed directory). 

SHOW 

The SHOW command will enable you to compare some of the attributes of Drive A with 
Drive B. 

To discover the amount of RW (Read/Write) space on a disc, type: 

SHOW ....or.... SHOW B: 

To discover the number of free directory entries, type: 

SHOW [DIR] ....or.... SHOW B:C0IR3 

To examine the drive characteristics, type: 

SHOW CDRIVE: ....or.... SHOW B:CDRIVE] 



Two - Drive Operation 



Copying using DISC KIT 

In addition to formatting (described previously) DECKTT « k 

cop.es of discs. After starting up CPM and baifmscL ", T* '° "^ eXaCt 

pressing CXJ -You will then receive the foUoX op hons ' "^ ** C ° Py ° Ptl ° n b * 



Exit to the mm »enu 





f 4 

i 3 








EXIT 




f 2 
f 1 



Sead fr« a CF2 disc in A: 



Read fr«t a disc in B: 



Select which drive to read from (by pressina r7~i r , 

youwillreceivethefollowingoptions Pressm ^^Jor[^J). if you have pressedQ: - |i 




Exit to the iwm nenu 



EXIT 



Write on a CF2 disc in ft: 



{ J[ j Write on a CF2DD disc in B: 



By using a combination of these 
IZO then f jrj 



options, you may: 



co Py oneCF-2toanotherCF-2(byperiodicaJly 
swapping between discs) in Drive A. 

swapping between discs) in Drive B. 

Z! ° n \ CF " 2 m DnVe B t0 Mother CF - 2 » Drive A 
(without the need to periodically swap between discs). 



Two - Drive Operation 



You may NOT copy an CF-2DD disc to an CF-2 disc under any circumstances. Attempting 
to do so will result in an error message- 
When copying an CF-2 using two drives, make sure that the disc to read is in Drive B and 
the disc to write is in Drive A. 

If you have not wnte-enabled the disc to be copied onto (by closing the wnte-protect hole) 
you will receive the appropriate error message. 

Verifying 

DISCKIT may be used to verify a disc (CF-2) in Drive A or a disc (CF-2 or CF-2DD) in 
Drive B. After starting up CP/M and loading DISCKIT, select the Ven f y option by 
pressing UlZ\ , then foDow the instructions on the screen. 

Using Drive B with LocoScript 

When operating LocoScript, Drive B may be considered as a non-volatile storage medium 
for up to an additional 706K of files. 

NOTE - the maximum size of a document that may be edited in LocoScript is determined 
by the amount of free space in Drive M. The presence of Drive B does NOT increase that 
figure. 

Start up LocoScript in Drive A (with no disc inserted in Drive B). Within the Disc 
management screen, you will see: 



^Dr-ive B: . ewty I 

I W used n free files 



This means that LocoScript has detected that Drive B is fitted to the system but no disc :s 
inserted in the drive. Now insert a formatted blank CF-2DD disc into Drive B and press 
Qd(Note that you must always press \_fi J after you've removed or inserted a disc ■ 



Two - Drive Operation 



You will now see: 



Drive Bi 
9k used 706k free 


& f 


1 
les 


group 

group 1 
group 2 
group 3 


Ok 
Ok 
Qk 
0k 


group 
group 
group 
group 


4 
S 
6 

7 


Ok 
0k 

0k 

ek 



Although no files yet exist on Drive B, the amount of free disc space will be displayed 
together with groups to 7. (As with Drives A and M you may Rename the groups using 
the T'ls \ function.) 



— Creating a file on Drive B 



Let us, for example, create a new document in g r o u p on Drive B, 



Hold down 1 shift | and press the Right Cursor key twice. The top cursor will be 
positioned over group in the box headed Drive B : . Now press the C key (for 

Create) and you wiD receive the following menu: 



Create document 



-roup; 
frive: 



group 



This menu tells you the group and drive on which the file will be created as well as 
giving the file an arbitrary name - DOCUMENT. 000. Let's choose a different name. (As 
this is a text file for Drive B) type in: 

B . T X T ....and press { ente r | 

You will now be able to create the document with your chosen filename (which will be 
displayed at the top of the screen). Type the following into the file: 

This is a test file on Drive B group 0.... 
Now press | exit | to finish editing. You will receive the following menu: 



Two - Drive Operation 



IjExit options: 



w-ave and Continue 
Save and Print 
Abandon edit 



Confirm that you wish to F i n i s h ed i t i ng by pressing [enter] 

After the file is stored, the top and bottom cursors will remain in the selected drive, group, 
and file locations, and you may thereafter perform any LocoScript function on the newly 
created file. 



Copying a file 

We will now copy the file T E M P L A T E . S T D from Drive M to Drive B. 

Press the Right Cursor key until the bottom cursor is positioned over the filename 
TEMPLATE. STD in the box headed M:LETTERS. 

Start the Copy operation by pressing \~JE3 • (The name of the file to copy will be 
confirmed at the top left hand corner of the screen.) 

You must now move the cursor to where you require the file to be copied. Hold down 
|^n and press the Left Cursor key until the top cursor is positioned over group 0m 
the box headed Drive B : . Now press [emtehI and you will receive a m enu di splaying 
all the copying details you have just selected. Confirm this by pressing [enter] again. 
and the copy will go ahead. If you wish to abort the copying operation at any time, press 

After the file is copied, the top and bottom cursors will remain in the selected drive, group. 
and file locations, and you may thereafter perform any LocoScript function on the newly 
copied file. 



Two - Drive Operation 



Digital Research and AMSTRAD 

End user program licence 
agreement 



NOTICE TO USER - PLEASE READ THIS NOTICE CAREFULLY, DO NOT OPEN 
THE DISKETTE PACKAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THIS LICENCE 
AGREEMENT. 

OPENING THE DISKETTE PACKAGE INDICATES YOUR AGREEMENT TO BE 
BOUND BY THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS. 



1. Definitions 

In this Licence Agreement, the terms; 

1. DRI means DIGITAL RESEARCH (CALIFORNIA) INC., P.O. Box 579, Pacific 

Grove, California 93950, owner of the copyright in, or authorised licensor of, 
the program. 

2. Machine means the single microcomputer on which you use the program. 
Multiple CPU systems require additional licences. 

3. Program means the set of programs, documentation and related materials in 
this package, together with all ancillary updates and enhancements 
supplied by DRI to you regardless of the form in which you may 
subsequently use it, and regardless of any modification which you make to 
it. 

4. AMSTRAD means AMSTRAD CONSUMER ELECTRONICS PLC, Brentwood 
House, 169 Kings Road, Brentwood, Essex CM 14 4EF. 

You assume responsibility for the selection of the program to achieve your 
intended results, and for the installation, use and results obtained from the 

program. 



2. Licence 

You may 

1. Use the program on a single machine. 

2. Copy the program into any machine readable or printed form for backup or 
modificaton purposes in support of your use of the program on a single 
machine. You may make up to three (3) copies of the program for such 

purposes. (Certain programs, however, may include mechanisms to limit or 
inhibit copying. They are marked 'copy protected'). Copying of 
documentation and other printed materials is prohibited. Disassembly of 
code is prohibited. 

3. Modify the program and'or merge it into another program for your use on 
the single machine. (Any portion of this program merged into another 
program will continue to be subject to the terms and conditions of this 
Agreement). 

4. Transfer the program and licence to another party if you notify DRI of name 
and address of the other party and the other party agrees to a) accept the 
terms and conditions of this Agreement, b) sign and forward to DRI a copy 
of the registration card and c) pay the then current transfer fee. If you 
transfer the program, you must at the same time either transfer all copies, 
including the original, whether in printed or machine readable form to the 
same party, or destroy any copies not transferred; this includes all 
modifications and portions of the program contained or merged into other 
programs. 

You must reproduce and include the copyright notice on any copy, modificatior. 
or portion merged into another program, 



EACH DISKETTE IS SERIALISED, AND YOU MAY NOT USE, COPY. 
MODIFY, TRANSFER, OR OTHERWISE MAKE AVAILABLE TO ANY 
THIRD PARTY, THE PROGRAM, OR ANY COPY, MODIFICATION OR 
MERGED PORTION. IN WHOLE OR IN PART, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY 
PROVIDED FOR IN THIS LICENCE AGREEMENT. 

IF YOU TRANSFER POSSESSION OF ANY COPY, MODIFICATION OP. 
MERGED PORTION OF THE PROGRAM TO ANOTHER PARTY. YOUR 
LICENCE IS AUTOMATICALLY TERMINATED. 



__^ 3. Term 



The licence is effective until terminated. You may terminate it at any other time 
by destroying the program together with all copies, modifications and merged 
portions in any form. It will also terminate upon conditions set forth elsewhere in 
this Agreement or if you fail to comply with any term or condition of this 
Agreement. You agree upon such termination to destroy the program together 
with all copies, modifications and merged portions in any form. 



_ 4. Limited warranty 



THE PROGRAM IS PROVIDED 'AS IS\ NEITHER DRI NOR AMSTRAD 
MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR 
IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED 
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A 
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND 
PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE 
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU (AND DRI OR AMSTRAD) 
ASSUME THE ENTIRE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR 
OR CORRECTION. 



Neither DRI nor AMSTRAD warrant that the functions contained in the program 
will meet your requirements or that the operation of the program will be 
uninterrupted or error free. 

However, AMSTRAD warrants the diskette on which the program is furnished, to 
be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a 
period of ninety (90) days from the date of delivery to you as evidenced by a 

copy of your receipt. 



5. Limitations of remedies 



AMSTRAD's entire liability and your exclusive remedy shall be the replacement 
of any diskette not meeting this 'Limited Warranty' and which is returned to 

AMSOFT with a copy of your receipt. 



IN NO EVENT SHALL DRI OR AMSTRAD BE LIABLE FOR ANY 
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR 
OTHER SPECIAL INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF 
DRI OR AMSTRAD HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH 
DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY, 



6. Registration card 

DRI may from time to time update its programs. Updates will be provided to you 
only if a properly signed registration card is on file at DRI's main office or an 
authorised registration card recipient. DRI is not obligated to make any program 
updates, or to supply any such updates to you. 



7. General 

You may not sublicence, assign or transfer the licence or the program except as 
expressly provided in this Agreement. Any attempt otherwise to sublicence, 
assign or transfer any of the rights, duties, or obligations hereunder is void. 

This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the 
laws of England. 

Should you have any questions concerning this Agreement, you may contact DRI 
by writing to Digital Research Inc., P.O. Box 579, Pacific Grove, California 93950. 



v 

V 

V 



THIS AGREEMENT CANNOT AND SHALL NOT BE MODIFIED BY 
PURCHASE ORDERS, ADVERTISING OR OTHER REPRESENTATIONS 
BY ANYONE, AND MAY ONLY BE MODIFIED BY A WRITTEN 
AMENDMENT EXECUTED BY YOU AND AN AUTHORISED OFFICER 
OF DRI AND AMSTRAD. 

YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ THIS AGREEMENT, 
UNDERSTAND IT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY ITS TERMS AND 
CONDITIONS. YOU FURTHER AGREE THAT IT IS THE COMPLETE AND 
EXCLUSIVE STATEMENT OF THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND 
DRI AND AMSTRAD WHICH SUPERSEDES ANY PROPOSAL OR PRIOR 
AGREEMENT, ORAL OR WRITTEN, AND ANY COMMUNICATIONS 
BETWEEN YOU AND DRI OR AMSTRAD RELATING TO THE SUBJECT 
MATTER OF THIS AGREEMENT. 

THIS AGREEMENT DOES NOT AFFECT YOUR STATUTORY RIGHTS. 



e* 

^ 



Locomotive Software and AMSTRAD 



Important Notice 



THE SOFTWARE CONTAINED IN THE DISKETTE PACKAGE IS SUPPLIED TO 
YOU ON THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS INDICATED BELOW. THE OPENING 
OF THIS PACKAGE INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THESE TERMS AND 
CONDITIONS. IF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS ARE NOT ACCEPTED BY 
YOU, YOU MUST RETURN THE UNOPENED PACKAGE TO THE PLACE OF 
PURCHASE AND YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED. NO REFUNDS WILL BE 
GIVEN WHERE THE PACKAGE HAS BEEN OPENED UNLESS THE PRODUCT IS 
FAULTY AND SUCH REFUND BECOMES PAYABLE UNDER CLAUSE 7 BELOW 

In this notice, the terms: 

"Locomotive" means Locomotive Software Limited 

"Amstrad" means Amstrad Consumer Electronics pic 

"The Program" means the program known as BASIC.COM on Side 2 of the 

diskettes supplied in the diskette package. 



1. Copyright 

Material within the Program is copyright Locomotive. Locomotive grants to the 
purchaser of this package a non-exclusive right to use The Program in 
accordance with these terms and conditions. Such Licence may be transferred 
only in accordance with Clause 3 below. Any other use or dealing not expressly 
authorised by these terms and conditions is strictly prohibited. 



2. Use 

The Program may only be used on a single machine or terminal at any one time 
but may be copied or merged into other programs in support of that use. Any 
such copying or merger is subject to there being no modification of The Program 
and in particular to the copyright notice of Locomotive being preserved in the 
copied or combined program. Save for copying or merger within other 
programs as aforesaid, any other operations (including modification or 
translation from machine readable form) are expressly prohibited. 



3. Transfer 

The Program may be transferred to a third party provided the original Program 
and all copies are transferred or otherwise destroyed and provided further these 
terms and conditions are produced to that third party and prior to the transfer 
that party agrees and undertakes to observe and continue to observe the same. 
Without such transfer and undertaking any application of The Program or copies 
thereof by any other person will not be authorised by Locomotive and will be in 
breach of Locomotive's copyright and other proprietary rights. 



4. Documentation 

The documentation accompanying The Program is also copyright Locomotive. 
However, no right to reproduce that documentation in part or in whole is granted 
by Locomotive. Should additional copies of the documentation be required for 
whatever reason, application must be made in writing to Locomotive which will 
be considered in its discretion. 



5. Breach 

If the user for the time being acts in breach of any of these terms and conditions it 
shall indemnify Locomotive against all loss suffered (including loss of profits) 
and the licence granted hereunder shall be deemed to be terminated forthwith. 
On termination the user shall deliver up to Locomotive all infringing and lawful 
copies of The Program. 



6. Exclusions 

Neither Locomotive nor any person authorised by it gives warranties or makes 
representations that the program is error free or will meet functions required by 
the user. It shall be the responsibility of the user to satisfy itself that The Program 
meets the user's requirements. The program is supplied on an "as is" basis arc 
save as expressly provided in these conditions all warranties of any nature (and 
whether express or implied) are excluded. 



7. Liability 

Amstrad warrants that the diskette on which the program is stored is free frc: 
material defect and through normal use will remain so for a period of 90 da;. 
after purchase. In the event of any breach of this warranty (or statutory warrar.' 
or conditions incapable of exclusion by these conditions) the responsibilities 
Amstrad shall be limited to replacing the enclosed program or to returr.ir.c \- 
price paid for the same as they shall determine. 



As the sole exception to the foregoing Locomotive will accept liability for death 
or personal injury resulting from its negligence. In no circumstance shall 
Locomotive be liable for any indirect or consequential costs damages or losses 
(including loss of business profits, operating time or otherwise) arising out of the 
use or inability to use the enclosed program and diskette and whether or not the 
livelihood of damage was advised to Locomotive or its dealer. 

This notice does not affect your statutory rights. 



l: